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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Achiridae: [ 67 ] records


achirus, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:268 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Suriname. No types known. See Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:667 [ref. 27061] for discussion of distribution. •Valid as Achirus achirus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:21 [ref. 9708], Cervigón 1992:438 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:15 [ref. 24489], Keith et al. 2000:248 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Munroe 2003:1929 [ref. 27118], Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:667 [ref. 27061], Ramos in Menezes et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27192], Dennis et al. 2004:84 [ref. 31601], Ramos et al. 2009:61 [ref. 30194], Marceniuk et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35324], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[25] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Achirus achirus (Linnaeus 1758). Achiridae. Distribution: Off South America; probably Venezuela to northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

affinis, Achirus Steindachner [F.] 1915:346 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 52 (no. 27); ref. 20500] Rio Itacupim and Rio Janeiro, Brazil. Syntypes: (5) NMW. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1915:573, Pls. 2-3 [ref. 15070]. •Synonym of Trinectes paulistanus (Miranda Ribeiro 1915). Current status: Synonym of Trinectes paulistanus (Miranda Ribeiro 1915). Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

apoda, Pleuronectes Mitchill [S. L.] 1818:244 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (no. 4) (art. 1); ref. 17774] Straits of Bahamas, Atlantic. No types known. Achiridae. Habitat: marine.

asphyxiatus, Achiropsis Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan & Goss 1889:318 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 2); ref. 2482] Probably in Tocantins-Araguaia system, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 11106. •Valid as Pnictes asphyxiatus (Jordan 1889) -- (Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:668 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Apionichthys asphyxiatus (Jordan 1889) -- (Ramos 2003:109 [ref. 26762], Ramos in Menezes et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Apionichthys asphyxiatus (Jordan 1889). Achiridae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil (one record). Habitat: freshwater.

austrinus, Achirus Chabanaud [P.] 1928:12 [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 523; ref. 783] Guiana or Brazil, eastern coast of South America. Syntypes: (13) BMNH ? 1954.5.18.1 (1); NMW 8009 (1), 8089 (1), 8100 (2). 8101 (1); MNHN 0000-3099 (1), 0000-3317 (2). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:316 [ref. 25922] with syntypes. •Synonym of Trinectes paulistanus (Miranda Ribeiro 1915) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:316 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Trinectes paulistanus (Miranda Ribeiro 1915). Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

barnharti, Achirus Jordan [D. S.] 1923:10, Pl. 1 [University of California Publications in Zoology v. 26 (no. 1); ref. 10539] Off Islas Coronados, Pacific side of Baja Califormia (Norte), Mexico, depth 400 feet. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 23240. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:142 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Achirus mazatlanus (Steindachner 1869) -- (J. McCosker, pers. comm. 4/2001). Current status: Synonym of Achirus mazatlanus (Steindachner 1869). Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

bleekeri, Apionichthys Horst [R.] 1878:31 [Tijdschrift der Nederlandsche Dierkundige Vereeniging v. 4; ref. 18311] Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Apionichthys dumerili Kaup 1858 -- (Ramos 2003:116 [ref. 26762], Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:667 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Apionichthys dumerili Kaup 1858. Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

brachialis, Baiostoma Bean [T. H.] in Goode & Bean 1882:413 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Appalachicola Bay, Florida; southern Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 26605 (1) Appalachicola Bay, USNM 30463 (1) s. Florida. •Synonym of Achirus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Achirus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Achiridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

comifer, Achirus (Baeostoma) Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1884:31 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 402); ref. 12325] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: (4) CAS-SU 2403 (1), USNM 34973 (4, "typical specimens", now 3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:142 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Achirus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Achirus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Achiridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

