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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Atherinopsidae: [ 195 ] records


aculeatum, Chirostoma Barbour [C. D.] 1973:130, Fig. 18a [Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany v. 18 (no. 3); ref. 5967] South shore of Lake Yuriria, about 1.5 miles east of Yuriria, Guanajuato, Mexico. Holotype: TU 40889. Paratypes: Inst. Nac. Invest. Biol. Pesq., Mexico (2); TU 40864 (11); UMMZ 97598 (21), 10856 (26), 197682 (2); USNM 205783-84 (5, 30), 205785 (19, 4 c&s). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:53 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Menidia aculeata (Barbour 1973) -- (Miller 2006:191 [ref. 28615]). •Valid as Chirostoma aculeatum Barbour 1973 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:58 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:6 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma aculeatum Barbour 1973. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Southern North America: Lerma River basin, Pacific Slope (Mexico). Habitat: freshwater.

affine, Chirostoma Steindachner [F.] 1898:313 [Zoologische Jahrbücher. Jena, Supplementband v. 4; ref. 4238] Iquique, Chile. Holotype (unique): ZMB 15674. Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:177 [ref. 19981]. •Synonym of Odontesthes regia (Humboldt 1821) -- (Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:218 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:117 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes regia (Humboldt 1821). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

affinis, Atherinopsis Ayres [W. O.] 1860:73, Fig. 18 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 2; ref. 17942] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Atherinops affinis (Ayres 1860) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:118 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:238 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:124 [ref. 14674], Swift et al. 1993:131 [ref. 22379], Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:898 [ref. 22829], Dyer 1997:47 [ref. 23262], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:61 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:198 [ref. 24550], Ruiz-Campos et al. 2000:69 [ref. 24940], Moyle 2002:311 [ref. 26449], Nelson et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:63 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:455 [ref. 34668], Kells et al. 2016:116 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:53 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Atherinops affinis (Ayres 1860). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern British Columbia (Canada) south to Pacific coast of Baja California Sur (Mexico); northern Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

alba, Kronia de Buen [F.] 1953:59, Figs. 34-37 [Boletim do Instituto Oceanografico, São Paulo v. 4 (no. 1-2); ref. 694] Laguna de Rocha, Depto. de Rocha, Uruguay. Holotype: MHNM CI 1801 [ex VT 1068]. Paratypes: MHNM CI 1802 [ex VT 1069] (1), Depto. Oceanogr. SOYP (1). Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:6 [ref. 23527], Loureiro et al. 2016:413 [ref. 35150]. •Synonym of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Bemvenuti 2002:256 [ref. 26202], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Koerber & Litz 2014:5 [ref. 34967], Koerber & Litz 2016:6 [ref. 35098]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

alburnus, Atherinichthys Günther [A.] 1861:404 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Strait of Magellan, Chile. Syntypes: BMNH 1859.10.12.30-33 (4). •Synonym of Austroatherina nigricans (Richardson 1848) -- (Lloris & Rucabado 1991:79 [ref. 22530]). •Synonym of Odontesthes nigricans (Richardson 1848) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer 2000:112 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes nigricans (Richardson 1848). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

albus, Atherinichthys Steindachner [F.] 1894:148 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 31 (no. 15) (for 7 June 1894); ref. 19243] Lake Cuitzeo [Patzcuaro] near Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico. Syntypes: ZSM [old collection] (5) destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:266 [ref. 28925]. •Synonym of Chirostoma estor Jordan 1880 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061]). •Tentatively valid -- (Neumann 2006:266 [ref. 28925]). Current status: Synonym of Chirostoma estor Jordan 1880. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

alchichica, Poblana de Buen [F.] 1945:495 [Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad de Mexico v. 16 (no. 2); ref. 691] Lake Alchichica, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 143301. Paratypes: UMMZ 143302 (6, 1 c&s); Estación Piscícola Central de "El Zarco" (?); USNM 123671 (2), 151281 (10). •Valid as Poblana alchichica de Buen 1945 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:61 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:9 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Menidia alchichica (de Buen 1945) -- (Miller 2006:191 [ref. 28615] with 3 subspecies). Current status: Valid as Poblana alchichica de Buen 1945. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Lake Alchichica, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

alvarezi, Thyrinops Díaz-Pardo [E.] 1972:146, Fig. [Anales de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México v. 19 (no. 1/4); ref. 7608] Río Tacotalpa, tributary of Rio Grijalva, 40 kilometers south of Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico. Holotype: not researched. Paratypes: (104). •Valid as Atherinella alvarezi (Díaz-Pardo 1972) -- (Chernoff 1986:244 [ref. 5847], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:57 [ref. 22290], Chernoff 2003:1097 [ref. 27017], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:515 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:187 [ref. 28615], Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708], Barrientos et al. 2015:4 [ref. 37653]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella alvarezi (Díaz-Pardo 1972). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Southern North America and Central America: southern Mexico and northeastern Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

ammophila, Atherinella Chernoff [B.] & Miller [R. R.] 1984:4, Figs. 2-4 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 462; ref. 8175] Río de la Palma at La Palma, 8 kilometers north-northwest of Sontecomapan, Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 210808. Paratypes: ANSP 153218 (4), 153307 (3); TU 134878 (3); UMMZ 210809 (now 10, 2 c&s); USNM 266554 (3). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:53 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Atherinella ammophila Chernoff & Miller 1984 -- (Chernoff 1986:244 [ref. 5847], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:57 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:515 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:187 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:6 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella ammophila Chernoff & Miller 1984. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Río de la Plata basin, Atlantic Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

analis, Adenops Schultz [L. P.] 1948:34, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 98 (no. 3220); ref. 3966] Lake Maracaibo, 1 kilometer off Pueblo Viejo, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121824. Paratypes: MCZ 37249 [ex USNM 121823] (3), UMMZ 157674 [ex USNM 121823] (3), USNM 121823 (orig. 66). •Valid as Adenops analis Schultz 1948 -- (Cervigón 1991:232 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:262 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Marín 2000:71 [ref. 26252]). •Valid as Membras analis (Schultz 1948) -- (Chernoff 1986:240 [ref. 5847], Chernoff 2003:1100 [ref. 27017], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:520 [ref. 27061], Chernoff et al. 2020:194 [ref. 37775]). Current status: Valid as Membras analis (Schultz 1948). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Western central Atlantic: Aruba, Colombia, Curaçao Island and Venezuela. Habitat: marine.

andinus, Basilichthys hatcheri var. Lahille [F.] 1929:324, Fig. 18 [Boletin del Ministerio de Agricultura de la Nación (Buenos Aires) 28 (no. 3) (for July-Sept. 1929); ref. 9887] Lago Traful, Argentina. Syntypes: (7). •Synonym of Odontesthes hatcheri (Eigenmann 1909) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer 2000:109 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:50 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes hatcheri (Eigenmann 1909). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.

archaeus, Gastropterus Cope [E. D.] 1878:700 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Arequipa, Pacific slope, Peru, elevation 7500 feet. Syntypes: ANSP 22002-03 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:23 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Basilichthys archaeus (Cope 1878) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Dyer 1997:50 [ref. 23262], Dyer 1998:536 [ref. 23858], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:105 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:517 [ref. 27061], Reis et al. 2016:17 [ref. 34496]). Current status: Valid as Basilichthys archaeus (Cope 1878). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Pacific versant of Peruvian Andes, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

arge, Eslopsarum Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1899:133, Fig. 12 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 [1899]; ref. 2501] Río Verde near Aguascalientes, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 6154. Paratypes: ?BMNH 1900.9.29.168-171 [from Jordan] (4); CAS-SU 6211 (10). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:66 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Menidia arge (Jordan & Snyder 1899) -- (Miller 2006:192 [ref. 28615]). •Valid as Chirostoma arge (Jordan & Snyder 1899) -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:59 [ref. 22290], Barbour 2002:24 [ref. 27833], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:7 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma arge (Jordan & Snyder 1899). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Pacific Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

argentea, Atherinella Chernoff [B.] 1986:100, Figs. 9, 10, 34 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 138 (no. 1); ref. 5848] Lagoon behind hotel Vinar del Mar, Quepos, Puntareñas, Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 85223. Paratypes: ANSP 158311 [ex FMNH 85223] (5), 158700 (3); FMNH 85220 (10), 85224 (10), 96907 [FMNH 85223] (42, 4 c&s), 85216 (1); GCRL 5492 (7), 5584 (5), 5924 (2), 6466 (1), 8986 (3), 22515 (5), 22516 (3). •Valid as Atherinella argentea Chernoff 1986 -- (Chernoff 1986:243 [ref. 5847], Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:895 [ref. 22829], Bussing 1998:237 [ref. 24179], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:515 [ref. 27061], Matamoros et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31241], McMahan et al. 2013:446 [ref. 32422], Angulo et al. 2013:995 [ref. 33194], González-Murcia et al. 2019:296 [ref. 36544], Angulo et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37425]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella argentea Chernoff 1986. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

argenteus, Adenops Schultz [L. P.] 1948:36, Fig. 7 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 98 (no. 3220); ref. 3966] Sabanilla, Bolivar, Colombia. Holotype: USNM 121848. Paratypes: MCZ 37253 [ex USNM 121849] (1), USNM 121849 (orig. 1, now 0). •Valid as Membras argentea (Schultz 1948) -- (Chernoff 1986:240 [ref. 5847], Chernoff 2003:1100 [ref. 27017], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:520 [ref. 27061], Chernoff et al. 2020:194 [ref. 37775]). Current status: Valid as Membras argentea (Schultz 1948). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Caribbean coast of Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

argentinensis, Atherina Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:472 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Montevideo, Uruguay. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1917.7.14.52 (1) Beagle specimen; MNHN A-4362 (3), A-4363 (2). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:702 [ref. 21541]. •Valid as Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Gállego et al. 1998:105 [ref. 25010], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Beheregaray & Levy 2000:441 [ref. 24456], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:84 [ref. 25942], Bemvenuti 2002:256 [ref. 26202], Malabarba & Dyer 2002:260 [ref. 26538], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:520 [ref. 27061], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27192], Dyer 2006:78 [ref. 30646], Di Dario et al. 2011:548 [ref. 31478], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Fabiano et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33530], Koerber & Litz 2014:5 [ref. 34967], Koerber & Litz 2016:6 [ref. 35098], Nión et al. 2016:41 [ref. 35565], Wingert et al. 2017:524 [ref. 35244], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], D'Anatro et al. 2020:100 [ref. 37618], Koerber et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37480], Mirande & Koerber 2020:2 [ref. 37594], Koerber et al. 2021:9 [ref. 38894]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: southern Brazil south to Uruguay and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

atrimentis, Menidia peninsulae Kendall [W. C.] 1902:258, Fig. [Report of the Commissioner, United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries Pt 27 (for 1901) (Appendix 7); ref. 11806] South Lake, Titusville, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 50010. Paratypes: FMNH 4822 (5); USNM 18070 (50+), 50459 (16), 50465 (1), 50467 (23), 126783 [ex USBF 987] (16). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:56 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Menidia beryllina (Cope 1867) -- (Chernoff et al. 1981:334 [ref. 5466]). Current status: Synonym of Menidia beryllina (Cope 1867). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae.

attenuatum, Chirostoma Meek [S. E.] 1902:112, Pl. 27 upper [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 3 (no. 6); ref. 2957] Patzcuaro Lake at Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 3631. Paratypes: ANSP 90850 (2); FMNH 3632 (12); CAS-SU 21436 (2); UMMZ 162467 [ex FMNH 3632] (3), 187671 (2); USNM 55782 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:23 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:23 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Menidia attenuata (Meek 1902) -- (Miller 2006:192 [ref. 28615]). •Valid as Chirostoma attenuatum Meek 1902 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:59 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:7 [ref. 30398] with subspecies, Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708], Betancourt-Resendes et al. 2018:330 [ref. 37172]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma attenuatum Meek 1902. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Southern North America: Lake Pátzcuro, Lerma River basin (Michoacan, Mexico). Habitat: freshwater.

audens, Menidia Hay [O. P.] 1882:64 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 2 (for 1882); ref. 2054] Memphis, Tennessee; Vicksburg, Edwards and Jackson, Mississippi, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 32206 (1), 32303 (1), 32304 (1, lost), 32307-08 (1, 19). •Synonym of Menidia beryllina (Cope 1867) -- (Lee et al. 1980:558 [ref. 22416], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:157 [ref. 24089], Ross et al. 2001:386 [ref. 25978], Miller 2006:193 [ref. 28615], Minckley & Marsh 2009:275 [ref. 31114]). •Valid as Menidia audens Hay 1882 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Suttkus et al. 2005:4 [ref. 28404], Scharpf 2007:9 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:423 [ref. 31215], Fluker et al. 2011: [1] [ref. 31331], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Menidia audens Hay 1882. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Eastern and southern U.S.A., also Mexico; introductions elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater.

australis, Basilichthys Eigenmann [C. H.] 1928:59, Pls. 12 (fig. 3), 14 (fig. 5) [Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences v. 22 (no. 2); ref. 1245] Santiago and southward to Osorno [Río Maipo to Río Rahue], Chile. Syntypes: (many, IU) CAS 11678 [ex IU 15207] (5), 44699 [ex IU 15216] (54), 44703 [ex IU 15210] (32), 45179 [ex IU 15215] (8) 45180 [ex IU 15213] (42), 45182 [ex IU 15218] (21), 45183 [ex IU 15208] (18), 45184 [ex IU 15211] (9), 45188 [ex IU 15206] (15), 45189 [ex IU 15214] (26), 45190 [ex IU 15209] (30), 45192 [ex IU 15212] (46). •Valid as Basilichthys australis Eigenmann 1928 -- (Pequeño 1989:51 [ref. 14125], Ruiz & Berra 1994:14 [ref. 21384], Dyer 1997:50 [ref. 23262], Dyer 1998:536 [ref. 23858], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:85 [ref. 26678], Dyer 2000:105 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:517 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Basilichthys australis Eigenmann 1928. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Maipo River south to Chiloé Island, Chile. Habitat: freshwater.

australis, Basilichthys smitti var. Lahille [F.] 1929:89 [Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (Santiago) v. 33; ref. 15906] Río Gallegos, Argentina; Puerto Natales, Chile. No types known. Based on a literature citation. •Synonym of Odontesthes smitti (Lahille 1929) -- (Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:116 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes smitti (Lahille 1929). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: marine.

