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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Trachinotus: [ 64 ] records


affinis, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:428 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Malabar coast, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-575 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:27 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Trachinotus mookalee Cuvier 1832. Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus mookalee Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

africanus, Trachinotus Smith [J. L. B.] 1967:160, Pls. 34, 35 [Occasional Papers of the Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 14; ref. 7994] Knysna, Cape Province, South Africa. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 11075 (lost). Paratypes: (7) SAIAB 11036 (2). Holotype lost according to M. Eric Anderson, pers. comm., July 2005. •Valid as Trachinotus africanus Smith 1967 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:658 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:319 [ref. 6207], Randall 1995:187 [ref. 22896], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2743 [ref. 24833], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:313 [ref. 28072], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Allen & Erdmann 2012:439 [ref. 31980], Hussain & Jawad 2014:257 [ref. 33657], Psomadakis et al. 2015:229 [ref. 34104], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2019:27 [ref. 36875], Zajonz et al. 2019:76 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:432 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus africanus Smith 1967. Carangidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: South Africa, East Africa and Socotra east to Bali (Indonesia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

anak, Trachinotus Ogilby [J. D.] 1909:19 [Report of the Marine Department Queensland (1908-1909) Appendix 5; ref. 19341] Deep water off Moreton Bay and Great Sandy Strait, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: QM I.5005 (1 dry, mounted), plus 1 destroyed [Great Sandy Strait]. •Valid as Trachinotus anak Ogilby 1909 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:585 [ref. 12442], Larson & Williams 1997:358 [ref. 23967], Lin & Shao 1999:65 [ref. 23921], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2744 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:735 [ref. 25471], Hoese & Gates 2006:1169 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Larson et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32988], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2019:27 [ref. 36875]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus anak Ogilby 1909. Carangidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Eastern and northern Australia, South China Sea and southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

angustus, Trachynotus Reichenow [A.] 1876:147 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1875 (for 21 Dec. 1875); ref. 18612] Loango, West Africa. Syntypes: ?ZMB 9134 (4) Chinchoxo. •Possible synonym of Trachinotus maxillosus Cuvier 1832 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:750 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Uncertain as Trachinotus maxillosus Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

argenteus, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:413 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] New York, U.S.A.; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-6797 (1) Rio de Janeiro, MNHN uncat. (1, not found) New York. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:28 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ascensionis, Scomber Shaw [G.] 1803:593 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Ascension Island. ▌Unneeded new name for Scomber glaucus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758) Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

auratus, Trachinotus Richardson [J.] 1846:270 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Macao, Canton, China. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type information: Whitehead 1970:213 [ref. 11606]. •Valid as Trachinotus auratus Richardson 1846 -- (Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826] with question). •Synonym of Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz pers. comm. 29 June 2016). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

baillonii, Caesiomorus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:92, 93, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Locality not stated [is Fort Dauphin, near Tôlanaro, southeastern Madagascar]. No types preserved. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:36 [ref. 12247]. Based on description and figure in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:39, 40 (vol. 8) [ref. 30473]. •Valid as Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Dor 1984:131 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:154 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:658 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:319 [ref. 6207], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:585 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:35 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:168 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:188 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:455 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], Reinthal & Stiassny 1997:354 [ref. 22780], Carpenter et al. 1997:166 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:67 [ref. 26476] dated 1802, Kuiter 1997:164 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:168 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:65 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:142 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:257 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2745 [ref. 24833], Allen 2000:88 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:795 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:239 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:108 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:795 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:326, 607 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:625 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:71 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3323 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:315 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:238 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:1169 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:58 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:126 [ref. 30425], Motomura et al. 2010:117 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:439 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32988] as bailloni, Fricke et al. 2014:83 [ref. 33932], Hussain & Jawad 2014:254 [ref. 33657], Psomadakis et al. 2015:230 [ref. 34104], Koeda et al. 2016:38 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:6 [ref. 35354], Ali et al. 2018:324 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:187 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:86 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:106 [ref. 36262], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:138 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:218 [ref. 36495], Eagderi et al. 2019:52 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:149 [ref. 36673], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2019:11 [ref. 36875], Zajonz et al. 2019:76 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:433 [ref. 37272], Kimura in Motomura et al. 2021:30 [ref. 38121]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to northern Line Islands and Gambier Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: brackish, marine.