declivis, Achirus achirus Chabanaud [P.] 1940:89 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 13166] Gulf of Paria, between Trinidad Island, West Indies and Venezuela. Holotype: BMNH 1931.12.5.175. Paratypes: (23) BMNH 1845.2.21.29, 1847.4.24.24, 1862.1.30.45, 1862.11.23.38, 1869.2.25.9, 1871.11.20.28, 1891.7.13.1, 1892.6.8.8, 1909.2.26.11, 1931.12.5.176-178 (3), 1930.9.4.24-25 (2), 1932.2.8.44-45 (2); MNHN 0000-1303 (4), 0000-3332 (1), 0000-3345 (1), A.-8751 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:316 [ref. 25922] with 7 of 12 paratypes found at MNHN. •Valid as Achirus declivis Chabanaud 1940 -- (Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:249 [ref. 22947], Munroe 2003:1928 [ref. 27118], Ramos in Menezes et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27621], Dennis et al. 2004:83 [ref. 31601], Ramos et al. 2009:61 [ref. 30194], Angulo et al. 2013:1010 [ref. 33194], Costa et al. 2017:46 [ref. 35684], Spier et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Achirus declivis Chabanaud 1940. Achiridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dumerili, Apionichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1858:104 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2578] Syntypes: BMNH 1927.4.27.1 [ex MNHN] (1); MNHN 0000-3214 (2), 0000-3216 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:317 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Apionichthys dumerili Kaup 1858 -- (Cervigón 1992:438 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:18 [ref. 24489], Keith et al. 2000:252 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Ramos 2003:115 [ref. 26762], Munroe 2003:1930 [ref. 27118], Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:667 [ref. 27061], Ramos in Menezes et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27192], Marceniuk et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35324], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[25] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Apionichthys dumerili Kaup 1858. Achiridae. Distribution: Widespread in South America. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

errans, Achirus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1915:Heterostoma p. 23 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] Rio Jauru and Rio Paraguay. Syntypes: (2). On p. 661 when continuously paginated. •Species inquirenda in Achirus -- (Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:667 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Catathyridium jenynsii (Günther 1862) -- (Britski et al. 1999:154 [ref. 24147], Litz & Koerber 2014:36 [ref. 33622] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:59 [ref. 35117] with question, Koerber et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35267] with question). Current status: Synonym of Catathyridium jenynsii (Günther 1862). Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Achirus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:659, 662 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] North America. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:340 [ref. 25922] with not types at MNHN. •Synonym of Trinectes maculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Lee et al. 1980:831 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:458 [ref. 22186], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:490 [ref. 24550], Desoutter et al. 2001:340 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Trinectes maculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fasciatus, Gymnachirus Günther [A.] 1862:488 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] No locality (perhaps Cuba). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.12.26.436 [ex Zool. Soc.]. •Synonym of Gymnachirus nudus Kaup 1858 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:498 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnachirus nudus Kaup 1858. Achiridae. Habitat: marine.

fimbriata, Solea Günther [A.] 1862:477 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Gulf of Fonseca, Pacific coast of Central America. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1848.3.18.184. •Valid as Trinectes fimbriatus (Günther 1862) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:293 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:154 [ref. 23101], Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:849 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:215 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:492 [ref. 24550], Walker & Bollinger 2001:182 [ref. 25782], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], Duplain et al. 2012:541 [ref. 32201], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:1010 [ref. 33194], González-Murcia et al. 2019:299 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Trinectes fimbriatus (Günther 1862). Achiridae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

finis, Soleonasus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:528, Pl. 70 (figs. 2-3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Tumatumari, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53965 [ex CM 2487]. Paratypes: CAS 44194 [ex IU 12549] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:88 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:80 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Soleonasus finis Eigenmann 1912 -- (Munroe 2003:1928 [ref. 27118], Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:668 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Apionichthys finis (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Ramos 2003:104 [ref. 26762], Ramos in Menezes et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Apionichthys finis (Eigenmann 1912). Achiridae. Distribution: South America: Essequibo River basin and middle to upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Guyana and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

fluviatilis, Achirus Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:1002, Pl. 102 (fig. 2) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Río Juan Díaz, Panama. Holotype: USNM 81667. Paratypes and non-types: FMNH 18204-09 (0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), 18210-44 (total 45); USNM 81668 (now 18), 85768 (10, not found in 1980), 165536 (6); MNHN 1976-0405 [ex FMNH 18204] (1), ZIN 55534 (1, ex USNM 81668). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:5 [ref. 12367], Desoutter et al. 2001:316 [ref. 25922], Voronina & Volkova 2019:269 [ref. 37075]. •Valid as Achirus fluviatilis Meek & Hildebrand 1928 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:21 [ref. 9708]). •Valid as Trinectes fluviatilis (Meek & Hildebrand 1928) -- (Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:849 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:215 [ref. 24555], Walker & Bollinger 2001:182 [ref. 25782], Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:668 [ref. 27061], Duplain et al. 2012:541 [ref. 32201], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:392 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Trinectes fluviatilis (Meek & Hildebrand 1928). Achiridae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica south to Peru, and adjacent freshwater habitats. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fonsecensis, Solea Günther [A.] 1862:475 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Gulf of Fonseca, Pacific coast of Central America. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1848.3.18.189. •Valid as Trinectes fonsecensis (Günther 1862) -- (Villa 1982:239 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:256 [ref. 22927], Allen & Robertson 1994:293 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:154 [ref. 23101], Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:849 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:49 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:623 [ref. 24023], Bussing 1998:432 [ref. 24179], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:212 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:491 [ref. 24550], Walker & Bollinger 2001:182 [ref. 25782], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:403 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2009:15 [ref. 30400], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Duplain et al. 2012:541 [ref. 32201], Angulo et al. 2013:1010 [ref. 33194], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:392 [ref. 34894], González-Murcia et al. 2019:299 [ref. 36544], Angulo et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37425]). Current status: Valid as Trinectes fonsecensis (Günther 1862). Achiridae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