balsanus, Melaniris Meek [S. E.] 1902:117, Pl. 28 lower [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 3 (no. 6); ref. 2957] Río Balsas at Balsas, Guerrero, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 3706. Paratypes: ANSP 90844 (5); FMNH 3707 (92), 72562 (7); CAS-SU 21444 (9); UMMZ 162469 (10, 1 c&s), USNM 55793 (10). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:55 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:23 [ref. 13621]. Whether balsanus is a noun or adjective not researched. •Valid as Atherinella balsanus (Meek 1902) -- (Chernoff 1986:149 [ref. 5848], Chernoff 1986:242 [ref. 5847], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:57 [ref. 22290], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:193 [ref. 24550] as balsana, Dyer 2000:104 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:515 [ref. 27061] as balsana, Nelson et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27807] as balsana, Miller 2006:188 [ref. 28615] as balsana, Scharpf 2007:6 [ref. 30398] as balsana, Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708] as balsama). Current status: Valid as Atherinella balsana (Meek 1902). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Balsas River basin, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

bartoni, Chirostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1896:793 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2443] Tributary of Río Lerma near Guanajuato, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 23136. •Valid as Menidia bartoni (Jordan & Evermann 1896) -- (Miller 2006:193 [ref. 28615]). •Valid as Chirostoma bartoni Jordan & Evermann 1896 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:59 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:7 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma bartoni Jordan & Evermann 1896. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: La Alberca, an extinct volcanic crater, Lerma River basin, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

beani, Kirtlandia Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:270, Pl. 21 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Fox Bay, Colón, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype: USNM 79741. Additional material: (39) UCR 0365-007 (16); USNM 79740 (20), 81765 (1). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:368 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Atherinella beani (Meek & Hildebrand 1923) -- (Chernoff 1986:144 [ref. 5848], Chernoff 1986:243 [ref. 5847], Chernoff 2003:1097 [ref. 27017]). •Synonym of Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Chernoff 1986:241 [ref. 5847], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Dyer 2000:104 [ref. 26677], Malabarba & Dyer 2002:259 [ref. 26538], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella beani (Meek & Hildebrand 1923). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: (Atlantic) Panama. Habitat: marine.

beardsleei, Pisciregia Abbott [J. F.] 1899:342 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 51; ref. 1] Callao, Peru. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 11961 [temp. CAS 111961]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:67 [ref. 12291]. •Mention -- (Dyer 2000:105 [ref. 26677]). •Synonym of Basilichthys semotilus (Cope 1874) -- (Dyer 1997:50 [ref. 23262], Dyer 1998:536 [ref. 23858], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Basilichthys semotilus (Cope 1874). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.

beryllinum, Chirostoma Cope [E. D.] 1867:403 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 13 (pt 3) (art. 13); ref. 18027] Potomac River, opposite Washington D.C., at Jackson City, Virginia, U.S.A. Neotype: USNM 50012. Cope specimen or possible type: FMNH 9535 [ex ANSP] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:23 [ref. 13621] as holotype missing at ANSP. Neotype selected by Chernoff 1985:792 [ref. 21212]. •Valid as Menidia beryllina (Cope 1867) -- (Lee et al. 1980:558 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:415 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:112 [ref. 23100], Robison & Buchanan 1988:343 [ref. 23393], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:157 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:241 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:90 [ref. 23239], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:61 [ref. 22290], Etnier & Starnes 1993:377 [ref. 22809], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Mettee et al. 1996:487 [ref. 25836], Murdy et al. 1997:132 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:887 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:196 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:66 [ref. 25838], Fuller et al. 1999:283 [ref. 25838], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:153 [ref. 27754], Ross et al. 2001:385 [ref. 25978], Chernoff in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:280 [ref. 26158], Moyle 2002:307 [ref. 26449], Chernoff 2003:1101 [ref. 27017], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:282 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:372 [ref. 27995], Love et al. 2005:63 [ref. 37547], Suttkus et al. 2005:3 [ref. 28404], Miller 2006:193 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:9 [ref. 30398], Minckley & Marsh 2009:275 [ref. 31114], García-Hernández et al. 2009:92 [ref. 37265], Fluker et al. 2011: [1] [ref. 31331], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:116 [ref. 35888], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:187 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Menidia beryllina (Cope 1867). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: U.S.A. Atlantic slope basins, including Gulf of Mexico; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

bicudo, Odontesthes Malabarba [L. R.] & Dyer [B. S.] 2002:264, Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 3); ref. 26538] Lagoa Emboaba, Osório, 29°57'57"S, 50°13'45"W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 26153. Paratypes: MCP 21398-99 (14, 14), 21401-02 (1, 26), 21404 (5). •Valid as Odontesthes bicudo Malabarba & Dyer 2002 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27192], Bertaco et al. 2016:422 [ref. 34561], Wingert et al. 2017:524 [ref. 35244]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes bicudo Malabarba & Dyer 2002. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Tramandaí River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

blackburni, Coleotropis Schultz [L. P.] 1949:108, Fig. 15 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 99 (no. 3235); ref. 3967] Jacuque Point, Gulf of Venezuela, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 123205. Paratypes: MCZ 37293 [ex USNM 123207] (1); USNM 123206 (2), 123207 (orig. 4, now 3). •Valid as Coleotropis blackburni Schultz 1949 -- (Gilbert & Caldwell 1967:7 [ref. 21336], Cervigón 1991:234 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:263 [ref. 23827]). •Valid as Atherinella blackburni (Schultz 1949) -- (Chernoff 1986:245 [ref. 5847], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Chernoff 2003:1097 [ref. 27017], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061], Mattox et al. 2008:308 [ref. 29765], Matamoros et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31241], Angulo et al. 2013:995 [ref. 33194]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella blackburni (Schultz 1949). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Southern Caribbean and coasts of South America: Aruba, Brazil, Colombia, Honduras, Costa Rica, Curaçao Island and Venezuela. Habitat: brackish, marine.

boekei, Melanorhinus Metzelaar [J.] 1919:38, Fig. 14 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Oyster pond on St. Martin Island, West Indies. Syntypes: (12) CAS-SU 23304 (1), ZMA 100179 (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:67 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:73 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Melanorhinus boekei Metzelaar 1919 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:520 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Melanorhinus boekei Metzelaar 1919. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Panama and West Indies. Habitat: marine.

bolivari, Archomenidia Álvarez [J.] & Carranza [J.] 1952:287 [Ciencia (Mexico City) v. 11 (nos 10-12) 1951; ref. 12633] Near Matías Romero, Río Grande or Río Almoloya, Oaxaca, southeastern Mexico. Paratypes: (565) CAS-SU 17489 (6), UANL 1008 [ex IPN P225] (6), UMMZ 163238 (7), USNM 162503 (27). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:64 [ref. 12291], Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:5 [ref. 23752]. Not treated by Dyer in Reis et al. 2003 [ref. 27061]. •Synonym of Atherinella sallei (Regan 1903) -- (Miller 2006:190 [ref. 28615]). Current status: Synonym of Atherinella sallei (Regan 1903). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

bonariensis, Atherina Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:469 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Río de la Plata, Montevideo, Uruguay. Syntypes: MNHN A-4406 (3), A-4407 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:702-703 [ref. 21541] with MNHN A.4407 as holotype. Bemvenuti 2002:261 [ref. 26202] lists a holotype and paratypes, but no holotype was established originally. •Valid as Basilichthys bonariensis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Coad 1996:85 [ref. 25304]). •Valid as Odontesthes bonariensis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Inada in Nakamura et al. 1986:160 [ref. 14235], Pequeño 1989:51 [ref. 14125], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:456 [ref. 25598], Gómez & Chebez 1996:67 [ref. 23791], Haro et al. 1996:6 [ref. 25004], Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Gállego et al. 1998:105 [ref. 25010], Sverlij et al. 1998:73 [ref. 27632] as Cuvier & Valenciennes, Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Butí & Cancino 1999:71 [ref. 25277], Dyer 2000:89 [ref. 26678], Dyer 2000:117 [ref. 26677], Nakabo 2000:542 [ref. 25086], Bianco & Ketmaier 2001:201 [ref. 26728] as Odonthestes, Nakabo 2002:542 [ref. 26001], Bemvenuti 2002:261 [ref. 26202], Malabarba & Dyer 2002:259 [ref. 26538], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Miller 2003:82 [ref. 27342], López et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27366], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27192], Menni 2004:85 [ref. 28131], yer 2006:76 [ref. 30646], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:472 [ref. 29996], Sarmiento et al. 2014:31, 183 [ref. 35004], Litz & Koerber 2014:29 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:50 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:422 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:41 [ref. 35565], Wingert et al. 2017:524 [ref. 35244], Spier et al. 2018:8 [ref. 36103], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:251 [ref. 37108], Reis et al. 2020:473 [ref. 38364]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes bonariensis (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Argentina and Uruguay. Introduced elsewhere: Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Italy and Peru. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

bonasicosi, Atherina Bleeker [P.] 1853:40 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 7); ref. 340] Not available, mentioned as "Atherina bonasicosi CV..." Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae.

boscii, Atherina Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:465 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Charleston, South Carolina; New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4003 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:703 [ref. 21541] with a holotype. •Synonym of Menidia menidia (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Menidia menidia (Linnaeus 1766). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brasiliensis, Atherina Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1825:332 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-4374 (2). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:703-704 [ref. 21541]. •Valid as Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Cervigón 1991:237 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:263 [ref. 23827], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Chernoff 2003:1098 [ref. 27017] as cf. brasiliensis). •Valid as Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Chernoff 1986:241 [ref. 5847], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Dyer 2000:104 [ref. 26677], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639] dated 1824, Malabarba & Dyer 2002:259 [ref. 26538], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:65 [ref. 27192] dated 1824, França et al. 2007:370 [ref. 29284], Di Dario et al. 2013:263 [ref. 37503], Catelani et al. 2014:932 [ref. 37496], Nión et al. 2016:42 [ref. 35565], Marceniuk et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35324] as aff. brasiliensis, Costa et al. 2017:45 [ref. 35684], Spier et al. 2018:8 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Marceniuk in Marceniuk et al. 2021:294 [ref. 38945]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Colombia east to Trinida and Tobago, then south to Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brevianalis, Atherinichthys Günther [A.] 1880:25 [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Valparaíso, Chile. Holotype: MNHN 1890-0119 [ex BMNH]. Paratypes: BMNH 1879.5.14.500-503 (4). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:712 [ref. 21541]. •Valid as Odontesthes (Cauque) brevianalis (Günther 1880) -- (Dyer 2000:85 [ref. 26678], Dyer 2000:113 [ref. 26677]). •Valid as Cauque brevianalis (Günther 1880) -- (Pequeño 1989:51 [ref. 14125]). •Valid as Odontesthes brevianalis (Günther 1880) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes brevianalis (Günther 1880). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Estuaries from La Serena to Chiloé, Chile. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

brevis, Atherinichthys Steindachner [F.] 1894:149 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 31 (no. 15) (for 7 June 1894); ref. 19243] Lake Cuitzeo near Morelia, Mexico. Syntypes: ZSM [old collection] (2) destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:266 [ref. 28925]. •Questionably the same as Chirostoma jordani Woolman 1894 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061]). •Tentatively valid as Chirostoma breve (Steindachner 1894) -- (Neumann 2006:266 [ref. 28925]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma breve (Steindachner 1894). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Lake Cuitzeo, Mexico [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

californiensis, Atherinopsis Girard [C. F.] 1854:134 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 1817] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 10208-10 (3), USNM 351 mixed with 352 (now 4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:23 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Atherinopsis californiensis Girard 1854 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:118 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:240 [ref. 26885], Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:899 [ref. 22829], Dyer 1997:48 [ref. 23262], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:62 [ref. 24545], Ruiz-Campos et al. 2000:69 [ref. 24940], Nelson et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:63 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:116 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:54 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Atherinopsis californiensis Girard 1854. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Oregon (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of Baja California Sur (Mexico); western and northeastern Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

callida, Atherinella Chernoff [B.] 1986:155, Figs. 39-41 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 138 (no. 1); ref. 5848] Refugio, Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: LACM 9626-1. Paratypes: ANSP 158698 (3), 158699 (2, c&s); LACM 9626-2 (21). •Valid as Atherinella callida Chernoff 1986 -- (Chernoff 1986:242 [ref. 5847], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:57 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:188 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:6 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella callida Chernoff 1986. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Río Papaloapan basin, Atlantic Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

caucus, Cyprinus Molina [J. I.] 1782:225 [Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile, del Signor Abate Giovanni Ignazio Molina.; ref. 17783] Chile. No types known. Nomen Dubium. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.

cedroscensis, Atherinops insularum Hubbs [C. L.] 1918:434 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 38 (art. 13); ref. 10683] Southeastern side of Cedros Island, off the coast of central Baja California. Holotype: AMNH 7144 (missing or never received). Paratypes: (10) AMNH (missing or never received), FMNH 9514 (2), CAS-SU 2445 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:65 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:14 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Atherinops affinis (Ayres 1860) -- (Dyer 1997:47 [ref. 23262]). Current status: Synonym of Atherinops affinis (Ayres 1860). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cerea, Menidia beryllina Kendall [W. C.] 1902:261, Fig. [Report of the Commissioner, United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries Pt 27 (for 1901) (Appendix 7); ref. 11806] Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 50011. Paratypes: USNM 125458 (16). •Synonym of Menidia beryllina (Cope 1867) -- (Smith 1986:415 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Menidia beryllina (Cope 1867). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

chagresi, Menidia Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] in Meek 1914:119 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 10); ref. 2961] Río Chagres at Gorgona Island, Panama Canal Zone, Panama. Lectotype: USNM 81761. Paralectotypes: ANSP 90845 (2); FMNH 7859-60 (29, 6), 31913-20 (8), 31921-40 (20), 31942-44 (3), 31945-48 (4); UCR 0444-15 (3), 1013-004 (8), 1100-001 (8), 1101-001 (9), 1126-024 (53), 1144-01 (now 26, was 31); USNM 79726 (20), 79728 (3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:56 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:23 [ref. 13621], Angulo et al. 2015:368 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Melaniris chagresi (Meek & Hildebrand 1914) -- (Bussing 1987:157 [ref. 22927]). •Valid as Atherinella chagresi (Meek & Hildebrand 1914) -- (Chernoff 1986:92 [ref. 5848], Chernoff 1986:242 [ref. 5847], Bussing 1998:240 [ref. 24179], Chernoff 2003:1098 [ref. 27017], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella chagresi (Meek & Hildebrand 1914). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Costa Rica and Panama. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

chapalae, Chirostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1899:135, Fig. 13 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 [1899]; ref. 2501] Laguna de Chapala, near Ocotlan, Jalisco, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 6155. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6209 (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:66 [ref. 12291]. Betancourt-Resendes et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37138] synonymized Chirostoma chapalae Jordan & Snyder 1899 and C. promelas Jordan & Snyder 1899, and gave peference to chapalae. •Valid as Menidia chapalae (Jordan & Snyder 1899) -- (Miller 2006:193 [ref. 28615]). •Valid as Chirostoma chapalae Jordan & Snyder 1899 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:59 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708], Betancourt-Resendes et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37138]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma chapalae Jordan & Snyder 1899. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: North America: Pacific Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

charari, Eslopsarum bartoni de Buen [F.] 1945:509 [Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad de Mexico v. 16 (no. 2); ref. 691] Río Grande de Morelia and Lake Cuitzeo valley, Mexico. No types known. •Valid as Menidia charari (de Buen 1945) -- (Miller 2006:194 [ref. 28615]). •Valid as Chirostoma charari (de Buen 1945) -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:59 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:7 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma charari (de Buen 1945). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Southrn North America: Río Grande de Morelia basin (Mexico) [extinct]. Habitat: freshwater.