binotatus, Centronotus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:43, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:19 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:383 [ref. 7198], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:321 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:750 [ref. 18644], Parenti 2019:102 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

blochii, Caesiomorus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:92, 95, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Locality not stated [is Fort Dauphin, near Tôlanaro, southeastern Madagascar]. No types preserved. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:36 [ref. 12247]. Based on description and figure in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:39, 40 (vol. 8) [ref. 30473]. •Valid as Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:225 [ref. 19754] as blochi, Dor 1984:131 [ref. 29757], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:154 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:659 [ref. 5718], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:320 [ref. 6207], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:585 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:168 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:178 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:188 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:457 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:166 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:164 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:168 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:65 [ref. 23921], Myers 1999:142 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:257 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2746 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:735 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:795 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:239 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:109 [ref. 25480], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:199 [ref. 27511] with author as Cuvier, Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:795 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830] as blochi, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:626 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3323 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:314 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:238 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:1169 [ref. 28997], Fricke 2008:33 [ref. 30182], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:58 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:117 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:440 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:259 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:83 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:230 [ref. 34104], Koeda et al. 2016:38 [ref. 35333], Ali et al. 2018:324 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:188 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:86 [ref. 36273], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:139 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:52 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:149 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:76 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:433 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Marshall Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

botla, Scomber Shaw [G.] 1803:591 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Vizagapatam, India. Neotype: CAS-SU 14445. The name is available, based primarily on Russel's Fig. 142. Neotype designated by Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2019:21 [ref. 36875]. •Synonym of Trachinotus russelii Cuvier 1832 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:322 [ref. 6207] as not available). •Valid as Trachinotus botla (Shaw 1803) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:659 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:586 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:168 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:188 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:168 [ref. 25919], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2747 [ref. 24833], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:201 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:314 [ref. 28072], Hoese & Gates 2006:1170 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Smith-Vaniz & Carpenter 2014:[3] 545 [ref. 33922], Psomadakis et al. 2015:230 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:188 [ref. 35805], Suresh et al. 2018:219 [ref. 36495], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2019:17 [ref. 36875], Zajonz et al. 2019:76 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:433 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus botla (Shaw 1803). Carangidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: South Africa, East Africa, Madagascar and Socotra east to east coast of India, Myanmar and Western Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

carolina, Lichia DeKay [J. E.] 1842:114, Pl. 10 (fig. 30) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Off Sandyhook, New Jersey, U.S.A. Holotype: Cabinet of the Lyceum (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

carolinensis, Gasterosteus Shaw [G.] 1803:608 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Apparently a new name for, or unjustified emendation of (and objective synonym of) Gasterosteus carolinus Linnaeus 1766. •Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

carolinus, Gasterosteus Linnaeus [C.] (ex Garden) 1766:490 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina [South Carolina, U.S.A.]. Holotype (unique): Linn. Soc. Lond. 136 (right half-skin). Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:203 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1985:56 [ref. 20705]. Spelled carolinensis in Shaw 1803:608 [ref. 4014]. Based on 'Crevalle' in manuscript description and 1 specimen sent by A. Garden [South Carolina]. •Valid as Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:164 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:134 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:294 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:102 [ref. 24474], Murdy et al. 1997:172 [ref. 23144], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:279 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:247 [ref. 25013], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:399 [ref. 24427], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1463 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:299 [ref. 28815], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Di Dario et al. 2013:263 [ref. 37503], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Catelani et al. 2014:932 [ref. 37496], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Marceniuk et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35324], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36103], Carneiro et al. 2019:256 [ref. 37250]Ribeiro et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; northeastern Atlantic: Azores. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cayennensis, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:417 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Cayenne, French Guiana. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6840. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:28 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Trachinotus cayennensis Cuvier 1832 -- (Cervigón 1992:294 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:82 [ref. 24474] as cayenensis, Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:399 [ref. 24427] as cayanensis, Keith et al. 2000:104 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1464 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus cayennensis Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

