Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 7 Sep 2022

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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gladius, Xiphias Linnaeus [C.] 1758:248 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European ocean. No types known. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:50 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Misspelled glaudius by Cabrera et al. 1817 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:176 [ref. 30438]. •Valid as Xiphias gladius Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kramer 1950:65 [ref. 39541], Tortonese 1973:482 [ref. 7192], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:304 [ref. 7348], Nakamura 1983:263 [ref. 5371], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:275 [ref. 9277], Sheiko 1983:18 [ref. 37041], Nakamura in Masuda et al. 1984:224 [ref. 6441], Nakamura 1985:48 [ref. 20161], Nakamura in Whitehead et al. 1986:1006 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1986:839 [ref. 5660], Robins & Ray 1986:266 [ref. 23100], Peden & Jamieson 1988:493 [ref. 12864], Allen & Swainston 1988:142 [ref. 25477], Scott & Scott 1988:463 [ref. 25518], Winterbottom et al. 1989:66 [ref. 13251], Pequeño 1989:67 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:231 [ref. 24556], McAllister 1990:180 [ref. 14674], Randall et al. 1990:442 [ref. 15987], Nakamura 1990:997 [ref. 19483], Boschung 1992:170 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:455 [ref. 23827], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:173 [ref. 25472], Cervigón 1994:230 [ref. 24488], Gomon et al. 1994:829 [ref. 22532], Allen & Robertson 1994:278 [ref. 22193], Goren & Dor 1994:70 [ref. 25356], Collette in Fischer et al. 1995:1651 [ref. 22830], Randall 1995:379 [ref. 22896], Fierstine & Voigt 1996:148 [ref. 22401], Santos et al. 1997:110 [ref. 23531], Allen 1997:230 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:591 [ref. 24023], Arruda 1997:103 [ref. 24952], Randall et al. 1997:442 [ref. 25919], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:106 [ref. 24555], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Fricke 1999:560 [ref. 24106], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:334 [ref. 25013], Fricke 1999:49 [ref. 24101], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:643 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1333 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:478 [ref. 25191], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:169 [ref. 27754], Nakamura 2001:3757 [ref. 26306], Pakhorukov 2001:380 [ref. 25409], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:140 [ref. 26753], Collette in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:509 [ref. 26158], Nakabo 2002:1333 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:423, 677 [ref. 26218], Nohara et al. 2003:1 [ref. 26814], Moore et al. 2003:230 [ref. 27076], Nakamura 2003:1858 [ref. 27116], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S121 [ref. 27377], Parin 2003:S27 [ref. 28536], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:103 [ref. 27192], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:423 [ref. 28072], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Nelson et al. 2004:177 [ref. 27807], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Golani 2005:59 [ref. 37112], Love et al. 2005:169 [ref. 37547], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:795 [ref. 28815], Mundy 2005:510 [ref. 28379], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Bray & Hoese 2006:1783 [ref. 29049], Fricke 2007:27 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:111 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:183 [ref. 30517], Fricke 2008:57 [ref. 30182], Gomon 2008:788 [ref. 30616], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:173 [ref. 31251], Fricke et al. 2009:113 [ref. 30213], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:69 [ref. 36649], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:182 [ref. 32708], Larson et al. 2013:220 [ref. 32988], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:84 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33516], Parin et al. 2014:516 [ref. 33547], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:118 [ref. 36167], Pinheiro et al. 2015:33 [ref. 34324], Psomadakis et al. 2015:318 [ref. 34104], Roberts 2015:1647 [ref. 34193], Bañón et al. 2016:324 [ref. 34397], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Fourriére et al. 2016:459 [ref. 34668], Kells et al. 2016:318 [ref. 35888], Nakamura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2936 [ref. 34618], Nión et al. 2016:53 [ref. 35565], Fricke et al. 2018:365 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:172 [ref. 36273], Martins & Carneiro 2018:70 [ref. 36550] as glaudius, Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612], Brown et al. 2019:169 [ref. 36444], Burton & Lea 2019:93 [ref. 37205], Carneiro et al. 2019:184 [ref. 37250], Collette & Graves 2019:280 [ref. 37341], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:100 [ref. 36864], Fricke et al. 2019:313 [ref. 36673], Reiner 2019:286 [ref. 38139], Zajonz et al. 2019:100 [ref. 36871], Bariche & Fricke 2020:98 [ref. 37515], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 17 [ref. 38321], Kim et al. 2020:183 [ref. 39118], Kovačić et al. 2020:27 [ref. 37519], Psomadakis et al. 2020:575 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:111 [ref. 37637], Bañón & Maño 2021:93 [ref. 38887], Golani 2021:82 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:51 [ref. 39014], Rotundo et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:371 [ref. 38945]). Current status: Valid as Xiphias gladius Linnaeus 1758. Xiphiidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and temperate seas (including Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Red Sea, South China Sea, East China Sea, Sea of Japan, southern Gulf of California/Mexico). Habitat: marine.


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