charruanus, Basilichthys bonariensis var. Lahille [F.] 1929:319, Fig. 11 [Boletin del Ministerio de Agricultura de la Nación (Buenos Aires) 28 (no. 3) (for July-Sept. 1929); ref. 9887] Coast of Patagonia, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Holotype: MACN 5178. Type catalog: Braga & Piacentino 1994:100 [ref. 23697] as charuanus. •Synonym of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Koerber & Litz 2014:5 [ref. 34967], Koerber & Litz 2016:6 [ref. 35098]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

chascomunensis, Basilichthys bonariensis var. Lahille [F.] 1929:305, Fig. 3 [Boletin del Ministerio de Agricultura de la Nación (Buenos Aires) 28 (no. 3) (for July-Sept. 1929); ref. 9887] Province of Buenos Aires (Chascomús), Argentina. No types known. •Synonym of Odontesthes bonariensis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer 2000:118 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Miller 2003:82 [ref. 27342], Litz & Koerber 2014:29 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:50 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes bonariensis (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

clara, Menidia Evermann [B. W.] & Jenkins [O. P.] 1891:136 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 846); ref. 14499] Guaymas Bay, Sonora, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 43237. •Synonym of Leuresthes sardina (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Dyer 1997:48 [ref. 23262], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:197 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Leuresthes sardina (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: marine.

clarkhubbsi, Menidia Echelle [A. A.] & Mosier [D. T.] 1982:533, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1982 (no. 3); ref. 6821] 6 kilometers north of Rockport, Aransas County, Texas, U.S.A., 28°06.5'N, 97°02'W. Holotype: USNM [ex TNHC 10270]. Paratypes: TNHC 10269 (10), UMMZ 209311 (9), USNM 228907 [ex TNHC 10269] (9). •Valid as Menidia clarkhubbsi Echelle & Mosier 1982 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:888 [ref. 23897], Chernoff 2003:1102 [ref. 27017], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Menidia clarkhubbsi Echelle & Mosier 1982. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Northern Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: brackish, marine.

colecanos, Coleotropis Caldwell [D. K.] 1962:3, Figs. 1-2 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 51; ref. 5838] Tortuguero, Caribbean Costa Rica, 10°34'N, 83°32'W. Holotype (unique): UF 5652. Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:111 [ref. 21035]. •Synonym of Atherinella blackburni (Schultz 1949) -- (Mattox et al. 2008:308 [ref. 29765]). Current status: Synonym of Atherinella blackburni (Schultz 1949). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: marine.

colei, Menidia Hubbs [C. L.] 1936:248, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 457 (art. 17); ref. 2247] Southwest of Progreso, Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 102173. Paratypes: UMMZ 102172 (99), USNM 117556 [ex UMMZ] (3). •Valid as Menidia colei Hubbs 1936 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:61 [ref. 22290], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:196 [ref. 24550], Chernoff 2003:1102 [ref. 27017], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:194 [ref. 28615], García-Hernández et al. 2009:92 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Menidia colei Hubbs 1936. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Yucatán (Mexico) endemic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

colombiensis, Thyrina Hubbs [C. L.] 1920:4 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 88; ref. 15239] Río Telembi, a tributary of Río Patia, Pacific slope of southern Colombia. Holotype: CAS 47433 [ex IU 13871]. Paratypes: ANSP 92433 (1); BMNH 1920.12.20.149-150 [from Eigenman] (2?); CAS 47431-32 [ex IU 13869-70] (6, 9), 47435 [ex IU 13871] (11) 47436 [ex IU 13868] (11); ?CM 7485, ?7486, ?7487; FMNH 58483-84 (3, 5), 69728 (16); UMMZ 55006 (6). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:83 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:23 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Atherinella colombiensis (Hubbs 1920) -- (Chernoff 1986:241 [ref. 5847], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella colombiensis (Hubbs 1920). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: (Pacific slope) Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

compressum, Chirostoma grandocule de Buen [F.] 1940:307 [Ciencia (Mexico City) v. 1 (no. 7) (for Mar. 1940); ref. 13228] Lake Cuitzeo, Michoacán, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 143300 [ex Estación Limnol. Pátzcuaro]. •Synonym of Chirostoma grandocule (Steindachner 1894) -- (Barbour 1974:279 [ref. 24561]). •Valid as Chirostoma compressum de Buen 1940 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma compressum de Buen 1940. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Lerma River basin, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

conchorum, Menidia Hildebrand [S. F.] & Ginsburg [I.] 1927:207, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 42 (Doc. 1013); ref. 15789] Boca Chica, Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 87535. Paratypes: (50) CAS-SU 50182 (5); USNM 170967-69 (9, 22, 1). •Valid as Menidia conchorum Hildebrand & Ginsburg 1927 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:112 [ref. 23100], Musick et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24959], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:435 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Menidia conchorum Hildebrand & Ginsburg 1927. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic: Florida Keys. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

consocium, Chirostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Hubbs [C. L.] 1919:76 [Leland Stanford Jr. University Publications, University Series [1919]; ref. 2485] Lake Chapala at La Palma, Michoacan, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 3672. Paratypes: FMNH 105578 [ex 3662] (87), CAS-SU 17776 (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:66 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:24 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Menidia consocia (Jordan & Hubbs 1919) -- (Miller 2006:195 [ref. 28615] with 2 subspecies). •Valid as Chirostoma consocium Jordan & Hubbs 1919 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:59 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:7 [ref. 30398] with subspecies, Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). •Synonym of Chirostoma chapalae Jordan & Snyder 1899 -- (Betancourt-Resendes et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37138]). Current status: Synonym of Chirostoma chapalae Jordan & Snyder 1899. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

contrerasi, Chirostoma Barbour [C. D.] 2002:26, Fig. 3 [Libro jubilar en honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas; ref. 27833] Lago de Chapala, about 12.9 kilometers western town of Chapala between kilometer 65 and 66, Jalisco, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 234358. Paratypes: UMMZ 193460 (40, 2 c&s, but only 35 specimens are listed). •Valid as Menidia contrerasi (Barbour 2002) -- (Miller 2006:195 [ref. 28615]). •Valid as Chirostoma contrerasi Barbour 2002 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:7 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma contrerasi Barbour 2002. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Southern North America: Lago de Chapala (Mexico). Habitat: freshwater.

copandaro, Chirostoma estor de Buen [F.] 1945:524 [Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad de Mexico v. 16 (no. 2); ref. 691] Zirahuén Lake, Mexico. Syntypes: (9) whereabouts unknown. •Mention -- (Miller 2006:196 [ref. 28615] as compandaro). •Synonym of Chirostoma estor Jordan 1880, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Scharpf 2007:7 [ref. 30398]). •Valid as Chirostoma copandaro de Buen 1945 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061], Betancourt-Resendes et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37138]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma copandaro de Buen 1945. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: North America: Zirahuén Lake, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

crameri, Leuresthes Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1896:802 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2443] Ballenas Bay, near Cape Abreojos, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 47583 [ex CAS-SU 27] (2), CAS-SU 27 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:67 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Leuresthes tenuis (Ayres 1860) -- (Dyer 1997:48 [ref. 23262]). Current status: Synonym of Leuresthes tenuis (Ayres 1860). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: marine.

crystallina, Thyrina Jordan [D. S.] & Culver [G. B.] in Jordan 1895:420 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Río Presidio, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.160-165 [from Jordan] (6), CAS-SU 2685 (26), USNM 47440 (3), ZMB 14066 [ex CAS-SU 2876] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:67 [ref. 12291], Paepke & Seegers 1986:177 [ref. 19981]. Original says, "Type, No. 2686 L.S. Jr. Univ. Mus.", but that lot contains many specimens. •Valid as Atherinella crystallina (Jordan & Culver 1895) -- (Chernoff 1986:160 [ref. 5848] and Chernoff 1986:242 [ref. 5847] with subspecies, Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:57 [ref. 22290], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:193 [ref. 24550], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:189 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:6 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella crystallina (Jordan & Culver 1895). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Pacific Slope of Mexico; mainly freeshwater, also estuaries. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

crystallinum, Chirostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1899:139, Fig. 16 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 [1899]; ref. 2501] Laguna de Chapala, near Ocotlan, Jalisco, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 6158. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6203 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:66 [ref. 12291]. •Questionably the same as Chirostoma lucius Boulenger 1900 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Chirostoma chapalae Jordan & Snyder 1899. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

cuyanus, Basilichthys Burmeister [H. K.] 1861:534 [Reise durch die La Plata-Staaten v. 2; ref. 23859] Laguna Guanacache [from fish market at Mendoza], San Juan, Argentina. Holotype (unique): Whereabouts unknown. For English and Spanish translation see Koerber & Litz 2008:2 [ref. 29451]. •See Koerber & Litz 2008:2 [ref. 29451]. •Questionably the same as Odontesthes hatcheri (Eigenmann 1909) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer 2000:109 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:50 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Uncertain as Odontesthes hatcheri (Eigenmann 1909). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.

cyanellus, Mugilops Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:271, Pl. 22 (fig. 1) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Balboa, Panama Bay, Panama (Pacific). Holotype: USNM 81748. Paratypes: FMNH 8551-52 (1, 1); USNM 79720-21 (1, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:58 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Mugilops cyanellus Meek & Hildebrand 1923 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:91 [ref. 22193]). •Valid as Melanorhinus cyanellus (Meek & Hildebrand 1923) -- (Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:901 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:272 [ref. 24023], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:520 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Melanorhinus cyanellus (Meek & Hildebrand 1923). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: western Mexico to Panama, Galápagos Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dayi, Phoxargyrea Fowler [H. W.] 1903:732, Pl. 41 (lower fig.) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 55; ref. 1362] India (locality incorrect). Holotype (unique): ANSP 10177. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:23 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Menidia menidia (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Menidia menidia (Linnaeus 1766). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

debueni, Odontesthes (Cauque) Fischer [W.] 1963:199, Fig. 1 [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 60 (for Dec. 1962); ref. 4792] Estero Lenga, Concepción, VIII Región, Chile, 37°S, 73°W. Holotype: ZMH H1698. Paratypes: ZMH H1699-1710 (12). Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:160 [ref. 22013]. •Valid as Cauque debueni (Fischer 1963) -- (Pequeño 1989:51 [ref. 14125]). •Synonym of Odontesthes brevianalis (Günther 1880) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer 2000:113 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes brevianalis (Günther 1880). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

dentex, Menidia Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:429 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Mouth of St. John's River, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 36248 [ex USNM] (1), USNM 18051 (now 7). Types as, "There are ten individuals... The three which are made the special types of this description..." Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae.

diazi, Chirostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1899:137, Fig. 15 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 [1899]; ref. 2501] Market at Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico (said to come from Laguna de Chapala). Holotype: CAS-SU 6157. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6200 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:66 [ref. 12291]. •Questionably the same as Chirostoma sphyraena Boulenger 1900 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Uncertain as Chirostoma sphyraena Boulenger 1900. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

dissimilis, Adenops Carvalho [J. de P.] 1956:93, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [Boletim do Instituto Oceanografico, São Paulo v. 7 (nos 1-2); ref. 12055] Cananéia, south coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 9401 [ex IO 303]. Paratypes: MZUSP 9402-05 [ex IO] (4). Type catalog: Menezes 1974:216 [ref. 20795]. •Valid as Adenops dissimilis Carvalho 1956 -- (Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639]). •Valid as Membras dissimilis (Carvalho 1956) -- (Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27192], Chernoff et al. 2020:194 [ref. 37775]). Current status: Valid as Membras dissimilis (Carvalho 1956). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

elegans, Atherinella crystallina Chernoff [B.] 1986:182, Figs. 46, 53-57 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 138 (no. 1); ref. 5848] Río del Fuerte about 1.6 kilometers below San Blas, Sinaloa, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 172286. Paratypes: ANSP 158518 (10); UMMZ 164531 (22), 164605 (6), 164615 (228 or 238), 164625 (93 or 88), 164625-cs (5, c&s), 178282 (182), 178291 (46), 213590 (124). •Valid as Atherinella elegans Chernoff 1986 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:58 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:6 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella elegans Chernoff 1986. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Del Fuerte River basin, Sinaloa, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

eriarcha, Atherinella Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:348 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 29243. •Valid as Eurostole eriarcha (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:91 [ref. 22193]). •Valid as Atherinella eriarcha Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Chernoff 1986:245 [ref. 5847], Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:895 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:60 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:194 [ref. 24550], Dyer 2000:104 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:63 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:442 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:607 [ref. 34923], González-Murcia et al. 2019:296 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella eriarcha Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico) south to Colombia, including Revillagigedo Islands (Mexico) and southern Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

estor, Chirostoma Jordan [D. S.] 1880:298 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 94); ref. 2382] Lake Chapala, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 23124. •Valid as Menidia estor (Jordan 1880) -- (Miller 2006:196 [ref. 28615] with 2 subspecies mentioned). •Valid as Chirostoma estor Jordan 1880 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:59 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061], Scharpf 2007:7 [ref. 30398] with subspecies, Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708], Betancourt-Resendes et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37138]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma estor Jordan 1880. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: North America: Pacific Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

evermanni, Thyrina Jordan [D. S.] & Culver [G. B.] in Jordan 1895:419, Pl. 33 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Estuary at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: CAS-SU 2688 (1 of 9). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.158-159 [from Jordan] (2), CAS=SU 2688 (12, now 8 plus lectotype), USNM 47494 (1), ZMB 14065 [ex CAS-SU 2688] (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:67 [ref. 12291], Paepke & Seegers 1986:177 [ref. 19981]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 124, p. 3260 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Valid as Atherinella evermanni (Jordan & Culver 1895) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:193 [ref. 24550], Dyer 2000:104 [ref. 26677]). •Synonym of Atherinella crystallina (Jordan & Culver 1895) -- (Chernoff 1986:177 [ref. 5848], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061], Miller 2006:189 [ref. 28615]). Current status: Synonym of Atherinella crystallina (Jordan & Culver 1895). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