columbarius, Gasterosteus Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:7 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly an unpublished work. See also Gasterosteus columbarius Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Machado 1857:24 [ref. 17320]. •In the synonymy of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae.

columbarius, Gasterosteus Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Machado 1857:24 [Catálogo de los peces que habitán ó frecuentan las costas de Cadiz y Huelva con inclusion de los del Rio Guadalquivir.; ref. 17320] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. No types known. Name only; not available. Name from Cabrera 1817 [ref. 17319], apparently an unpublished work. Authorship see Graells 1887:141 [ref. 30438]. Also appeared as name only in Graells 1887:181 [ref. 30438]. •In the synonymy of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae.

coppingeri, Trachynotus Günther [A.] 1884:29, Pl. 3 (fig. A) [Reptilia, Batrachia, and Pisces 1884; ref. 14389] Percy Island, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: BMNH 1881.10.12.44. Original genus should have been Trachinotus. •Valid as Trachinotus coppingeri Günther 1884 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:586 [ref. 12442], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2748 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:735 [ref. 25471], Hoese & Gates 2006:1170 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2019:21 [ref. 36875]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus coppingeri Günther 1884. Carangidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Eastern Australia, Lord Howe and Norfolk islands. Habitat: marine.

culveri, Trachinotus Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:439, Pl. 36 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Astillero at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: CAS-SU 2691. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.118 (1) [from Jordan], CAS-SU 2691 (2, incl. lectotype). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:75 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 147, p. 3265 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Synonym of Trachinotus kennedyi Steindachner 1875 -- (Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:980 [ref. 22829] as cuvieri, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:280 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus kennedyi Steindachner 1875. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cupreus, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:414 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2791 (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:28 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cuvieri, Trachynotus Wakiya [Y.] 1924:220 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 15 (nos 2-3); ref. 4570] Misaki, Japan. No types known. •Synonym of Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:320 [ref. 6207], Hussain & Jawad 2014:255 [ref. 33657], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2019:12 [ref. 36875]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

drepanis, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:429 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Seychelles. Syntypes: MNHN A-0574 (3). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:28 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

falcatus, Labrus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:284 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America. No types known. •Valid as Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:164 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:134 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:294 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:105 [ref. 24474], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:152 [ref. 22947], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Murdy et al. 1997:174 [ref. 23144], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:246 [ref. 25013], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:278 [ref. 24550], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:399 [ref. 24427], Keith et al. 2000:106 [ref. 24547], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1465 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:300 [ref. 28815], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Di Dario et al. 2013:263 [ref. 37503], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Catelani et al. 2014:932 [ref. 37496], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:49 [ref. 33341], Marceniuk et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35324], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36717], Robertson et al. 2020:152 [ref. 38098]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

falcatus, Scomber Forsskål [P. S.] in Niebuhr 1775:57, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; [Lohajæ] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Syntypes: NRM 16675 (1, dry); ZMUC P46443-45 (2, dry skins). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:62 [ref. 9588]. Not available, as not intended as a species separate from Linnaeus 1758, but a misidentification (see Fricke 2008:33 [ref. 30182]). Authorship according to Fricke 2008:33 [ref. 30182]. Subsequent usage by Bonnaterre 1788:142 [ref. 4940] and other authors also is not available. •In the synonymy Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Dor 1984:131 [ref. 29757], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:320 [ref. 6207], Hoese & Gates 2006:1169 [ref. 28997], Fricke 2008:33 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae.