garmani, Achirus Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan & Goss 1889:314 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 2); ref. 2482] Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Holotype: MCZ 11246. •Valid as Catathyridium garmani (Jordan 1889) -- (Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:667 [ref. 27061], Ramos in Menezes et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27192], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Litz & Koerber 2014:36 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Catathyridium garmani (Jordan 1889). Achiridae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil south to Argentina. Habitat: brackish, marine.

grandirivi, Baeostoma (Catathyridium) Chabanaud [P.] 1928:28 [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 523; ref. 783] Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MNHN 0000-3318. Paratypes: BMNH uncat.; NMW 8030-35 (6), 8098 (1), 22966-68 (3). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:317 [ref. 25922]. Correct spelling of genus is Baiostoma. •Valid as Catathyridium grandirivi (Chabanaud 1928) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:317 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Valid as Catathyridium grandirivi (Chabanaud 1928). Achiridae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gunteri, Achirus maculipinnis Chabanaud [P.] 1940:90 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 13166] Matagorda Island, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype: MNHN 1939-0269. Paratypes: MNHN 1959-0610 (24), 1998-1313 (3) Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:316-317 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Achirus achirus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:316 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Achirus achirus (Linnaeus 1758). Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

hasemani, Achirus Steindachner [F.] 1915:347 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 52 (no. 27); ref. 20500] Rio Branco at Conceiçao, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1915:576, Pls. 4-5 [ref. 15070]. •Synonym of Hypoclinemus mentalis (Günther 1862) -- (Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:668 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Hypoclinemus mentalis (Günther 1862). Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater.

hubbsbollinger, Trinectes Duplain [R. R.], Chapleau [F.] & Munroe [T. A.] 2012:542, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 2012 (no. 3); ref. 32201] Andagoya, Río San Juan, ca. 5°05'43"N, 76°41'39"W, Colombia. Holotype: BMNH 1915.10.1.19. Paratypes: BMNH 1914.5.18.110-111 (2), 1915.10.1.18 (1). Name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Trinectes hubbsbollinger Duplain, Chapleau & Munroe 2012 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Trinectes hubbsbollinger Duplain, Chapleau & Munroe 2012. Achiridae. Distribution: Río San Juan and Río Condoto, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

inscriptus, Monochirus Gosse [P. H.] 1851:52, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [A naturalist's sojourn in Jamaica; ref. 18149] Bluefields, Jamaica. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1846.10.28.24. •Valid as Achirus inscriptus (Gosse 1851) -- (González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960]). •Valid as Trinectes inscriptus (Gosse 1851) -- (Cervigón 1982;12 [ref. 23220], Robins & Ray 1986:296 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:439 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:21 [ref. 24489], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Keith et al. 2000:252 [ref. 24547], Marín 2000:80 [ref. 26252], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Walker & Bollinger 2001:184 [ref. 25782], Munroe 2003:1932 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:870 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:1010 [ref. 33194], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:85 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Trinectes inscriptus (Gosse 1851). Achiridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

jenynsii, Solea Günther [A.] 1862:476 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Río de la Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7.25.3 (skin). Based on literature sources. •Valid as Achirus jenynsii (Günther 1862) -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:66 [ref. 23791] as jenynsi). •Valid as Catathyridium jenynsii (Günther 1862) -- (Sverlij et al. 1998:79 [ref. 27632] as jenynsi, Britski et al. 1999:154 [ref. 24147], Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:667 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27366], Ramos in Menezes et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27192], Menni 2004:88 [ref. 28131] as jenynsi, Litz & Koerber 2014:36 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:189 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:59 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35267], Reis et al. 2020:471 [ref. 38364]). Current status: Valid as Catathyridium jenynsii (Günther 1862). Achiridae. Distribution: South America: Paraná and Uruguay River basins (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay). Habitat: freshwater.