extensa, Menidia Hubbs [C. L.] & Raney [E. C.] 1946:21, Pl. 1 (figs. 4-5) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 65; ref. 13128] North shore of Lake Waccamaw, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 135845. Paratypes: (535) AMS I.29692-001 [ex UMMZ 135846] (5); CUMV 9289; UMMZ 135846 (301); USNM 106716 (6). •Valid as Menidia extensa Hubbs & Raney 1946 -- (Lee et al. 1980:559 [ref. 22416], Page & Burr 1991:241 [ref. 18983], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:9 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:423 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Menidia extensa Hubbs & Raney 1946. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Lake Waccamaw and outlet, North Carolina, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

ferdebueni, Poblana Solórzano [A.] & López [Y.] 1965:209, Fig. 1 [Ciencia (Mexico City) v. 23 (no. 5); ref. 9257] Laguna de Almoloya, Chignahuapan Lake, Puebla State, Mexico. Holotype: ENCB. Paratypes: (238) BMNH 1965.8.25.1-3 (3); ENCB (5); FMNH 73098 (3); TU 38631 (3); UMMZ 181772 (3); remainder of paratypes at Lab. Central del Inst. Nacional de Invest. Biológico Pesqueras. Type catalog: Suttkus 1970:125 [ref. 20861], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:67 [ref. 12367], Bart & Taylor 1993:53 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Poblana ferdebueni Solórzano & López 1965 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:61 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:9 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Menidia ferdebueni (Solórzano & López 1965) -- (Miller 2006:196 [ref. 28615]) Current status: Valid as Poblana ferdebueni Solórzano & López 1965. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Chignahuapan Lake, Atlantic Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

gabunensis, Ischnomembras Fowler [H. W.] 1903:731, Pl. 42 (upper fig.) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 55; ref. 1362] Gabon River, West Africa [erroneous]. Holotype: ANSP 14934. Paratypes: FMNH 9535 [ex ANSP 14935] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:23 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:50 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Menidia beryllina (Cope 1867) -- (see remarks in Böhlke 1984:23 [ref. 13621] and Maugé 1986:279 [ref. 6218]). Current status: Synonym of Menidia beryllina (Cope 1867). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

gilberti, Menidia Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:155 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Panama. Syntypes: CAS-SU 111 (13); USNM 41165 (2), 41210 (2), 41240 (9), 41480 (6); ZMB 15883 (1), 16262 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:67 [ref. 12291], Paepke & Seegers 1986:177 [ref. 19981]. •Valid as Membras gilberti (Jordan & Bollman 1890) -- (Chernoff 1986:240 [ref. 5847], Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:901 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:192 [ref. 24550], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:520 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:995 [ref. 33194], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:296 [ref. 36544], Chernoff et al. 2020:194 [ref. 37775]). Current status: Valid as Membras gilberti (Jordan & Bollman 1890). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gracile, Chirostoma Steindachner [F.] 1898:314 [Zoologische Jahrbücher. Jena, Supplementband v. 4; ref. 4238] Cumberland Bay, Más a Tierra [Robinson Crusoe Island], Juan Fernández Islands. Syntypes: (several) ZMB 15675 (orig. 9, now 8). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:177 [ref. 19981]. •Valid as Austromenidia gracilis (Steindachner 1898) -- (Pequeño 1989:51 [ref. 14125]). •Valid as Odontesthes gracilis (Steindachner 1898) -- (Dyer 1998:536 [ref. 23858], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:218 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:115 [ref. 26677], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:31 [ref. 24590], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Dyer & Westneat 2010:601 [ref. 31446], Wingert et al. 2017:525 [ref. 35244]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes gracilis (Steindachner 1898). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Juan Fernández Islands, Chile. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

gracilis, Atherinichthys Günther [A.] 1861:405 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] No locality. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2009.5.8.1. •In the synonymy of Menidia beryllina (Cope 1867) but not treated as valid [based on a juvenile with no locality] -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:196 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Menidia beryllina (Cope 1867). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

grandoculis, Atherinichthys Steindachner [F.] 1894:149 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 31 (no. 15) (for 7 June 1894); ref. 19243] Lake Pátzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:266 [ref. 28925]. •Valid as Menidia grandocule (Steindachner 1894) -- (Miller 2006:196 [ref. 28615]). •Valid as Chirostoma grandocule (Steindachner 1894) -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:60 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:7 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). •Synonym of Chirostoma estor Jordan 1880 -- (Betancourt-Resendes et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37138]). Current status: Synonym of Chirostoma estor Jordan 1880. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

guadalupae, Atherinops insularum Hubbs [C. L.] 1918:435 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 38 (art. 13); ref. 10683] Guadalupe Island, off Baja California. Holotype: AMNH 7145 (not found in 1985). Paratypes: (15) FMNH 9515 (2), USNM 46667 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:14 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Atherinops affinis (Ayres 1860) -- (Dyer 1997:47 [ref. 23262]). Current status: Synonym of Atherinops affinis (Ayres 1860). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guatemalensis, Atherinichthys Günther [A.] 1864:151 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] Lakes of Huamuchal, Retalhuleu, Guatemala. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.367 (5). •Valid as Melaniris guatemalensis (Günther 1864) -- (Villa 1982:139 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:158 [ref. 22927]). •Valid as Atherinella guatemalensis (Günther 1864) -- (Chernoff 1986:136 [ref. 5848], Chernoff 1986:243 [ref. 5847], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:58 [ref. 22290], Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:895 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:60 [ref. 24545], Bussing 1998:238 [ref. 24179], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:194 [ref. 24550], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:189 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:6 [ref. 30398], McMahan et al. 2013:446 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Pacific Slope of Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

guazu, Odontesthes de Buen [F.] 1953:40, Figs. 27-28 [Boletim do Instituto Oceanografico, São Paulo v. 4 (no. 1-2); ref. 694] Río Uruguay, Depto. Salto, Uruguay. Holotype: MHNM CI 1805 [ex VT 1049]. Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:413 [ref. 35150]. •Synonym of Odontesthes humensis de Buen 1953 -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Bemvenuti 2002:265 [ref. 26202], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Menni 2004:85 [ref. 28131], Litz & Koerber 2014:29 [ref. 33622], Koerber et al. 2015:3 [ref. 35179], Koerber et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35632]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes humensis de Buen 1953. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.

guija, Thyrina Hildebrand [S. F.] 1925:264, Fig. 18 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 41 (no. 985); ref. 15590] Lake Guija, Santa Ana, El Salvador. Holotype: USNM 87273. Paratypes: FMNH 12118-22 (5), 12123-26 (4), 12127-30 (4); USNM 87274-77 (11, 14, 5, 8). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:83 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Atherinella guija (Hildebrand 1925) -- (Chernoff 1986:128 [ref. 5848], Chernoff 1986:243 [ref. 5847], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061], McMahan et al. 2013:446 [ref. 32422]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella guija (Hildebrand 1925). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Pacific slope of Central America: El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. Habitat: freshwater.

hatcheri, Menidia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:281, Pl. 37 (fig. 4) [The fresh-water fishes of Patagonia v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 1223] Lake Pueyrredón, Santa Cruz, Argentina. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Odontesthes hatcheri (Eigenmann 1909) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:85 [ref. 26678], Dyer 2000:108 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:85 [ref. 28131] as Odontethes, Dyer 2006:76 [ref. 30646], Mirande & Koerber 2015:50 [ref. 35117], Wingert et al. 2017:525 [ref. 35244]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes hatcheri (Eigenmann 1909). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Patagonian rivers and lakes: Argentina and Chile. Habitat: freshwater.

hidalgoi, Poblana Álvarez [J.] 1953:25 [Ciencia (Mexico City) v. 13 (nos 1-3); ref. 12632] Endó Dam, near Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. Holotype: CJA. Paratypes: UMMZ (2), USNM 164688 (2), CJA (30). •Synonym of Menidia jordani (Woolman 1894) -- (Miller 2006:198 [ref. 28615]). •Synonym of Chirostoma jordani Woolman 1894. Current status: Synonym of Chirostoma jordani Woolman 1894. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae.

hubbsi, Colpichthys Crabtree [C. B.] 1989:560, Figs. 6, 7, 8A, 10, 11B [Copeia 1989 (no. 3); ref. 12738] Gulf of Santa Clara, Sonora, Mexico, 31°42'N, 114°30'W. Holotype: LACM 44221-1. Paratypes: LACM 44221-1 (5); SIO 15-503 (5) (ex UCLA W84-19), 15-647 (11) (ex UCLA W78-11), 15-1408 (4) (ex UCLA W53-196), 15-1409 (3) (ex UCLA W57-61), 47-53 (17) (ex UCLA W49-299, not 49-422), 58-164 (3); UA 68-18-1 (1), 68-30-4 (25), 72-26-5 (1), 72-28-4 (280), 72-29-1 (677), 72-30-2 (30), 72-41-1 (30), 73-63-1 (5), 73-90-2 (35), 73-91-1 (1), 73-92-4 (6); UCLA 78-17 (202), 84-19 (6 ex 11), 84-47 (14). •Valid as Colpichthys hubbsi Crabtree 1989 -- (Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:899 [ref. 22829], Dyer 1997:47 [ref. 23262], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:63 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:199 [ref. 24550], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Colpichthys hubbsi Crabtree 1989. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: brackish, marine.

hubbsi, Melaniris Bussing [W. A.] 1979:400, Fig. 1D [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 26 (no. 2); ref. 6973] Río Zapote, tributary of Lake Nicaragua, .4 kilometers south of Upala, Alajuela Province, Costa Rica, elevation 50 meters. Holotype: LACM 37506-1. Paratypes: LACM 37506-2 (5), 37507-1 (5); UCR (17 lots); UF 25174 (5); UMMZ 202343 (5, 1 c&s), 202344 (5, 1 c&s), 202345 (5); USNM 218529-30 (5, 5). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:368 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Melaniris hubbsi Bussing 1979 -- (Villa 1982:139 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:159 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:241 [ref. 24179]). •Valid as Atherinella hubbsi (Bussing 1979) -- (Chernoff 1986:244 [ref. 5847], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061], Angulo et al. 2013:995 [ref. 33194]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella hubbsi (Bussing 1979). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Lake Nicaragua basin, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Habitat: freshwater.

humboldtiana, Atherina Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:479, Pl. 306 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Mexico. Holotype (unique): ZMB 1885. Non-types: MSNG 13927 [ex ZMB] (1); ZMB 1884 (2), 1886-87 (1, 1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:333 [ref. 10350] as syntype. Paepke & Seegers 1986:176 [ref. 19981] regard ZMB 1885 as holotype and list questionable paratypes, but if Valenciennes had more than one specimen all must be considered syntypes; Valenciennes' description is apparently based on only one individual. •Valid as Menidia humboldtiana (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Miller 2006:197 [ref. 28615]). •Valid as Chirostoma humboldtianum (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:60 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:7 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708], Betancourt-Resendes et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37138]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma humboldtianum (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: North America: Pacific Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

humensis, Odontesthes de Buen [F.] 1953:34, Figs. 24-26 [Boletim do Instituto Oceanografico, São Paulo v. 4 (no. 1-2); ref. 694] Río Negro, Uruguay. Holotype: MHNM CI 1806 [ex VT 1053]. Paratypes: MHNM CI 1897 [ex VT 1055-1066] (12). Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:413 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Odontesthes humensis de Buen 1953 -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Gállego et al. 1998:105 [ref. 25010], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Bemvenuti 2002:265 [ref. 26202], Malabarba & Dyer 2002:269 [ref. 26538], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:69 [ref. 27366], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27192], Menni 2004:85 [ref. 28131], Dyer 2006:76 [ref. 30646], Litz & Koerber 2014:29 [ref. 33622], Bogan et al. 2015:1 [ref. 35093], Koerber et al. 2015:3 [ref. 35179], Bertaco et al. 2016:422 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:41 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35083], Wingert et al. 2017:525 [ref. 35244], Koerber et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35632], Koerber et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36736], Mirande & Koerber 2020:2 [ref. 37594]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes humensis de Buen 1953. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: South America: large lakes and rivers of La Plata and Uruguay river basins (Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay). Habitat: freshwater.

iguapensis, Kronia Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1915:Trematolepides p. 10 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] Iguapé, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 1351. Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:394 [ref. 12732]. On p. 42 when continuously paginated. •Valid as Odontesthes iguapensis (Miranda Ribeiro 1915) -- (Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27192]). •Synonym of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer 2000:108 [ref. 26677], Bemvenuti 2002:256 [ref. 26202], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Koerber & Litz 2014:5 [ref. 34967], Koerber & Litz 2016:6 [ref. 35098]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

iheringi, Pseudothyrina Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1915:Trematolepides p. 11 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 2369A. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 2369 (1). Type information: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:394-395 [ref. 12732] as Pseudothryina iheringi. On p. 43 when continuously paginated. Spelled jheringi in original, with "Dedico a especie ao Dr. Hermann von Jhering, o autor dos "Peixes da Costa do Mar do Rio Grande do Sul"." The correct spelling is Ihering, and the name iheringi is used by Miranda Ribeiro 1918:43 [ref. 20859]; we regard jheringi as a lapsus. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:395 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]. •Synonym of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858] as jheringi, Dyer 2000:108 [ref. 26677], Bemvenuti 2002:256 [ref. 26202] as jheringi, Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Koerber & Litz 2014:5 [ref. 34967], Koerber & Litz 2016:6 [ref. 35098]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

incisa, Atherina Jenyns [L.] 1841:79, Pl. 16 (figs. 2, 2a, 2b) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] 39°S, 61°W, opposite Punta Sauce, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Syntypes: (3) ?ZMZC [Darwin no. 367]. •Valid as Odontesthes incisa (Jenyns 1841) -- (Dyer 1998:536 [ref. 23858], Gállego et al. 1998:105 [ref. 25010] as incisis, Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:108 [ref. 26677], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:82 [ref. 25942], Bemvenuti 2002:269 [ref. 26202], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27192], Dyer 2006:78 [ref. 30646], Litz & Koerber 2014:29 [ref. 33622], Nión et al. 2016:41 [ref. 35565], Wingert et al. 2017:525 [ref. 35244]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes incisa (Jenyns 1841). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

insularum, Atherinops Gilbert [C. H.] 1892:549 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 880); ref. 1626] San Clemente and San Nicholas islands of the Santa Barbara Group, and southern of Guadalupe Island, off Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: BMNH 1900.9.29.186-187 (2) San Nicholas; MNHN 1896-0163 [ex USNM] (1) San Clemente; CAS-SU 5297 (8); USNM 46556 (25) San Clemente. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:65 [ref. 12291], Blanc & Hureau 1971:714 [ref. 21541]. •Synonym of Atherinops affinis (Ayres 1860) -- (Dyer 1997:47 [ref. 23262]). Current status: Synonym of Atherinops affinis (Ayres 1860). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

itatanum, Chirostoma Steindachner [F.] 1896:232 [Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien v. 11; ref. 14619] Río Itata, VIII Región, Chile. Syntypes: NMW 62608 (4). •Questionably valid as Odontesthes (Cauque) itatanum (Steindachner 1896) -- (Dyer 2000:85 [ref. 26678]). •Synonym of Odontesthes mauleanum (Steindachner 1896) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer 2000:113 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes mauleanum (Steindachner 1896). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.