falciger, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:428 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Malabar coast, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6377 (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:28 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fasciatus, Trachynotus Gill [T. N.] 1863:86 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1679] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM. •Synonym of Trachinotus rhodopus Gill 1863. Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus rhodopus Gill 1863. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:410 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-5505 (1, dry), A-6849 (1), A-6850 (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:28 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

glaucoides, Trachynotus Günther [A.] 1864:150 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] San José, Guatemala. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.323. •Synonym of Trachinotus rhodopus Gill 1863. Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus rhodopus Gill 1863. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

glaucus, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] 1787:102, Pl. 210 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] America [Martinique Island, West Indies]. On p. 76 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. Based on a drawing by Plumier. •Valid as Trachinotus glaucus (Bloch 1787) -- (López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Nión et al. 2016:47 [ref. 35565]). •Synonym of Trachinotus goodei Jordan & Evermann 1896 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:246 [ref. 25013], Smith-Vaniz pers. comm. 7/26/09). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus goodei Jordan & Evermann 1896. Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

glaucus, Gasterosteus Forster [J. R.] 1795:15 [Zoologia Indica, sistens descriptiones animalium selectorum; ref. 18091] No types known. India. Name only. Based on Chaetodon glaucus Bloch, 1787. •Synonym of Trachinotus glacus (Bloch 1787). •Synonym of Trachinotus goodei Jordan & Evermann 1896 based on placement of Chaetodon glaucus. Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus goodei Jordan & Evermann 1896. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

glaucus, Scomber Linnaeus [C.] 1758:298 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Ascension Island, Atlantic. Holotype: NRM 4080. See Smith-Vaniz & Randall 1994 [ref. 21632] and Opinion 1841. •Synonym of Trachynotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:383 [ref. 7198], Golani 2005:40 [ref. 37112], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:45 [ref. 36649] as Lichia glauca, Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2507 [ref. 34618]). •Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fricke 2008:33 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

goodei, Trachinotus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1896:943 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2443] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: CAS-SU 1455 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:75-76 [ref. 12291]. Based on specimen and literature. •Valid as Trachinotus goodei Jordan and Evermann 1896 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:165 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:134 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:295 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:108 [ref. 24474], Murdy et al. 1997:175 [ref. 23144], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:246 [ref. 25013], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:399 [ref. 24427], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:160 [ref. 27754], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1466 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:82 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:301 [ref. 28815], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Matamoros et al. 2009:18 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:49 [ref. 33341], Spier et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36103], Robertson et al. 2020:152 [ref. 38098]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus goodei Jordan & Evermann 1896. Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

goreensis, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:419 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6229 (2), 0000-6231 (2), A-6812 (2). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:28 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Trachinotus goreensis Cuvier 1832 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:320 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:749 [ref. 18644], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:684 [ref. 21590], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:33 [ref. 30263], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2505 [ref. 34618], Reiner 2019:201 [ref. 38139]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus goreensis Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola, including Cape Verde Islands and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: brackish, marine.

jordani, Trachynotus Wakiya [Y.] 1924:221, Pl. 35 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 15 (nos 2-3); ref. 4570] Bonin Islands, Japanese seas. Holotype (unique): FMNH 59374 [ex CM 7756]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:91 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:83 [ref. 12367]. Correct spelling of original genus is Trachninotus. •Synonym of Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:320 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2019:12 [ref. 36875]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

kennedyi, Trachinotus Steindachner [F.] 1875:75 [47], Pl. 7 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] Magdalena Bay, Baja California. Syntypes: ?MCZ; NMW 12812 (1), 12822-23 (1, 4), 77754 (2). On p. 47 of separate. •Valid as Trachinotus kennedyi Steindachner 1875 (sometimes dated to 1876) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:128 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:108 [ref. 23101], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:980 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:88 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:284 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:280 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], McMahan et al. 2013:449 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:298 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus kennedyi Steindachner 1875. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