klunzingeri, Solea Steindachner [F.] 1880:96 [44], Pl. 9 (fig. 3) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 42; ref. 14403] Guayaquil, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): NMW 8008. On p. 44 of separate. •Valid as Achirus klunzingeri (Steindachner 1880) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:43 [ref. 37559], Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:292 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:154 [ref. 23101], Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:848 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:212 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:493 [ref. 24550] as kluzingeri, Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807] dating to 1879, Ramos et al. 2009:61 [ref. 30194], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708] dated 1879, Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:391 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Achirus klunzingeri (Steindachner 1880). Achiridae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

kukurjibha, Achirus Hamilton [F.] in Cantor 1849:1211 [229] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] On p. 229 of separate. Not available, name mentioned in passing under Plagusia cynoglossa. Nomen Nudum. Achiridae.

lineatus, Monochirus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:238 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Rio de Janeiro Bay, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3320 (4). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:318 [ref. 25922]. See also Achirus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- may need research. •Synonym of Achirus achirus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:317 [ref. 25922]). •Valid as Achirus lineatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Dennis et al. 2004:84 [ref. 31601], Angulo et al. 2013:1010 [ref. 33194], Spier et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Synonym of Achirus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lineatus, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:268 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America [Jamaica] No types known. Based on the 'Pleuronectes fuscus subrotundus glaber ...' of Browne 1756: 445 [ref. 30188] from Jamaica, the 'Passer lineis transversis notatus ...' of Sloane 1725:277, Pl. 246 (fg. 2) [ref. 30230] and the 'Passer Jamaycensis lineis transversis notatus ...' of Ray 1713:157 [ref. 30231]; concept of taxa changed in Linnaeus 1766; see Goode & Bean 1885:196 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1985:71 [ref. 20705]. •Valid as Catathyridium lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Menni 2004:88 [ref. 28131]). •Valid as Achirus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:296 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:178 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:438 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:16 [ref. 24489], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:249 [ref. 22947], González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Bussing 1998:434 [ref. 24179], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:493 [ref. 24550], Keith et al. 2000:250 [ref. 24547], Marín 2000:80 [ref. 26252], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Munroe 2003:1929 [ref. 27118], Ramos in Menezes et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:866 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:94 [ref. 37265], Ramos et al. 2009:61 [ref. 30194], Matamoros et al. 2009:27 [ref. 31241], Valdez-Moreno 2010:668 [ref. 31032], Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:85 [ref. 33341], Schmidt & McMullin 2015:6 [ref. 36603], Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565], Costa et al. 2017:46 [ref. 35684], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:436 [ref. 35886], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Achirus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Achiridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: South Carolina (U.S.A.) south to northern Argentina, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. IUCN (2019): Least concern. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lorentzii, Achirus Weyenbergh [H.] 1877:13, Pl. 1 [Actas de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas, Buenos Aires. v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 14248] Río Paraná, Santa Fe, Argentina; Uruguay. Syntypes: (several) MSNG. •Valid as Catathyridium lorentzii (Weyenbergh 1877) -- (Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:668 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:36 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:60 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565] with author as Weyerberg, Koerber et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Catathyridium lorentzii (Weyenbergh 1877). Achiridae. Distribution: Paraguay and Uruguay River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

maculatus, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:157 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Chesapeake Bay, eastern U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7408 (stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:41 [ref. 24282] with locality correction; not Tranquebar, India. •Valid as Trinectes maculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Lee et al. 1980:831 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:458 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:296 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:178 [ref. 23239], Mettee et al. 1996:753 [ref. 25836], Murdy et al. 1997:271 [ref. 23144], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:490 [ref. 24550], Ross et al. 2001:528 [ref. 25978], Walker & Bollinger 2001:184 [ref. 25782], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:587 [ref. 26158], Munroe 2003:1932 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:639 [ref. 27995], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:871 [ref. 28815], Miller 2006:403 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2009:16 [ref. 30400], Matamoros et al. 2009:27 [ref. 31241], Page & Burr 2011:620 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:426 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Trinectes maculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Achiridae. Distribution: Atlantic and Gulf coasts of U.S.A. from Maine to Gulf of Mexico and to Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

maculipennis, Monochir Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:88, Pl. 49 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Atlantic off Brazil. Syntypes: MHNN 685 (2). Type catalog: Kottelat 1984:150 [ref. 21784]. Type information: Kottelat 1988:84 [ref. 13380]. Misspelled Monochirus maculipinnis by Kaup 1858. Achiridae.

