Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 8 September 2021

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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niger, Stromateus Bloch [M. E.] 1795:93, Pl. 422 [Naturgeschichte der ausl√§ndischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8755 (stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:56 [ref. 24282]. On p. 85 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Apolectus niger (Bloch 1795) -- (Dor 1984:134 [ref. 29757], Paxton et al. 1989:581 [ref. 12442], Goren & Dor 1994:33 [ref. 25356], Mishra et al. 1999:89 [ref. 25315], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703]). •Valid as Formio niger (Bloch 1795) -- (Chen et al. 1997:70 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:279 [ref. 26385] dated 1792). •Valid as Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:290 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:255 [ref. 19754], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:157 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:654 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Ataur Rahman 1989:264 [ref. 24860], Randall et al. 1990:164 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:184 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:443 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:163 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:164 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:59 [ref. 23921], Fricke 1999:253 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2729 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:791 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:791 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:326, 605 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:80 [ref. 27510], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:32 [ref. 27712], Ataur Rahman 2003:288 [ref. 31338], Mundy 2005:370 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:1162 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:57 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:123 [ref. 30425], Hilton et al. 2010:312 [ref. 30385], Larson et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:120 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:421 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2014:83 [ref. 33932], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:44 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:226 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:116 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:323 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:185 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:86 [ref. 36273], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:134 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:51 [ref. 37020], Bogorodsky et al. 2020:521 [ref. 38001], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 16 [ref. 38321], Psomadakis et al. 2020:429 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:64 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar, western Mascarenes, Socotra and Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to southern Sea of Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and Fiji. Habitat: brackish, marine.