koehleri, Caranx Curtiss [A.] 1938:65 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Unidentifiable. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

macrospilus, Trachinotus Smith-Vaniz [W. F.] & Walsh [S. J.] 2019:5, Figs. 1, 3-5A [Zootaxa 4651 (no. 1); ref. 36875] North Rock, Hatuta'a, Marquesas Islands, 7°53'47"S, 140°33'43"W, depth 0 - 10 meters. Holotype: USNM 409238. Paratypes: ANSP, BPBM, MCZ, UF, USNM. •Valid as Trachinotus macrospilus Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2019. Current status: Valid as Trachinotus macrospilus Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2019. Carangidae. Distribution: Marquesas Islands (endemic), south Pacific. Habitat: marine.

madeirensis, Trachinotus Borodin [N. A.] 1934:111, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Bulletin Vanderbilt Marine Museum v. 1 (art. 4); ref. 529] Funchal, Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Holotype: VMM 1279 (128 mm) not found in 1996. Paratypes: MCZ 33395 [ex VMM 1279] (1), VMM 1279 (1, not found in 1996). Genus appeared as Trachinus in text but corrected in Errata to Trachinotus, also for plate caption. •Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:321 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:750 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marginatus, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:411 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Montevideo, Uruguay. Syntypes: MNHN A-6822 (2, poor condition). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:29 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Trachinotus marginatus Cuvier 1832 -- (Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:399 [ref. 24427], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1436 [ref. 27083], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:82 [ref. 27192], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Fabiano et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33530], Nión et al. 2016:47 [ref. 35565], Spier et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus marginatus Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

martini, Trachinotus Steindachner [F.] 1870:711 [43], Pl. 1 (fig. 1) in continuation [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 60 (1. Abth.); ref. 18766] Senegal, western Africa. Syntypes: NMW 87138 (3). On p. 43 of separate. Figured in Pl. 1 (fig. 1) of continuation [ref. 18767]. •Synonym of Trachinotus teraia Cuvier 1832 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:322 [ref. 6207], Vreven & Snoeks 2007:421 [ref. 30078]). •Possible synonym of Trachinotus maxillosus Cuvier 1832 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:750 [ref. 18644], Vreven & Snoeks 2007:421 [ref. 30078]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus maxillosus Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maxillosus, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:420 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Gorée, Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6239. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:29 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Trachinotus maxillosus Cuvier 1832 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:750 [ref. 18644], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2506 [ref. 34618], Reiner 2019:201 [ref. 38139]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus maxillosus Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mookalee, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:423 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Malabar coast, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2981 (1) Puducherry, A-6823 (1) Malabar. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:29 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Trachinotus mookalee Cuvier 1832 -- (Randall 1995:189 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:167 [ref. 23922], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2749 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:135 [ref. 26352], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Hussain & Jawad 2014:256 [ref. 33657], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:45 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:231 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:324 [ref. 36183], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:139 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:220 [ref. 36495], Eagderi et al. 2019:53 [ref. 37020], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2019:27 [ref. 36875]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus mookalee Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman east to eastern China (East China Sea), north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

myrias, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:421 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Gorée, Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6220. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:29 [ref. 12247]. Based on one specimen and literature. •Synonym of Trachinotus goreensis Cuvier 1832 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:321 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:749 [ref. 18644], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2505 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus goreensis Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nasutus, Trachynotus Gill [T. N.] 1863:85 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1679] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: USNM. •Synonym of Trachinotus rhodopus Gill 1863. Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus rhodopus Gill 1863. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