mazatlana, Solea Steindachner [F.] 1869:149 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 6 (no. 19) (for 15 July 1869); ref. 20467] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: (several) NMW 8049-51 (3), 8085-86 (2). Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1870:312 [p. 23 of separate], Pl. 5, [ref. 4217]. •Valid as Achirus mazatlanus (Steindachner 1869) -- (Villa 1982:238 [ref. 36708], Lea et al. 1989:240 [ref. 21534], Allen & Robertson 1994:292 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:154 [ref. 23101], Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:848 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:49 [ref. 24545], Evseenko 1998:60 [ref. 23643], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:212 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:494 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:402 [ref. 28615], Angulo et al. 2013:1010 [ref. 33194], McMahan et al. 2013:454 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:391 [ref. 34894], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:299 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Achirus mazatlanus (Steindachner 1869). Achiridae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

melas, Gymnachirus Nichols [J. T.] 1916:71, Fig. [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 35 (art. 9); ref. 15060] Cape Lookout, Carteret County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): AMNH 5717. •Valid as Gymnachirus melas Nichols 1916 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:295 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:178 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:497 [ref. 24550], Munroe 2003:1930 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:867 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Gymnachirus melas Nichols 1916. Achiridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

menezesi, Apionichthys Ramos [R. T. C.] 2003:111, Fig. 15 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 26762] Río Napo, at mouth of Río Tiputini, 0°48'S, 73°32'W, Napo, Ecuador. Holotype: FMNH 101974. Paratypes: ANSP 149663 (1); MZUSP 31052 (3, 1 c&s), 33384-85 (1, 3), 51842 (2, 1 c&s), 51845-46 (1, 1), 51849-51 (1, 1, 2), 51853 (2). •Valid as Apionichthys menezesi Ramos 2003 -- (Ramos in Menezes et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27192], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Apionichthys menezesi Ramos 2003. Achiridae. Distribution: Ecuador, Brazil, and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

mentalis, Solea Günther [A.] 1862:475 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Rio Capin [= Capim], Pará State, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1849.11.8.63-64 (2). •Valid as Hypoclinemus mentalis (Günther 1862) -- (Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:668 [ref. 27061], Ramos in Menezes et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27192], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:189 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:71 [ref. 35773], Silvano et al. 2020:401 [ref. 38134]). Current status: Valid as Hypoclinemus mentalis (Günther 1862). Achiridae. Distribution: Northern South America: Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

microphthalmus, Achirus Chabanaud [P.] 1928:16 [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 523; ref. 783] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3314. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:317 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Trinectes microphthalmus (Chabanaud 1928) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:317 [ref. 25922], Munroe 2003:1928 [ref. 27118], Ramos in Menezes et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27192], Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Spier et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Trinectes microphthalmus (Chabanaud 1928). Achiridae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mollis, Pleuronectes Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:9 [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Also in Mitchill 1815:388 [ref. 13292]. •Synonym of Trinectes maculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith 1986:458 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Trinectes maculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

mucuri, Achirus Ramos [R. T. C.], Ramos [T. P. A.] & Lopes [P. R. D.] 2009:56, Figs. 1, 2a, 2c, 3a-b, d-e, j, l [Zootaxa No. 2113; ref. 30194] Estuary of the Macuri River at Mucuri, ca. 18°05'15"S, 39°33'53"W, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: UFPB 6101. Paratypes: LIUEFS 4456 (1), 4457 (1); MCZ 11440 (1); MZUSP 93253 (1), 93254 (1); UFPB 6102 (2), 6130 (3, 1 c&s), 6515 (1, c&s); USNM 389553 (1), 389554 (1). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Achirus mucuri Ramos, Ramos & Lopes 2009. Current status: Valid as Achirus mucuri Ramos, Ramos & Lopes 2009. Achiridae. Distribution: Mucuri River estuary, Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: brackish.

nattereri, Solea (Achiropsis) Steindachner [F.] 1876:158 [110] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Rio Negro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 14001. On p. 110 of separate. •Valid as Achiropsis nattereri (Steindachner 1876) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:21 [ref. 9708], Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:667 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2012:119 [ref. 35745]). •Valid as Apionichthys nattereri (Steindachner 1876) -- (Ramos 2003:106 [ref. 26762], Ramos in Menezes et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27192], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:189 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Apionichthys nattereri (Steindachner 1876). Achiridae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

nebulosus, Apionichthys Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1869:709 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1869; ref. 14098] Suriname. Syntypes: (2) ZMB 7092 (1). •Synonym of Apionichthys dumerili Kaup 1858 -- (Ramos 2003:116 [ref. 26762], Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:667 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Apionichthys dumerili Kaup 1858. Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

nicholsi, Nodogymnus Norman [J. R.] 1931:1 [American Museum Novitates No. 477; ref. 16317] North Bimini Bay, Bahamas. Holotype (unique): AMNH 9591. Based on Gymmnarchius nudus of Nichols & Heilner 1928:1, Fig. 1 [ref. 22247] (not of Kaup). •Synonym of Gymnachirus melas Nichols 1916 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:497 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnachirus melas Nichols 1916. Achiridae. Habitat: marine.