jacksoniana, Atherina Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1825:333 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Sydney Harbor, New South Wales, Australia [locality is actually South America]. Lectotype: MNHN A-2895 (largest of 4). Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-3096 (1), A-2895 (3 of 4). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:706 [ref. 21541]. Lectotype selected by Whitley 1943:136 [ref. 4702]. •Synonym of Odontesthes smitti (Lahille 1929) -- (Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:116 [ref. 26677]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes smitti (Lahille 1929). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: marine.

janitzio, Chirostoma bartoni de Buen [F.] 1940:22, Fig. 4 [Trabajos, Estación Limnologica de Patzcuaro No. 1; ref. 13594] Lake Pátzcuaro, Mexico. Syntypes: (many). •Synonym of Chirostoma attenuatum Meek 1902 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Chirostoma attenuatum Meek 1902. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

jiloaensis, Melaniris Bussing [W. A.] 1979:406, Fig. 1F [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 26 (no. 2); ref. 6973] Lake Jiloá on Chiltepe Peninsula, Dept. of Managua, Nicaragua. Holotype: LACM 37350-1. Paratypes: LACM 37350-2 (20); UCR 185-5 (13), 596-1 (60, plus 3 c&s); UMMZ 201962 (6); USNM 218374 (6). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:368 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Melaniris jiloaensis Bussing 1979 -- (Villa 1982:139 [ref. 36708]). •Valid as Atherinella jiloaensis (Bussing 1979) -- (Chernoff 1986:243 [ref. 5847], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella jiloaensis (Bussing 1979). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Lake Jiloá, Nicaragua. Habitat: freshwater.

jordani, Basilichthys Abbott [J. F.] 1899:341 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 51; ref. 1] Callao, Peru. Holotype: CAS-SU 6070. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6073 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:66 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Odontesthes regia (Humboldt 1821) -- (Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:218 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:117 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes regia (Humboldt 1821). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

jordani, Chirostoma Woolman [A. J.] 1894:62, Pl. 2 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 14 (art. 8) (for 1894); ref. 4804] Canals at Salamanca and City of Mexico. Lectotype: not researched. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1894.1.27.1-7 (7); CAS 14250-51 (2, 2); FMNH 6770 (5), 9015 [ex 6770] (5); CAS-SU 788 (4); UMMZ 164688 (2), 187660 (1); USNM 45572 (1), 47509 (2), 125441 (1), 203104 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:66 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:24 [ref. 12367]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 123, p. 3259 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. A lectotype also designated by Barbour 1973:103 [ref. 5967]. •Valid as Chirostoma jordani Woolman 1894 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:60 [ref. 22290], Fuller et al. 1999:280 [ref. 25838], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:8 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Menidia jordani (Woolman 1894) -- (Miller 2006:197 [ref. 28615]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma jordani Woolman 1894. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Central Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

julus, Cyprinus Molina [J. I.] 1782:226 [Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile, del Signor Abate Giovanni Ignazio Molina.; ref. 17783] Chile. No types known. Spelled Cyprinus Yulus on page 346. Nomen Dubium. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae.

labarcae, Chirostoma Meek [S. E.] 1902:113, Pl. 27 middle [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 3 (no. 6); ref. 2957] Río Lerma at La Barca, Jalisco, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 3640. Paratypes: FMNH 3641 (5), 3666 (3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:24 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Chirostoma labarcae Meek 1902 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:60 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:8 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Menidia labarcae (Meek 1902) -- (Miller 2006:198 [ref. 28615] as labarca). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma labarcae Meek 1902. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

laciniata, Menidia vagrans Swain [J.] in Jordan & Gilbert 1883:908 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 16; ref. 2476] Coast of North Carolina, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Membras martinica (Valenciennes 1835) Current status: Synonym of Membras martinica (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: marine.

laticlavia, Atherina Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:473 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Valparaíso, Taguatagun Bay, Chile. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2980 (4, poor condition). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:706-707 [ref. 21541]. •Valid as Atherina laticlavia Valenciennes 1835 -- (Pequeño 1989:51 [ref. 14125]). •Synonym of Odontesthes regia (Humboldt 1821) -- (Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:218 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:117 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061], Dyer 2006:85 [ref. 30346]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes regia (Humboldt 1821). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ledae, Odontesthes Malabarba [L. R.] & Dyer [B. S.] 2002:266, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 3); ref. 26538] Lagoa Fortaleza, Cidreira, 30°09'33"S, 50°13'44"W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 26151. Paratypes: FMNH 103612 (6); MCP 13849 (7), 21393-97 (20, 14, 13, 22, 9). •Valid as Odontesthes ledae Malabarba & Dyer 2002 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27192], Bertaco et al. 2016:422 [ref. 34561], Wingert et al. 2017:525 [ref. 35244]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes ledae Malabarba & Dyer 2002. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul State, Rio Tramandai drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

lermae, Chirostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1899:142, Fig. 19 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 [1899]; ref. 2501] Said to have come from Laguna de Chapala, obtained in market at Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 6159. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6212 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:66 [ref. 12291]. •Questionably the same as Chirostoma sphyraena Boulenger 1900 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Chirostoma sphyraena Boulenger 1900. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

lessonii, Atherina Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:471 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Santa Catarina, Brazil. No types known. Based on a drawing. •Synonym of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858] with question, Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061] with question, Koerber & Litz 2014:5 [ref. 34967], Koerber & Litz 2016:6 [ref. 35098]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

letholepis, Poblana Álvarez [J.] 1950:98 [Anales de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México v. 6 (nos 1-4) (for 1949); ref. 20547] Crater-lake of La Preciosa, 4 kilometers southeast of Alchichica, Puebla, Mexico, elevation 2365 meters. Holotype: not researched. Paratypes: (135) UANL 1011 [ex IPN P139] (7), UMMZ 160729 (25), USNM 151282 (10). Type catalog: Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:6 [ref. 23752]. •Valid as Poblana letholepis Álvarez 1950 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:62 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:9 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32708]). •Mention -- (Miller 2006:191 [ref. 28615]). Current status: Valid as Poblana letholepis Álvarez 1950. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Crater-lake of La Preciosa, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

lichtensteinii, Atherina Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:478 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Montevideo, Uruguay. Holotype (unique): ZMB 1883. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:722 [ref. 21541], Paepke & Seegers 1986:177 [ref. 19981]. •Synonym of Odontesthes bonariensis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer 2000:118 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Miller 2003:82 [ref. 27342], Litz & Koerber 2014:29 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:50 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes bonariensis (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lisa, Menidia Meek [S. E.] 1904:182, Fig. 63 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 5; ref. 2958] Refugio, Veracruz, Río Papaloapam basin, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 4633. Paratypes: ANSP 90843 (2); CAS 45352 [ex 10960] (6); FMNH 4634 (1), 4651 (6), 72561 (3); UMMZ 162470 (8, 3 c&s); USNM 55851 (6), 82178 (4); ? BMNH 1905.12.6.678-682 (5). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:56 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:23 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Atherinella lisa (Meek 1904) -- (Chernoff 1986:244 [ref. 5847], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:58 [ref. 22290], Dyer 2000:104 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:189 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:6 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella lisa (Meek 1904). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Río Tonto drainage, Atlantic Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

littoralis, Atherinops affinis Hubbs [C. L.] 1918:426 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 38 (art. 13); ref. 10683] North Island, San Diego Bay, California, U.S.A. Holotype: FMNH 2064. Paratypes: (11) ANSP 90848 [ex FMNH 2064] (1); FMNH 9113 (1), 9115-17 (1, 1, 1); CAS-SU 9926 (orig. 19). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:65 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:14 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:23 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Atherinops affinis (Ayres 1860) -- (Dyer 1997:47 [ref. 23262]). Current status: Synonym of Atherinops affinis (Ayres 1860). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lucius, Chirostoma Boulenger [G. A.] 1900:54 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 5 (no. 25) (art. 5); ref. 14717] Lake Chapala, Mexico. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1892.2.8.77 (1). •Valid as Chirostoma lucius Boulenger 1900 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:60 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:8 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Menidia lucius (Boulenger 1900) -- (Miller 2006:197 [ref. 28615]). •Synonym of Chirostoma chapalae Jordan & Snyder 1899 -- (Betancourt-Resendes et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37138]). Current status: Synonym of Chirostoma chapalae Jordan & Snyder 1899. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

macrophthalma, Atherina Agassiz [L.] 1831:136, Pl. 62 (fig. 2) [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Atlantic off Brazil. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae.

macropterus, Basilichthys nigricans var. Lahille [F.] 1929:346, Fig. 19 [Boletin del Ministerio de Agricultura de la Nación (Buenos Aires) 28 (no. 3) (for July-Sept. 1929); ref. 9887] Malvinas, Río Gallegos, Magellan Straits, Argentina. •Synonym of Austroatherina nigricans (Richardson 1848) -- (Lloris & Rucabado 1991:79 [ref. 22530]). •Questionably a synonym of Odontesthes nigricans (Richardson 1848) -- (Dyer 1998:536 [ref. 23858], Dyer 2000:112 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Uncertain as Odontesthes nigricans (Richardson 1848). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

madrynensis, Basilichthys Lahille [F.] 1929:326, Fig. 16 [Boletin del Ministerio de Agricultura de la Nación (Buenos Aires) 28 (no. 3) (for July-Sept. 1929); ref. 9887] Port Madryn, Golfo Nuevo, Chabut, Argentina. No types known. •Synonym of Odontesthes smitti (Lahille 1929) -- (Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:116 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes smitti (Lahille 1929). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: marine.

magdalenae, Atherinops Fowler [H. W.] 1903:740, Pl. 42 (lower fig.) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 55; ref. 1362] Magdalena Bay, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: ANSP 10206 (in jar with paratype). Paratypes: ANSP 10207 (1, in jar with holotype). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:23 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Atherinops affinis (Ayres 1860) -- (Dyer 1997:47 [ref. 23262]). Current status: Synonym of Atherinops affinis (Ayres 1860). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

malchus, Cyprinus Molina [J. I.] 1782:225 [Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile, del Signor Abate Giovanni Ignazio Molina.; ref. 17783] Chile. No types known. Nomen Dubium. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.

malvinensis, Austroatherina Marrero y Galindez [A.] 1950:121, Fig. [Flechas de Plata, Atherínidos argentinos; ref. 5939] Falkland Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Odontesthes nigricans (Richardson 1848) -- (Dyer 1998:536 [ref. 23858], Dyer 2000:112 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes nigricans (Richardson 1848). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

marinus, Mugilops Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:272, Pl. 22 (fig. 2) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Porto Bello, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 81742. •Synonym of Melanorhinus boekei Metzelaar 1919 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:520 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Melanorhinus boekei Metzelaar 1919. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: marine.

martinica, Atherina Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:459 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN A-4378 (3). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:707 [ref. 21541]. •Valid as Membras martinica (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Smith 1986:415 [ref. 22186], Chernoff 1986:240 [ref. 5847], Robins & Ray 1986:112 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:90 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:131 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:886 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:191 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:282 [ref. 25838], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:153 [ref. 27754], Chernoff 2003:1101 [ref. 27017], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:520 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:201 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:8 [ref. 30398], García-Hernández et al. 2009:92 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:185 [ref. 35886], Chernoff et al. 2020:194 [ref. 37775]). Current status: Valid as Membras martinica (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: New York (U.S.A.) south to Martinique, including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

marvelae, Archomenidia Chernoff [B.] & Miller [R. R.] 1982:430, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 95 (no. 3); ref. 8494] Río Bravo just below barrier falls, Salto de Eyipantla, Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 209012 [ex TCWC 1848.5]. Paratypes: UMMZ 179892 (41, 5 c&s), 209013 (2), 209850 (17). •Valid as Atherinella marvelae (Chernoff & Miller 1982) -- (Chernoff 1986:244 [ref. 5847], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:58 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:190 [ref. 28615], Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella marvelae (Chernoff & Miller 1982). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Río Papaloapan basin, Atlantic Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

mauleanum, Chirostoma Steindachner [F.] 1896:231 [Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien v. 11; ref. 14619] Maule River, Chile. Syntypes: NMW 16979 (1), 62506-07 (2, 1). •Valid as Cauque mauleanum (Steindachner 1896) -- (Pequeño 1989:51 [ref. 14125]). •Valid as Odontesthes (Cauque) mauleanum (Steindachner 1896) -- (Dyer 2000:85 [ref. 26678], Dyer 2000:108 [ref. 26677]). •Valid as Odontesthes mauleanum (Steindachner 1896) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Wingert et al. 2017:525 [ref. 35244]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes mauleanum (Steindachner 1896). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Central and southern Chile. Habitat: freshwater.

meeki, Thyrina Miller [N.] 1907:110, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 23 (art. 2); ref. 15160] Río Montagua, eastern coast of Guatemala. Holotype: CAS 47404 [ex IU 11214]. Paratypes: AMNH 1329 (1), 1385 (4), 1394 (2), 1414 (2); CAS 47434 [ex IU 11218] (4); FMNH 7934-35 (3, 4), 7963 (6), 7969 (1), 56177-80 (4, 5, 1, 3); NMW 84462-64 (3, 2, 2), 87599-603 (1, 5, 2, 4, 3); USNM 73935 (2), 73954-56 (1, 1, 5), 73965 (4); ZSM 10156 [ex NMW 87559] (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:83 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Atherinella meeki (Miller 1907) -- (Chernoff 1986:244 [ref. 5847], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella meeki (Miller 1907). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Central America: Atlantic slope, Guatemala and Honduas. Habitat: freshwater.