oblongus, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:437 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Java, Indonesia; Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-6824 (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:29 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:320 [ref. 6207] as bailloni, Hussain & Jawad 2014:255 [ref. 33657], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2019:11 [ref. 36875]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ovalis, Centronotus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:309, 316 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Seas of Asia. Unneeded new name for Gasterosteus ovatus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Trachynotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:383 [ref. 7198], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:321 [ref. 6207]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ovatus, Gasterosteus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:296 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Asia [probably in error for eastern Atlantic]. Holotype (unique): ZMUU Linn. Coll. 202. Type catalog: Lönnberg 1896:43 [ref. 23530], Wheeler 1991:173, Fig. 12 [ref. 20102]. ICZN case 2898 pending, see Smith-Vaniz & Randall 1994 [ref. 21632]. •Valid as Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Hureau & Tortonese 1973:383 [ref. 7198], Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:840 [ref. 13676], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:321 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:750 [ref. 18644], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:683 [ref. 21590], Chen et al. 1997:67 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:272 [ref. 26385], Santos et al. 1997:87 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:85 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:74 [ref. 25466], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:86 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:40 [ref. 37112], Fricke 2007:29 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:85 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:33 [ref. 30263], Fricke 2008:33 [ref. 30182], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:45 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33516], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2507 [ref. 34618], Almeida & Alves 2019:269 [ref. 37509], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Brown et al. 2019:169 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:256 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36864], Reiner 2019:202 [ref. 38139], Bariche & Fricke 2020:62 [ref. 37515], Iglésias et al. 2020:295 [ref. 37987], Kovačić et al. 2020:36 [ref. 37519] as Trachynotus ovatus). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: Norway south to Angola, including Azores, Madeira, and São Tomé and Principe; southern-central Atlantic: Saint Helena. Habitat: brackish, marine.

paitensis, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:438 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Paita, Peru. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6814. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:29 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Trachinotus paitensis Cuvier 1832 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:210 [ref. 9277], Pequeño 1989:61 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:129 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:108 [ref. 23101], Lea & Walker 1995:90 [ref. 23105], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:981 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:89 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:374 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:284 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:279 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:398 [ref. 25838], Smith-Vaniz 2003:1463 [ref. 27083], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871], Kells et al. 2016:238 [ref. 35888], González-Murcia et al. 2019:298 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus paitensis Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

paloma, Trachinotus Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:437 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Puerto Viejo, north of Mazatlán, Sinaloa, Mexico. Syntypes: CAS-SU 213 (5), 2690 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:76 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Trachinotus paitensis Cuvier 1832 -- (Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:981 [ref. 22829] as paoma, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:280 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus paitensis Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

palometa, Trachynotus Regan [C. T.] 1903:349 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 12 (no. 69) (art. 32); ref. 3618] Martinique Island, West Indies. Replacement name for Chaetodon glaucus Bloch 1787, preoccupied by Scomber glaucus Linnaeus 1758:298 [ref. 2787]. •Synonym of Trachinotus goodei Jordan & Evermann 1896 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:246 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus goodei Jordan & Evermann 1896. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.

pampanus, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:415, Pl. 237 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Brazil; Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2790 (2), 0000-2857 (2), A-5529 (1, dry), A-6650 (1); Broussonet spec. not found. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:29 [ref. 12247]. •Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus 1766). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

quadripunctatus, Caesiomorus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:90, Pl. 24 (fig. 1) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype: SMF 2896. •Synonym of Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801) -- (Dor 1984:131 [ref. 29757], Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:320 [ref. 6207], Hussain & Jawad 2014:255 [ref. 33657], Golani & Fricke 2018:86 [ref. 36273], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2019:11 [ref. 36875]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède 1801). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rhodopus, Trachynotus Gill [T. N.] 1863:85 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1679] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: USNM (numerous). Original genus should have been Trachinotus. •Valid as Trachinotus rhodopus Gill 1863 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:210 [ref. 9277], Allen & Robertson 1994:129 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:108 [ref. 23101], Lea & Walker 1995:90 [ref. 23105], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:982 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:90 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:373 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:284 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:280 [ref. 24550], Thomson et al. 2000:289 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871], Kells et al. 2016:238 [ref. 35888], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:298 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus rhodopus Gill 1863. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