nigricans, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:158 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Coast of South America. Holotype (unique): ZMB 2428. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:41-42 [ref. 24282]. •Synonym of Achirus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Achirus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Achiridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

normani, Achiropsis Chabanaud [P.] 1928:641 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 1 (no. 5); ref. 17981] Rio Jururá, Amazon basin, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1897.12.1.5. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:340 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Apionichthys normani (Chabanaud 1928) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:340 [ref. 25922]). •Synonym of Achiropsis nattereri (Steindachner 1876) -- (Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:667 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Apionichthys nattereri (Steindachner 1876) -- (Ramos 2003:106 [ref. 26762]). Current status: Synonym of Apionichthys nattereri (Steindachner 1876). Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater.

novoae, Achirus Cervigón [F.] 1982:243, Fig. 20 [Los recursos pesqueros del Rio Orinoco y su explotacion; ref. 20509] La Lagunita Lake, near Bolívar, Bolívar State, Venezuela. Holotype: FCLR 644. Paratypes: BMNH 1983.2.22.8 (1); FCLR 645 60 648 (2, 1, 1, 1). •Valid as Achirus novoae Cervigón 1982 -- (Marín 2000:80 [ref. 26252], Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:667 [ref. 27061], Ramos et al. 2009:61 [ref. 30194], Phillip et al. 2013:25 [ref. 32896], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Achirus novoae Cervigón 1982. Achiridae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela; Trinidad & Tobago. Habitat: freshwater.

nudus, Gymnachirus Kaup [J. J.] 1858:101 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2578] Bahía, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3313. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:317 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Gymnachirus nudus Kaup 1858 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:462 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:439 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:590 [ref. 16204], Cervigón 1996:20 [ref. 24489], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:498 [ref. 24550], Munroe 2003:1931 [ref. 27118], Ramos in Menezes et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:868 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717], Robertson et al. 2020:150 [ref. 38098]). Current status: Valid as Gymnachirus nudus Kaup 1858. Achiridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

opercularis, Achirus Nichols [J. T.] & Murphy [R. C.] 1944:258, Fig. 6 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 83 (art. 4); ref. 3189] Cuevita Bay, Colombia. Holotype (unique): AMNH 15958. •Valid as Trinectes opercularis (Nichols & Murphy 1944) -- (Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:850 [ref. 22829], Walker & Bollinger 2001:182 [ref. 25782], Duplain et al. 2012:541 [ref. 32201]). Current status: Valid as Trinectes opercularis (Nichols & Murphy 1944). Achiridae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ottonis, Apionichthys Steindachner [F.] 1868:120 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 5 (no. 14) (for 22 May 1867); ref. 20463] Sicily, Mediterranean Sea [in error]. Syntypes: (several) NMW 14122-23 (2). Species later described in more detail in 1868:41 [ref. 14081], and in English in Steindachner 1868:80 [ref. 21726]. •Synonym of Apionichthys dumerili Kaup 1858 -- (Ramos 2003:116 [ref. 26762], Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:667 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Apionichthys dumerili Kaup 1858. Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

panamensis, Solea Steindachner [F.] 1876:58 [10], Pl. 2 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Panama. Holotype (unique): NMW 8023. On p. 10 of separate. •Synonym of Trinectes fonsecensis (Günther 1862) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:491 [ref. 24550], Duplain et al. 2012:541 [ref. 32201]). Current status: Synonym of Trinectes fonsecensis (Günther 1862). Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

paraguayensis, Hypoclinemus Chabanaud [P.] 1928:35 [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 523; ref. 783] Río Paraguay, South America. Holotype (unique): NMW (not found). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:340 [ref. 25922] •Synonym of Catathyridium lorentzii (Weyenbergh 1877) -- (Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:668 [ref. 27061] as lorentzi, Litz & Koerber 2014:36 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:60 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Catathyridium lorentzii (Weyenbergh 1877). Achiridae.