melanoccus, Chirostoma Álvarez [J.] 1963:127 [Anales de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México v. 12 (nos 1-4); ref. 901] Presa San Juanico, near Cotija, Michoacan, Mexico. Holotype: not researched. Paratypes: (75). •Valid as Chirostoma melanoccus Álvarez 1963 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:60 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:8 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Menidia melanoccus (Álvarez 1963) -- (Miller 2006:199 [ref. 28615]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma melanoccus Álvarez 1963. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

menidia, Atherina Linnaeus [C.] 1766:519 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina [South Carolina, U.S.A]; Jamaica (erroneous). No types known. Based on multiple sources, including the Menidia, corpore subpellucido ... of Browne 1756:441 [ref. 30188] [Jamaica], the 'Argentina linea lata argentea in lateribus' of Gronow 1763:112 [ref. 1910] [Jamaica], and the 'Silverfish' in a manuscript description by A. Garden [South Carolina]. Species name misspelled maenidia by Cuvier 1831:173 [ref. 30376]. •In part synonym of Anchoa hepsetus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead et al. 1988:355 [ref. 5725] in family Engraulidae). •Valid as Menidia menidia (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Lee et al. 1980:560 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:415 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:113 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:316 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:124 [ref. 14674], Murdy et al. 1997:131 [ref. 23144], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:164 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:153 [ref. 27754], Chernoff in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:282 [ref. 26158], Chernoff 2003:1103 [ref. 27017], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], García-Hernández et al. 2009:92 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:435 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Menidia menidia (Linnaeus 1766). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Northwestern Atlantic, including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

mezquital, Chirostoma Meek [S. E.] 1904:170, Fig. 53 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 5; ref. 2958] Río Mezquital at Durango, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 4389. Paratypes: ANSP 90855 (1), FMNH 4390 (7). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:24 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:23 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Chirostoma jordani Woolman 1894 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Menidia mezquital (Meek 1904) -- (Miller 2006:199 [ref. 28615]). •Valid as Chirostoma mezquital Meek 1904 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:60 [ref. 22290], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:8 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma mezquital Meek 1904. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Headwaters of Río Mezquital, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

michoacanae, Chirostoma de Buen [F.] 1940:14, Fig. 2 [Trabajos, Estación Limnologica de Patzcuaro No. 1; ref. 13594] Lake Pátzcuaro, Mexico. Holotype (unique): Estación Limnológica Pátzcuaro. •Synonym of Chirostoma estor Jordan 1880 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Chirostoma estor Jordan 1880. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

microather, Basilichthys Marrero y Galindez [A.] 1950:75, Fig. [Flechas de Plata, Atherínidos argentinos; ref. 5939] Río de La Plata and Paraná, Argentina. No types known. •Synonym of Odontesthes perugiae Evermann & Kendall 1906 -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:29 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:50 [ref. 35117], Wingert et al. 2017:503 [ref. 35244]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes perugiae Evermann & Kendall 1906. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.

microlepidota, Atherina Jenyns [L.] 1841:78, Pl. 16 (figs. 1, 1a, 1b) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Valparaíso, Chile, in fresh water. Syntypes: (2) UMZC [Darwin no. 1056] (1). •Valid as Basilichthys microlepidotus (Jenyns 1841) -- (Pequeño 1989:51 [ref. 14125], Dyer 1997:50 [ref. 23262], Dyer 1998:536 [ref. 23858], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:85 [ref. 26678], Dyer 2000:105 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:517 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Basilichthys microlepidotus (Jenyns 1841). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Husco River to Valparaiso, Chile. Habitat: freshwater.

microps, Atherina Poey [F.] 1860:266 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. Type catalog: Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35195]. •Valid as Melanorhinus microps (Poey 1860) -- (Chernoff 1986:245 [ref. 5847], Cervigón 1991:237 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:263 [ref. 23827], Collette et al. 2003:102 [ref. 26784], Chernoff 2003:1100 [ref. 27017], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Valid as Melanorhinus microps (Poey 1860). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Widespread in western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

milleri, Melaniris Bussing [W. A.] 1979:395, Fig. 1C [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 26 (no. 2); ref. 6973] Coastal lagoon near mouth of Río Colorado, Barra Colorado, Limón Province, Costa Rica. Holotype: LACM 37508-1. Paratypes: LACM 37508-2 (20), 37509-1 (2), 37510-1 (2); UCR (12 lots, 294, 3 c&s); UF (20 lots, 236), UF 11127 [ex UMML] (8), 216924 [ex UMML 16924] (1); UMMZ 180652 (15), 202346-47 (2, 2); USNM 218528 (20), 218531 (5). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:369 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Melaniris milleri Bussing 1979 -- (Villa 1982:139 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:160 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:243 [ref. 24179]). •Valid as Atherinella milleri (Bussing 1979) -- (Chernoff 1986:241 [ref. 5847], Chernoff 2003:1098 [ref. 27017], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:516 [ref. 27061], Matamoros et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31241], Angulo et al. 2013:995 [ref. 33194]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella milleri (Bussing 1979). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Central America, Atlantic slope: Colombia, Costa Rica and Honduras. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

mirinensis, Odontesthes Bemvenuti [M. de A.] 1996:885, Figs. 2-10 [Revista Brasileira de Zoologia v. 12 (no. 4) (for 1995); ref. 23178] Lagoa Mirim, junto a sede da Estação Ecológica do Taím, lagoon system of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 17696. Paratypes: FURG 88.002 (1), •Valid as Odontesthes mirinensis Bemvenuti 1996 -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Gállego et al. 1998:105 [ref. 25010], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Bemvenuti 2002:272 [ref. 26202], Malabarba & Dyer 2002:269 [ref. 26538], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27192] as miriniensis dating to 1995, Litz & Koerber 2014:29 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:41 [ref. 35565] with author as Benvenuti, Wingert et al. 2017:525 [ref. 35244]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes mirinensis Bemvenuti 1996. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Lagoa Mirim and Laguna dos Patos basins, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

molinae, Cauque Fowler [H. W.] 1940:183, Fig. 16 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 17232] Río Malleco, Angol, IX Región, Chile. Holotype: ANSP 69147. Paratypes: ANSP 69148 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:23 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Cauque molinae Fowler 1940 -- (Pequeño 1989:51 [ref. 14125]). •In genus Austromenidia -- (authors). •Synonym of Odontesthes mauleanum (Steindachner 1896) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer 2000:113 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes mauleanum (Steindachner 1896). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.

nepenthe, Nectarges Myers [G. S.] & Wade [C. B.] 1942:130, Pl. 19 [Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-40, Los Angeles v. 9 (no. 5); ref. 3134] Off Arroyo de San Luis, southern Baja California Sur, Mexico, 23°10'30"N, 109°27'45"W, at surface over bottom depth of 5 fathoms (9.1 meters). Holotype: CAS-SU 37060. Paratypes: LACM 20100 [ex CAS-SU 37061] (2), 21558 (1); CAS-SU 2689 (1), 37061 (orig. 10, now 7), 37062-63 (3, 1); USNM 119020 [ex CAS-SU 37061] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:67 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Atherinella nepenthe (Myers & Wade 1942) -- (Chernoff 1986:245 [ref. 5847], Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:896 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:60 [ref. 24545] as nephente, Pequeño 1997:82 [ref. 23536] as nephente, Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:195 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:195 [ref. 24550] as nephente, Dyer 2000:104 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:517 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:63 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:401 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella nepenthe (Myers & Wade 1942). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of Baja California Sur (Mexico) south to Peru, including southern Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

nesiotes, Nectarges Myers [G. S.] & Wade [C. B.] 1942:128, Pl. 18 [Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-40, Los Angeles v. 9 (no. 5); ref. 3134] Academy Bay, Indefatigable Island [Santa Cruz], Galápagos Islands. Holotype: LACM 21558 [ex AHF 17]. Paratypes: LACM 20036 (3), 30034 (1); CAS-SU 37058-59 (2, 1). Other original material: CAS 6039 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:67 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Atherinella nesiotes (Myers & Wade 1942) -- (Chernoff 1986:245 [ref. 5847], Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:894 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:271 [ref. 24023], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:517 [ref. 27061], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:400 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella nesiotes (Myers & Wade 1942). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Ecuador, Mexico and Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

nigricans, Atherina Richardson [J.] 1848:77, Pl. 42 (figs. 13-18) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Falkland Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1848.3.18.29. •Valid as Austromenidia nigricans (Richardson 1848) -- (Pequeño 1989:51 [ref. 14125]). •Valid as Austroatherina nigricans (Richardson 1848) -- (Lloris & Rucabado 1991:79 [ref. 22530]). •Valid as Odontesthes nigricans (Richardson 1848) -- (López et al. 1996:35 [ref. 23681], Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:112 [ref. 26677], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061], Dyer 2006:78 [ref. 30646], Wingert et al. 2017:525 [ref. 35244]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes nigricans (Richardson 1848). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Falkland Islands, straits of Magellan and Tierra del Fuego: Argentina, Chile and Falkland Islands. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nocturnus, Nectarges Myers [G. S.] & Wade [C. B.] 1942:133 [Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-40, Los Angeles v. 9 (no. 5); ref. 3134] Guayaquil, Ecuador. Holotype: USNM 88712. Paratypes: LACM 20037 [ex USNM 119019] (1), 20102 (1); CAS-SU 37064 (2); USNM 88713 (1), 119019 (now 22). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:67 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Nectarges nocturnus Myers & Wade 1942 -- (Pequeño 1989:51 [ref. 14125]). •Valid as Atherinella nocturna (Myers & Wade 1942) -- (Chernoff 1986:245 [ref. 5847], Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:894 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:195 [ref. 24555], Dyer 2000:104 [ref. 26677], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:401 [ref. 34894] as nocturana). Current status: Valid as Atherinella nocturna (Myers & Wade 1942). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile. Habitat: marine.

notata, Atherina Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:446, Pl. 4 (fig. 6) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Menidia menidia (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Smith 1986:416 [ref. 22186], Scott & Scott 1988:318 [ref. 25518], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:165 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Menidia menidia (Linnaeus 1766). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ocampoi, Chirostoma Álvarez [J.] 1963:197, Fig. 1 [Ciencia (Mexico City) v. 22 (no. 6); ref. 1003] Lake Zacapu, Zacapu, Michoacán, Mexico. Holotype: not researched. Paratypes: AMNH 20449 (2), BMNH 1963.4.1.2-3 (2), UANL 1010 [ex IPN P279] (2), UMMZ 180072 (2), USNM 197516 (2), + 19 more. Type catalog: Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:5-6 [ref. 23752]. •Synonym of Chirostoma humboldtianum (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Chirostoma humboldtianum (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

ocotlane, Chirostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1899:140, Fig. 18 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 [1899]; ref. 2501] Lake Chapala near Ocotlan, Jalisco, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 6160. Paratypes: BMNH 1900.9.29.61 (1) from Jordan, CAS-SU 6202 (7). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:66 [ref. 12291]. •Questionably the same as Chirostoma lucius Boulenger 1900 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061] as ocotlanae). Current status: Uncertain as Chirostoma chapalae Jordan & Snyder 1899. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

octavius, Basilichthys Abbott [J. F.] 1899:340 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 51; ref. 1] Callao, Peru. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6069. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:66 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Odontesthes regia (Humboldt 1821) -- (Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:218 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:117 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes regia (Humboldt 1821). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

oregonia, Atherinops Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1913:575, Pl. 46 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 45 (no. 1999); ref. 10660] Yachats River, Oregon, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 74762. •Synonym of Atherinops affinis (Ayres 1860) -- (Dyer 1997:47 [ref. 23262]). Current status: Synonym of Atherinops affinis (Ayres 1860). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

orientalis, Odontesthes de Buen [F.] 1950:149, Fig. 1 [Publicaciones Cientificas, Servicio Oceanografico y de Pesca, Ministerio de Industrias y Trabajo, Montevideo No. 3; ref. 12928] Bañado de Legrand, adjacent to the reservoir Rincón del Bonete, Río Negro, rio Uruguay basin, Uruguay. Holotype: MHNM CI 1808 [ex VT 1054]. Paratypes: (20, lost?). Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:7 [ref. 23527], Loureiro et al. 2016:413 [ref. 35150]. •Synonym of Basilichthys perugiai (Evermann & Kendall 1906) -- (authors). •Valid as Odontesthes orientalis de Buen 1950 -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Malabarba & Dyer 2002:269 [ref. 26538], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061], Nión et al. 2016:41 [ref. 35565]). •Synonym of Odontesthes perugiae Evermann & Kendall 1906 -- (Bemvenuti 2002:276 [ref. 26202], Wingert et al. 2017:511 [ref. 35244]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes perugiae Evermann & Kendall 1906. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.

pacanda, Chirostoma estor de Buen [F.] 1940:12 [Trabajos, Estación Limnologica de Patzcuaro No. 1; ref. 13594] Lake Pátzcuaro, Mexico. Holotype (unique): not researched. •Synonym of Chirostoma estor Jordan 1880 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Chirostoma estor Jordan 1880. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

pachylepis, Atherinichthys Günther [A.] 1864:25 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 4) (for 26 Jan. 1864); ref. 5752] Pacific coast of Panama. Syntypes: BMNH 1863.12.16.39-40 (2). Also appeared in Günther 1864:229 [ref. 1976]. •Valid as Melaniris pachylepis (Günther 1864) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:91 [ref. 22193]). •Valid as Atherinella pachylepis (Günther 1864) -- (Chernoff 1986:111 [ref. 5848], Chernoff 1986:243 [ref. 5847], Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:896 [ref. 22829], Bussing 1998:238 [ref. 24179], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:195 [ref. 24555], Dyer 2000:104 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:517 [ref. 27061], Matamoros et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31241], McMahan et al. 2013:446 [ref. 32422], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:401 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella pachylepis (Günther 1864). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: El Salvador south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pallida, Melaniris Fowler [H. W.] 1944:242, Fig. 130 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Santelmo Bay, Rey Island, Perlas Islands, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: ANSP 70033. Paratypes: ANSP 70034-46 (13). Type information: Böhlke 1984:24 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Eurystole pallida (Fowler 1944) -- (authors). •Valid as Atherinella pallida (Fowler 1944) -- (Chernoff 1986:245 [ref. 5847], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:517 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella pallida (Fowler 1944). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: (Pacific) Panama. Habitat: marine.

panamensis, Atherinella Steindachner [F.] 1875:477 [35] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71 (1. Abth.); ref. 4222] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): NMW 76439. On p. 35 of separate. •Valid as Atherinella panamensis Steindachner 1875 -- (Chernoff 1986:124 [ref. 5848], Chernoff 1986:243 [ref. 5847], Allen & Robertson 1994:91 [ref. 22193], Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:896 [ref. 22829], Dyer 2000:104 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:517 [ref. 27061], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella panamensis Steindachner 1875. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

patagonicus, Basilichthys Marrero y Galindez [A.] 1950:67, Fig. [Flechas de Plata, Atherínidos argentinos; ref. 5939] Río Limay, Río Negro, Argentina. No types known. •Synonym of Odontesthes hatcheri (Eigenmann 1909) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer 2000:109 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:50 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes hatcheri (Eigenmann 1909). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.

patagoniensis, Menidia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:280 [The fresh-water fishes of Patagonia v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 1223] No locality [? Punta Arenas, Strait of Magellan, Chile]. No types known. •Questionably a synonym of Odontesthes nigricans (Richardson 1848) -- (Dyer 1998:536 [ref. 23858], Dyer 2000:112 [ref. 26677]). •Questionably a synonym of Odontesthes smitti (Lahille 1929) -- (Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265]). •Synonym of Odontesthes smitti (Lahille 1929) -- (Dyer 2000:116 [ref. 26677]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes smitti (Lahille 1929). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: marine.