rhomboides, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] 1787:100, Pl. 209 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. On p. 75 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. Based on a drawing. •Synonym of Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rondeletii, Glaucus Bleeker [P.] 1863:75 [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Awokatubi, Ashantee, Guinea. Syntypes: (5). Based on literature sources and specimens. •Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:321 [ref. 6207]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

russelii, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:436 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-5663 (1, dry). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:30 [ref. 12247]. Both Trachinus botla and russelii were based on Russell's Pl. 142. Named for Russell (mispelled as Russel), an inadvertent error that must be corrected, Code Art. 32.5.1. •Mention -- (Dor 1984:132 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Trachinotus russelii Cuvier 1832 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:321 [ref. 6207], Goren & Dor 1994:35 [ref. 25356], Hussain & Jawad 2014:256 [ref. 33657]). •Synonym of Trachinotus botla (Shaw 1803) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:659 [ref. 5718], Randall 1995:188 [ref. 22896], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2747 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz & Carpenter 2014:[3] 545 [ref. 33922], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2019:18 [ref. 36875]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus botla (Shaw 1803). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

spinosus, Labrus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:405 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York Bay, New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

spinosus, Zeus Mitchill [S. L.] 1818:246 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (no. 4) (art. 1); ref. 17774] Bay of New York, New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

stilbe, Zalocys Jordan [D. S.] & McGregor [E. A.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2848 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, off western Mexico. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 11996. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:76 [ref. 12291]. Also appeared in Jordan & McGregor 1899:277, Pl. 5 [ref. 2488]. •Valid as Trachinotus stilbe (Jordan & McGregor 1898) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:129 [ref. 22193], Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:983 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:90 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:374 [ref. 24023], Nelson et al. 2004:141 [ref. 27807], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:145 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:445 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus stilbe (Jordan & McGregor 1898). Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

teraia, Trachinotus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:418 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Senegal. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-6223. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-6217 (1), A-0577 (1). Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:30 [ref. 12247]. Lectotype established in Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:30 [ref. 12247]. •Valid as Trachinotus teraia Cuvier 1832 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:322 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:751 [ref. 18644], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:682 [ref. 21590], Vreven & Snoeks 2007:421 [ref. 30078], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Wirtz et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2508 [ref. 34618], Reiner 2019:203 [ref. 38139], ). Current status: Valid as Trachinotus teraia Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola, including Cape Verde Islands and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

teraioides, Trachinotus Guichenot [A.] in Duméril 1861:246 [Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10 [for 1858]; ref. 1149] Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6217. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:30 [ref. 12247] as teraoides and teraiodes. Guichenot's contribution not indicated; authorship might be Duméril (ex Guichenot). •Synonym of Trachinotus maxillosus Cuvier 1832 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:750 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus maxillosus Cuvier 1832. Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tetracantha, Lichia Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:237, Fig. 49 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] St. Jago, Cape Verde Islands; Gambia River. No types known. •Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:321 [ref. 6207], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:750 [ref. 18644], Parenti 2019:7 [ref. 36934]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

umhlangae, Palinurichthys Smith [J. L. B.] 1949:304, Fig. 849b [The sea fishes of southern Africa; ref. 5846] Umhlanga, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (2) SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 13654 (1). •Synonym of Trachinotus russelii Cuvier 1832 -- (Daget & Smith-Vaniz 1986:322 [ref. 6207]). •Synonym of Trachinotus botla (Shaw 1803) -- (Smith-Vaniz 1986:659 [ref. 5718], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2019:18 [ref. 36875]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus botla (Shaw 1803). Carangidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

velox, Trachinotus Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:14 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 21; ref. 3286] South Passage, Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.1536 [ex AFAQ]. •Synonym of Trachinotus coppingeri Günther 1884 -- (Smith-Vaniz 1999:2748 [ref. 24833], Hoese & Gates 2006:1170 [ref. 28997], Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2019:22 [ref. 36875]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinotus coppingeri Günther 1884. Carangidae. Habitat: marine.