paulistanus, Achirus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1915:Heterostoma p. 25 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] Santos, Sepetiba, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 1963. Paratypes: (should be 3) MNRJ 1918 (1). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:406 [ref. 12732], Miranda Ribeiro 1959:4-5 [ref. 10393]. On p. 663 when continuously paginated. •Valid as Trinectes paulistanus (Miranda Ribeiro 1915) -- (Bussing 1987:257 [ref. 22927], Cervigón 1992:439 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:22 [ref. 24489], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:250 [ref. 22947], Bussing 1998:434 [ref. 24179], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:489 [ref. 24550], Marín 2000:80 [ref. 26252], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Walker & Bollinger 2001:184 [ref. 25782], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Munroe 2003:1933 [ref. 27118], Ramos in Menezes et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:404 [ref. 28615], Angulo et al. 2013:1010 [ref. 33194], Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Phillip et al. 2013:24 [ref. 32896], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Ramos et al. 2014:5 [ref. 35321] as cf. paulistanus, Costa et al. 2017:46 [ref. 35684], Spier et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Trinectes paulistanus (Miranda Ribeiro 1915). Achiridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pellucidus, Achirus Bennett [F. D.] 1840:277 [Narrative of a whaling voyage round the globe v. 2; ref. 260] Pacific near surface, 27°N, 170°W and "about a day's sail from the Marquesas Group". Syntypes: (2). Achiridae.

plagusia, Achirus Basilewsky [S.] 1855:245 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Tientsin and China seas, Beijing [Peking], China. Holotype or syntypes: ZIN 5885 (1, lost). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:278 [ref. 37075]. Type specimen ZIN 5885 lost in flood in 1924; see Voronina & Volkova 2019:278 [ref. 37075]. Achiridae.

punctifer, Monochir Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:80, Pl. 41 (fig. 3) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3319. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:317 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Achirus achirus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:317 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Achirus achirus (Linnaeus 1758). Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

reticulatus, Monochir Poey [F.] 1860:317 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Trinectes inscriptus (Gosse 1851). Current status: Synonym of Trinectes inscriptus (Gosse 1851). Achiridae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rosai, Apionichthys Ramos [R. T. C.] 2003:110, Fig. 12 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 26762] Rio Solimões, near Paraná do Inferno, 2°32'S, 66°36'W, Foz do Jutaí, Amazonas. Holotype: MZUSP 51765. Paratypes: MZUSP 25992 (1), 151859 (1, c&s), 51860 (1), 52056 (1). •Valid as Apionichthys rosai Ramos 2003 -- (Ramos in Menezes et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Apionichthys rosai Ramos 2003. Achiridae. Distribution: Lower to upper Amazon: Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

sauli, Apionichthys Ramos [R. T. C.] 2003:114, Fig. 18 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 26762] Río Metica, about 1.5 kilometers east of Rajote, Meta drainage, 3°56'N, 73°03'W, Meta, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 176081. Paratypes: ANSP 163851-53 (2, 1, 4 not 5), 163854 (4, 1 c&s), 163855-56 (3, 4); IAvH-P 10566 (1) [ex ANSP 163853]; MZUSP 52055 (2); UFPB 3596 (2). Type catalog: DoNascimiento et al. 2016:425 [ref. 34787]. •Valid as Apionichthys sauli Ramos 2003 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:71 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Apionichthys sauli Ramos 2003. Achiridae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

scabra, Trinectes Rafinesque [C. S.] 1832:20 [Atlantic Journal and Friend of Knowledge, Philadelphia v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 3593] Schuylkill River, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Trinectes maculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Trinectes maculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

scutum, Solea Günther [A.] 1862:474 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Pacific coast of Central America. Syntypes: (orig. 5, "?f" not a type) BMNH 1848.3.18.185-187 (3) Gulf of Fonseca, 1860.6.16.22 (1) Panama. •Valid as Achirus scutum (Günther 1862) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:293 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:154 [ref. 23101], Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:848 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:49 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:212 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:495 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], Ramos et al. 2009:61 [ref. 30194], McMahan et al. 2013:454 [ref. 32422], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:391 [ref. 34894], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:299 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Achirus scutum (Günther 1862). Achiridae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

seripierriae, Apionichthys Ramos [R. T. C.] 2003:113, Fig. 16 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 26762] Rio Juruá, near Rio Meneroá, 2°37'S, 65°46'W, Tamaniquá, Amazonas. Holotype: MZUSP 51841. Paratypes: FMNH 101792 (1), MZUSP 51861 (1 c&s). •Valid as Apionichthys seripierriae Ramos 2003 -- (Ramos in Menezes et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27192], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Apionichthys seripierriae Ramos 2003. Achiridae. Distribution: Amazon basin: Brazil and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