patzcuaro, Chirostoma Meek [S. E.] 1902:113, Pl. 27 lower [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 3 (no. 6); ref. 2957] Patzcuaro Lake at Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 3628. Paratypes: ANSP 90842 [ex FMNH] (1), FMNH 3629 (7, now 6), 72591 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:24 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:24 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Chirostoma patzcuaro Meek 1902 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:60 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:8 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Menidia patzcuaro (Meek 1902) -- (Miller 2006:200 [ref. 28615]). •Synonym of Chirostoma estor Jordan 1880 -- (Betancourt-Resendes et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37138]). Current status: Synonym of Chirostoma estor Jordan 1880. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

pellosemeion, Atherinella crystallina Chernoff [B.] 1986:180, Figs. 45, 53-57 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 138 (no. 1); ref. 5848] Río las Mancuernas 2 kilometers north-northwest of Mecatán on road to San Blas-Tepic highway, Nayarit, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 172020. Paratypes: ANSP 158519 (4); UMMZ 213591 (36, 5 c&s). •Valid as Atherinella pellosemeion Chernoff 1986 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:58 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:517 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27807] as pellosemion, Scharpf 2007:6 [ref. 30398] as pellosemion, Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708] as pellosemion). •Mention -- (Miller 2006:189 [ref. 28615]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella pellosemeion Chernoff 1986. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Río las Mancuernas drainage, Nayarit, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

peninsulae, Chirostoma Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1879:148 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 74); ref. 18134] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 21481. Paralectotypes: ?USNM 21870 (many), 218730 [ex 21481] (1). Lectotype selected by Chernoff et al. 1981:333 [ref. 5466]. •Valid as Menidia peninsulae (Goode & Bean 1879) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:112 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:90 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:889 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:197 [ref. 24550], Chernoff 2003:1103 [ref. 27017], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:200 [ref. 28615], Page et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Menidia peninsulae (Goode & Bean 1879). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) and Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: brackish, marine.

perugiae, Odontesthes Evermann [B. W.] & Kendall [W. C.] 1906:94, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 31 (no. 1482); ref. 1282] Probably from freshwater streams flowing south from the Sierras in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype (unique): USNM 55572. •Valid as Odontesthes perugiae Evermann & Kendall 1906 -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Gállego et al. 1998:105 [ref. 25010], Sverlij et al. 1998:74 [ref. 27632], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:108 [ref. 26677], Bemvenuti 2002:276 [ref. 26202] as aff. perugiae, Malabarba & Dyer 2002:269 [ref. 26538], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27366], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27192], Menni 2004:85 [ref. 28131], Litz & Koerber 2014:29 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:50 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:41 [ref. 35565], Wingert et al. 2017:503 [ref. 35244]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes perugiae Evermann & Kendall 1906. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Lower La Plata river basin: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

piquava, Odontesthes Malabarba [L. R.] & Dyer [B. S.] 2002:261, Figs. 2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 3); ref. 26538] Lagoa da Pinguela, Tramandaí, 29°49'00"S, 50°10'14"W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 26152. Paratypes: FMNH 103614 (2); MCP 21403 (8), 21405-06 (24, 25). •Valid as Odontesthes piquava Malabarba & Dyer 2002 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27192], Bertaco et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34561], Wingert et al. 2017:525 [ref. 35244]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes piquava Malabarba & Dyer 2002. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Coastal lagoons in northeastern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

platensis, Atherinichthys Berg [C.] 1895:27 [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires v. 4; ref. 261] Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Syntypes: MACN 5162 (1), 5195 (1). Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:6 [ref. 23527], Braga & Piacentino 1994:104 [ref. 23697]. •Valid as Odontesthes platensis (Berg 1895) -- (Dyer 1998:536 [ref. 23858], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:108 [ref. 26677], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061], Dyer 2006:78 [ref. 30646], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Nión et al. 2016:41 [ref. 35565], Wingert et al. 2017:525 [ref. 35244]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes platensis (Berg 1895). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

procera, Membras Chernoff [B.], Machado-Allison [A.], Escobedo [J.], Freiburger [M.], Henderson [E.], Hennessy [A.], Kohn [G.], Neri [N.], Parikh [A.], Scobell [S.], Silverstone [B.] & Young [E.] 2020:197, Fig. 3B [Zootaxa 4652 (no. 2); ref. 37775] Gulf of Urabá, Colombia, 8°17.0'N, 76°49.5'W. Holotype: ANSP 153427. Paratypes: ANSP 153428 (1), UMML 30095 (2). •Valid as Membras procera Chernoff, Machado-Allison, Escobedo, Freiburger, Henderson, Hennessy, Kohn, Neri, Parikh, Scobell, Silverstone & Young 2020. Current status: Valid as Membras procera Chernoff, Machado-Allison, Escobedo, Freiburger, Henderson, Hennessy et al. 2020. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Gulf of Urabá, Caribbean coast of eastern Colombia. Habitat: marine.

promelas, Chirostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1899:136, Fig. 14 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 [1899]; ref. 2501] Market at Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico (said to come from Laguna de Chapala). Holotype: CAS-SU 6156. Paratypes: USNM 61274 [?ex CAS-SU 6161] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:66 [ref. 12291]. Betancourt-Resendes et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37138] synonymized Chirostoma chapalae Jordan & Snyder 1899 and C. promelas Jordan & Snyder 1899, and gave peference to chapalae. •Valid as Chirostoma promelas Jordan & Snyder 1899 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:61 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:8 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Menidia promelas (Jordan & Snyder 1899) -- (Miller 2006:200 [ref. 28615]). •Synonym of Chirostoma chapalae Jordan & Snyder 1899 -- (Betancourt-Resendes et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37138]). Current status: Synonym of Chirostoma chapalae Jordan & Snyder 1899. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

propinquus, Basilichthys bonariensis var. Lahille [F.] 1929:320, Fig. 12 [Boletin del Ministerio de Agricultura de la Nación (Buenos Aires) 28 (no. 3) (for July-Sept. 1929); ref. 9887] Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. •Synonym of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Koerber & Litz 2014:5 [ref. 34967], Koerber & Litz 2016:6 [ref. 35098]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

puntanus, Basilichthys bonariensis var. Lahille [F.] 1929:305, Fig. 2 [Boletin del Ministerio de Agricultura de la Nación (Buenos Aires) 28 (no. 3) (for July-Sept. 1929); ref. 9887] Zallape, San Luis, Argentina. •Synonym of Odontesthes bonariensis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Dyer 2000:118 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Miller 2003:82 [ref. 27342], Litz & Koerber 2014:29 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:50 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes bonariensis (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pygmaea, Membras Chernoff [B.], Machado-Allison [A.], Escobedo [J.], Freiburger [M.], Henderson [E.], Hennessy [A.], Kohn [G.], Neri [N.], Parikh [A.], Scobell [S.], Silverstone [B.] & Young [E.] 2020:195, Figs. 3A, 4 [Zootaxa 4652 (no. 2); ref. 37775] Brus Lagoon off the town Brus Lagoon, Departamento Gracias a Dios, Honduras. Holotype: FMNH 117282. Paratypes: ANSP 153429 (5), FMNH 117283 (240). •Valid as Membras pygmaea Chernoff, Machado-Allison, Escobedo, Freiburger, Henderson, Hennessy, Kohn, Neri, Parikh, Scobell, Silverstone & Young 2020. Current status: Valid as Membras pygmaea Chernoff, Machado-Allison, Escobedo, Freiburger, Henderson, Hennessy et al. 2020. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Brus Lagoon, Departamento Gracias a Dios, Honduras. Habitat: marine.

regani, Chirostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Hubbs [C. L.] 1919:74 [Leland Stanford Jr. University Publications, University Series [1919]; ref. 2485] Xochimilco, Valley of Mexico, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 3687. Paratypes: CAS-SU 63603 (2); FMNH 43151 (3), 59536 (10). •Synonym of Chirostoma humboldtianum (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Chirostoma humboldtianum (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

regia, Atherina Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:388 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:321, 315 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Odontesthes perugiai Evermann & Kendall 1906. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Atherina regia Humboldt 1821. 1°Homonym. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae.

regia, Atherina Humboldt [F. H. A. von] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:187 [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] Near Lima, Peru. No types known. •Valid as Odontesthes regia (Humboldt 1821) -- (Dyer 1998:536 [ref. 23858], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:198 [ref. 24555], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:218 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:115 [ref. 26677], Nico 2001:151 [ref. 25828], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061], Wingert et al. 2017:525 [ref. 35244]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes regia (Humboldt 1821). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Chile and Peru. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

regillus, Basilichthys Abbott [J. F.] 1899:339 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 51; ref. 1] Callao, Peru. Holotype: CAS-SU 6071. Paratypes: (6) BMNH 1900.9.29.185 (1) from Jordan, CAS-SU 6072 (4), ?NMW 80047 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:66 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Odontesthes regia (Humboldt 1821) -- (Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:218 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:108, 117 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes regia (Humboldt 1821). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

regis, Atherinops Jenkins [O. P.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1889:138 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 698); ref. 2342] Guaymas Bay, Sonora, western Mexico. Holotype: USNM 39632. Paratypes: CAS 79541 [ex IU 7747] (4), CAS-SU 417 (5), USNM (many). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:65 [ref. 12291]. Apparently regis and not regius was the original intended spelling. •Valid as Atherinops regius Jenkins & Evermann 1889 -- (Fuller et al. 1999:280 [ref. 25838]). •Valid as Colpichthys regis (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Crabtree 1989:560 [ref. 12738], Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:899 [ref. 22829], Dyer 1997:47 [ref. 23262], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:63 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:199 [ref. 24550], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Colpichthys regis (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Gulf of California, Mexico. Habitat: marine.

regius, Cyprinus Molina [J. I.] 1782:225 [Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile, del Signor Abate Giovanni Ignazio Molina.; ref. 17783] Rivers of Chile. No types known. Nomen Dubium. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.

reseratum, Chirostoma Álvarez [J.] 1963:130 [Anales de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México v. 12 (nos 1-4); ref. 901] Presa San Juanico, near Cotija, Michoacan, Mexico. Holotype: not researched. Paratypes: (250) UANL 1009 [ex IPN P556] (4). Type catalog: Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:6 [ref. 23752]. •Synonym of Chirostoma consocium Jordan & Hubbs 1919, but a valid subspecies -- (Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:6 [ref. 23752]). •Valid as Chirostoma reseratum Álvarez 1963 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061], Scharpf 2007:7 [ref. 30398] as a valid subspecies). •Synonym of Menidia consocia (Jordan & Hubbs 1919), but a valid subspecies reseratum (Álvarez 1963) -- (Miller 2006:195 [ref. 28615]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma reseratum Álvarez 1963. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Presa San Juanico, central Mexico [this subspecies]. Habitat: freshwater.

retropinnis, Yaci de Buen [F.] 1953:52, Figs. 31-33 [Boletim do Instituto Oceanografico, São Paulo v. 4 (no. 1-2); ref. 694] Embalse del Río Negro, Durazno, Uruguay. Holotype: MHNM CI 1809 [ex VT 1048]. Paratypes: (1). Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:7 [ref. 23527], Loureiro et al. 2016:413 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Odontesthes retropinnis (de Buen 1953) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Gállego et al. 1998:105 [ref. 25010], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:108 [ref. 26677], Bemvenuti 2002:280 [ref. 26202], Malabarba & Dyer 2002:269 [ref. 26538], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27366], Menezes et al. in Menezes et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27192], Menni 2004:85 [ref. 28131], Dyer 2006:76 [ref. 30646], Litz & Koerber 2014:29 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:50 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:42 [ref. 35565], Wingert et al. 2017:525 [ref. 35244]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes retropinnis (de Buen 1953). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: La Plata and Uruguay River basins and Lagoa Mirim basin: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

rex, Kronia de Buen [F.] 1953:64, Figs. 38-41 [Boletim do Instituto Oceanografico, São Paulo v. 4 (no. 1-2); ref. 694] La Paloma, Depto. de Rocha, Uruguay. Holotype: MHNM CI 1803 [ex VT 1050]. Paratypes: (4). Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:6 [ref. 23527], Loureiro et al. 2016:413 [ref. 35150]. •Synonym of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858], Bemvenuti 2002:256 [ref. 26202], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Koerber & Litz 2014:5 [ref. 34967], Koerber & Litz 2016:6 [ref. 35098]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

riojai, Chirostoma Solórzano [A.] & López [Y.] 1966:145, Fig. 1 [Ciencia (Mexico City) v. 24 (nos 3-4) (for 25 Aug. 1965); ref. 9067] Laguna de Santiago Tilapa, Mexico. Holotype: INIBP. Paratypes: (48) BMNH 1966.11.18.1-2 (2); TU 40173 (2); UMMZ 185387 (2). Type catalog: Suttkus 1970:125 [ref. 20861], Bart & Taylor 1993:53 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Chirostoma riojai Solórzano & López 1966 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:61 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:8 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Menidia riojai (Solórzano & López 1966) -- (Miller 2006:201 [ref. 28615]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma riojai Solórzano & López 1966. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Río Lerma basin, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

robbersi, Adenops Fowler [H. W.] 1950:5, Figs. 5-9 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 222; ref. 12947] Totumo Lake, Bolívar state, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 71941. Paratypes: ANSP 71942 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:24 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Atherinella robbersi (Fowler 1950) -- (Chernoff 1986:241 [ref. 5847], Chernoff 2003:1099 [ref. 27017], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:517 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella robbersi (Fowler 1950). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Totumo Lake, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

sallei, Atherinichthys Regan [C. T.] 1903:60 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1903, v. 2 (pt 1) (art. 4) (for 12 May 1903); ref. 3615] Mexico. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.6.17.47. •Valid as Archomenidia sallei (Regan 1903) -- (Chernoff & Miller 1982:436 [ref. 8494]). •Valid as Atherinella sallei (Regan 1903) -- (Chernoff 1986:244 [ref. 5847], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:58 [ref. 22290], Dyer 2000:104 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:517 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:190 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:6 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708], López-Segovia et al. 2020:111 [ref. 38151]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella sallei (Regan 1903). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Southern North America: Atlantic Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

samani, Chirostoma Terron [C. C.] 1931:241, Figs. 2-4 [Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad de Mexico v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 16336] Mexico. Holotype: MNHNM (not researched). Paratypes: (several) MNHNM. •Synonym of Chirostoma attenuatum Meek 1902 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Chirostoma attenuatum Meek 1902. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

sardina, Atherina Jenkins [O. P.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1889:137 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 698); ref. 2342] Guaymas, Sonora, western Mexico. Holotype: USNM 39633. Paratypes: USNM (2). •Valid as Leuresthes sardina (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:900 [ref. 22829], Dyer 1997:48 [ref. 23262], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:63 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:197 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:282 [ref. 25838], Thomson et al. 2000:287 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Leuresthes sardina (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

sardina, Melaniris Meek [S. E.] 1907:114 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 2959] Lake Managua at Managua, Nicaragua. Holotype: FMNH 5937. Paratypes: ANSP 90841 [ex FMNH] (5); FMNH 5936 (orig. 394), 52269 (now 0); UMMZ 162483 [ex FMNH 52269] (12); USNM 133087 (15). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:56 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:24 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Melaniris sardina Meek 1907 -- (Villa 1982:141 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:161 [ref. 22927]). •Valid as Atherinella sardina (Meek 1907) -- (Chernoff 1986:243 [ref. 5847], Bussing 1998:244 [ref. 24179], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:517 [ref. 27061], Angulo et al. 2013:995 [ref. 33194], Morgenstern 2018:256 [ref. 36331]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella sardina (Meek 1907). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Habitat: freshwater.

schultzi, Xenatherina Álvarez [J.] & Carranza [J.] 1952:286, Fig. 3 [Ciencia (Mexico City) v. 11 (nos 10-12) 1951; ref. 12633] Santa María Chimalapa, Arroyo El Zacatal, Oaxaca, southeastern Mexico. Holotype: not researched. Paratypes: (154) CAS-SU 17488 (5), UMMZ 163239 (6), USNM 162501 (27). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:68 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Atherinella schultzi (Álvarez & Carranza 1952) -- (Chernoff 1986:244 [ref. 5847], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:58 [ref. 22290], Chernoff 2003:1099 [ref. 27017], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:517 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:191 [ref. 28615], Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708], López-Segovia et al. 2020:111 [ref. 38151]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella schultzi (Álvarez & Carranza 1952). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Southern North America: Atlantic Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

semotilus, Protistius Cope [E. D.] 1874:66 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 26; ref. 933] Andes, Peru, elevation 12000 feet. Holotype (unique): ANSP 14404. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:24 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Basilichthys semotilus (Cope 1874) -- (Pequeño 1989:51 [ref. 14125], Dyer 1997:50 [ref. 23262], Dyer 1998:536 [ref. 23858], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:85 [ref. 26678] as cf. semotilus, Dyer 2000:105 [ref. 26677], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061], Reis et al. 2016:17 [ref. 34496]). Current status: Valid as Basilichthys semotilus (Cope 1874). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: (Pacific slope) Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

serrivomer, Atherinella Chernoff [B.] 1986:120, Fig. 20 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 138 (no. 1); ref. 5848] Estero de Puerto Pizarro, opposite Estero Jeli, Tumbes, Peru. Holotype: ANSP 15895. Paratypes: ANSP 15896 (1), 15897 (3 c&s); CAS-SU 9318 (1); GCRL 12605 (32); LACM W51-246 (1); USNM 280196 (5). •Valid as Atherinella serrivomer Chernoff 1986 -- (Chernoff 1986:243 [ref. 5847], Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:897 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:195 [ref. 24555], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:517 [ref. 27061], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:401 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella serrivomer Chernoff 1986. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sicculum, Chirostoma Cope [E. D.] 1865:81 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 17; ref. 907] Detroit River at Grosse Isle, Wayne County, Michigan, U.S.A. Cope specimens or possible syntypes: UMMZ 213812 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:24 [ref. 13621]; see also Fowler 1918:43 [ref. 11665]. •Valid as Labidesthes sicculus (Cope 1865) -- (Lee et al. 1980:557 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:269 [ref. 22186], Robison & Buchanan 1988:342 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:124 [ref. 14674], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:157 [ref. 24089], Burkhead & Jenkins 1991:372 [ref. 21804], Page & Burr 1991:240 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:89 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:375 [ref. 22809], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:602 [ref. 21581], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Stauffer et al. 1995:247 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:181 [ref. 23394], Mettee et al. 1996:485 [ref. 25836], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:885 [ref. 23897], Scott & Crossman 1998:652 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:281 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:42 [ref. 26594], Ross et al. 2001:383 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Bailey et al. 2004:166 [ref. 27882], Miller & Robison 2004:281 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:370 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2007:8 [ref. 30398] with subspecies, Page & Burr 2011:422 [ref. 31215] with 2 subspecies, Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708], Werneke & Armbruster 2015:538 [ref. 34000]). Current status: Valid as Labidesthes sicculus (Cope 1865). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Northern Canada and eastern middle U.S.A. to near the Gulf Coast, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

smitti, Basilichthys Lahille [F.] 1929:328, Fig. 23 [Boletin del Ministerio de Agricultura de la Nación (Buenos Aires) 28 (no. 3) (for July-Sept. 1929); ref. 9887] Gulf of San Matías, Argentina. No types known. •Valid as Odontesthes smitti (Lahille 1929) -- (Dyer 1998:536 [ref. 23858], Dyer & Gosztonyi 1999:215 [ref. 24265], Dyer 2000:108, 115 [ref. 26677], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:86 [ref. 25942], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061], Nión et al. 2016:42 [ref. 35565], Wingert et al. 2017:525 [ref. 35244]). Current status: Valid as Odontesthes smitti (Lahille 1929). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Uruguay, Argentina and Chile. Habitat: marine.

sonorae, Atherinopsis Osburn [R. C.] & Nichols [J. T.] 1916:156, Fig. 8 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 35 (art. 16); ref. 15062] Cedros Island, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 87544 [ex AMNH 5211]. Paratypes: AMNH 20311 (2). •Synonym of Atherinopsis californiensis Girard 1854 -- (Dyer 1997:48 [ref. 23262]). Current status: Synonym of Atherinopsis californiensis Girard 1854. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: marine.

sphyraena, Chirostoma Boulenger [G. A.] 1900:55 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 5 (no. 25) (art. 5); ref. 14717] Lake Chapala, Mexico. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1892.2.8.75. •Valid as Menidia sphyraena (Boulenger 1900) -- (Miller 2006:201 [ref. 28615]). •Valid as Chirostoma sphyraena Boulenger 1900 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:61 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:8 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708], Betancourt-Resendes et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37138]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma sphyraena Boulenger 1900. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: North America: Lerma River basin (Mexico). Habitat: freshwater.

squamata, Poblana alchichica Álvarez [J.] 1950:96 [Anales de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México v. 6 (nos 1-4) (for 1949); ref. 20547] Crater-lake of Quechulac, about 6.5 kilometers southeast of Alchichica, Puebla, Mexico, elevation 2365 meters. Holotype: not researched. Paratypes: (79) AMNH 36441 (9), UANL 1012 [ex IPN P162] (5), UMMZ 160728 (12). Type catalog: Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:6 [ref. 23752]. •Valid as Poblana squamata Álvarez 1950 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:62 [ref. 22290], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:99 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:9 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32708]). •Mention -- (Miller 2006:191 [ref. 28615]). Current status: Valid as Poblana squamata Álvarez 1950. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Crater-lake of Quechulac, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

starksi, Menidia Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:267, Pl. 20 (fig. 2) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Taboga Island, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: USNM 79732. Paratypes: FMNH 8308 (4); USNM 79733 (3), 81747 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:56 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Coleotropis starksi (Meek & Hildebrand 1923) -- (Gilbert & Caldwell 1967:5 [ref. 21336]). •Valid as Atherinella starksi (Meek & Hildebrand 1923) -- (Chernoff 1986:244 [ref. 5847], Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:897 [ref. 22829], Dyer 2000:104 [ref. 26677], González-Murcia et al. 2019:296 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella starksi (Meek & Hildebrand 1923). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: El Salvador south to Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

storeri, Atherina Ayres [W. O.] 1854:170 [The Pacific [newspaper] v. 3 and 4 (thru no. 6); ref. 157] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. •Synonym of Atherinopsis californiensis Girard 1854. Current status: Synonym of Atherinopsis californiensis Girard 1854. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: marine.

tecuena, Chirostoma estor de Buen [F.] 1940:13 [Trabajos, Estación Limnologica de Patzcuaro No. 1; ref. 13594] Lake Pátzcuaro, Mexico. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Chirostoma estor Jordan 1880 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:518 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Chirostoma estor Jordan 1880. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

tenuis, Atherinopsis Ayres [W. O.] 1860:75, Fig. 19 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 2; ref. 17942] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Leuresthes tenuis (Ayres 1860) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:118 [ref. 9277], Swift et al. 1993:131 [ref. 22379], Lavenberg & Chernoff in Fischer et al. 1995:900 [ref. 22829], Dyer 1997:48 [ref. 23262], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:63 [ref. 24545], Ruiz-Campos et al. 2000:70 [ref. 24940], Nelson et al. 2004:98 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:63 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:116 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:54 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Leuresthes tenuis (Ayres 1860). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: norhtern California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of Baja California Sur (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

thomasii, Menidia Meinken [H.] 1931:377, fig. [Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 42 (no. 24); ref. 16305] Uruguay. Syntypes: (2) ?KHMM. •Synonym of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Koerber & Litz 2014:5 [ref. 34967], Koerber & Litz 2016:6 [ref. 35098]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

uruguayensis, Menidia Devincenzi [G. J.] 1924:205, Pl. 14 (lowest fig.) [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Montevideo (Serie 2) v. 1 (pt 5); ref. 15442] Río de la Plata, Montevideo, Uruguay. Holotype (unique): MHNM CI 1804. Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:6 [ref. 23527], Loureiro et al. 2016:413 [ref. 35150] as syntypes. •Synonym of Austroatherina incisa (Jenyns 1841) -- (authors). •Synonym of Odontesthes incisa (Jenyns 1841) -- (Dyer 1998:536 [ref. 23858], Bemvenuti 2002:256 [ref. 26202], Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:521 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:29 [ref. 33622]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes incisa (Jenyns 1841). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

vagrans, Chirostoma Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1879:148 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 74); ref. 18134] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 22848. Paralectotypes: USNM 22864 (2). Lectotype established by Jordan & Evermann 1896:795 [ref. 2443]. •Valid as Membras vagrans (Goode & Bean 1879) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:191 [ref. 24550], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407]). •Synonym of Membras martinica (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Miller 2006: 202 [ref. 28615]). Current status: Synonym of Membras martinica (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

vanhyningi, Labidesthes Bean [B. A.] & Reid [E. D.] 1930:193 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 43; ref. 16052] Prairie Creek, 6 miles east of Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 88485. Paratypes: (possibly involving mixups) USNM 273310 [ex USNM 88485] (3), UF 18943 [ex FSM 41780] (5); non-types: USNM 88486 [ex FSM 41799] (2), UF (2, lost), FSM 44276 (3, lost). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:114 [ref. 21035] as UF 18943 (5). •Synonym of Labidesthes sicculus (Cope 1865) but a valid subspecies -- (Scharpf 2007:8 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:422 [ref. 31215]). •Valid as Labidesthes vanhyningi Bean & Reid 1930 -- (Werneke & Armbruster 2015:542 [ref. 34000], Robins et al. 2018:184 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Labidesthes vanhyningi Bean & Reid 1930. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Southeastern U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

venezuelae, Menidia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1920:12 [Indiana University Studies v. 7 (no. 44); ref. 11120] Río Tapa (tributary of Lake Valencia) at Tapa, Venezuela. Syntypes: CAS 78952 [ex IU 15144] (15, now 12). •Valid as Atherinella venezuelae (Eigenmann 1920) -- (Chernoff 1986:241 [ref. 5847]). Current status: Valid as Atherinella venezuelae (Eigenmann 1920). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Tapa River basin, Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

viridescens, Atherina Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:447 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Menidia menidia (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Smith 1986:416 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Menidia menidia (Linnaeus 1766). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vomerina, Atherina Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:481 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Lake near Mexico City, Mexico. Holotype (unique): ZMB 1888. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:722 [ref. 21541], Paepke & Seegers 1986:177 [ref. 19981]. •Synonym of Chirostoma humboldtianum (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Chirostoma humboldtianum (Valenciennes 1835). Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

wiebrichi, Cauque Eigenmann [C. H.] 1928:58, Pl. 14 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences v. 22 (no. 2); ref. 1245] Valdivia market, X Región, Chile. Holotype (unique): CAS 49902 [ex IU 15198, not 15202]. •Valid as Cauque wiebrichi Eigenmann 1928 -- (Pequeño 1989:51 [ref. 14125]). •Valid or possible hybrid between Odontesthes brevianalis (Günther 1880) x Odontesthes regia (Humboldt 1821) -- (Dyer 1998:535 [ref. 23858]). •Synonym of Odontesthes brevianalis (Günther 1880) or possible hybrid between Odontesthes brevianalis (Günther 1880) x Odontesthes regia (Humboldt 1821) -- (Dyer 2000:113 [ref. 26677]). •Valid or possible hybrid between O. brevianalis and O. regia -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:522 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Odontesthes brevianalis (Günther 1880). Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Valdivia, Chile. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

yucuman, Odontesthes Wingert [J. M.], Ferrer [J.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2017:514, Figs. 4b, 5b, 7b, 8b, 9b, 10b, 11b, 16-18, 22 [Zootaxa 4250 (no. 6); ref. 35244] Rio Passo Fundo, downstream of the Monjolinho Hydroelectric Power Plant, Nonoai, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 27°20'44"S, 52°43'52"W. Holotype: UFRGS 21310. Paratypes: MCN, MCP, UFRGS. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Odontesthes yucuman Wingert, Ferrer & Malabarba 2017. Current status: Valid as Odontesthes yucuman Wingert, Ferrer & Malabarba 2017. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae. Distribution: Upper rio Uruguay and rio Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

yulus, Cyprinus Molina [J. I.] 1782:346 [Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile, del Signor Abate Giovanni Ignazio Molina.; ref. 17783] See Cyprinus julus Molina 1782. Misspelling. Atherinopsidae: Atherinopsinae.

zirahuen, Chirostoma Meek [S. E.] 1902:114, Pl. 28 top [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 3 (no. 6); ref. 2957] Zirahuén Lake at Zirahuén, Michoacan, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 3609. Paratypes: ANSP 90854 (2); FMNH 72558 (3), 96301 (26); CAS-SU 9409 (8); UMMZ 162468 [ex FMNH 3609A] (5); USNM 55780 (8). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:24 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:24 [ref. 13621]. •Mention -- (Miller 2006:192 [ref. 28615]). •Synonym of Chirostoma attenuatum Meek 1902, but a valid subspecies -- (Scharpf 2007:7 [ref. 30398]). •Valid as Chirostoma zirahuen Meek 1902 -- (Dyer in Reis et al. 2003:519 [ref. 27061], Betancourt-Resendes et al. 2018:330 [ref. 37172]). Current status: Valid as Chirostoma zirahuen Meek 1902. Atherinopsidae: Menidiinae. Distribution: Zirahuén Lake, Michoacan, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.


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