texae, Nodogymnus Gunter [G.] 1936:206, Figs. 2-3 [Copeia 1936 (no. 4); ref. 15277] Off Padre Island, Port Aransas, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 94559. •Valid as Gymnachirus texae (Gunter 1936) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:295 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:178 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:497 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Munroe 2003:1931 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:869 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Gymnachirus texae (Gunter 1936). Achiridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

trichospilus, Achirus Berg [C.] 1895:130 [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires v. 4; ref. 14575] Entre-Ríos, Argentina and Río Negro, Mercedes, Uruguay. Syntypes: MACN (2); MHNM. Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:413 [ref. 35150]. Appeared as Achirus richospulus in Serrano 1929:6 [ref. 34188]. •Synonym of Catathyridium jenynsii (Günther 1862) -- (Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:668 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:36 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:59 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Catathyridium jenynsii (Günther 1862). Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater.

unicolor, Soleotalpa Günther [A.] 1862:489 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] West Indies. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2012.10.24.8. •Valid as Apionichthys unicolor (Günther 1862) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:21 [ref. 9708], Ramos 2003:115 [ref. 26762]). •Synonym of Apionichthys dumerili Kaup 1858 -- (Ramos in Reis et al. 2003:667 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Apionichthys dumerili Kaup 1858. Achiridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

williamsoni, Nodogymnus Gunter [G.] 1936:203, Figs. 1, 4, 5 [Copeia 1936 (no. 4); ref. 15277] Off West Pass of Apalachicola Bay, western Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 102032. •Synonym of Gymnachirus melas Nichols 1916 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:497 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnachirus melas Nichols 1916. Achiridae. Habitat: marine.

xanthurus, Trinectes Walker [H. J., Jr.] & Bollinger [J.] 2001:177, Fig. 1 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 49 (Suppl. 1); ref. 25782] Bahia San Miguel, about 8°15'N, 78°25'W, Panama. Holotype: SIO 63-292. Paratypes: GCRL V72-9100 (1), V72-9101 (2), V72-9106 (1); LACM W53-33 1( 1); SIO 15-459 (4) (ex UCLA W53-317), 15-556 (41) (ex UCLA W58-304), 15-674 (3) (ex UCLA W58-55), 15-832 (1) (ex UCLA W53-20), 15-1163 (28) (ex UCLA W53-272), 63-292 (30), 63-293 (23), 63-295 (1), 64-965 (3), 69-386 (5), 73-276 (2); UCLA 9754-14 (1), 30714-14 (3), 30715-4 (1), 30716-6 (1), 30745-4 (3), 32542-6 (2), 33805-27 (6), W58-305 (40); UCR 136-083 (3), 296-007 (7), 360-005 (1), 970-005 (was 17, now 12), 1216-002 (1); USNM 361978 (3). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:385 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Trinectes xanthurus Walker & Bollinger 2001 -- (Duplain et al. 2012:541 [ref. 32201]). Current status: Valid as Trinectes xanthurus Walker & Bollinger 2001. Achiridae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: El Salvador south to Colombia; Ecuador (Enrique Laaz Moncayo, pers. comm., 07/20) Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

zebrinus, Achirus Clark [H. W.] 1936:386 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 21 (no. 29); ref. 839] Gulf of Tehauntepec, Mexico, 15°40'N, 93°49'W. Holotype (unique): CAS 4448. •Valid as Achirus zebrinus Clark 1936 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:496 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Achirus zebrinus Clark 1936. Achiridae. Distribution: Pacific coast of Central America. Habitat: marine.

zebrinus, Gymnachirus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1903:193 [50] [Boletim Sociedade Nacional Agricultura, Rio de Janeiro [Lavoura] 1903 (nos 4-7); ref. 3709] Ilha Rasa, depth 24-40 meters and Ponta da Guaratiba, depth 24 meters, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1925.1.5.1 (1); MNRJ 1607 (1) and MNRJ 1595 (1) Ilha Rasa; Ponta Guaratiba (1). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:406 [ref. 12732] as holotype and paratype, Miranda Ribeiro 1959:4 [ref. 10393]. On p. 50 of separate. •Synonym of Gymnachirus nudus Kaup 1858 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:498 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnachirus nudus Kaup 1858. Achiridae. Habitat: marine.