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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Syngnathus: [ 102 ] records


abaster, Syngnathus Risso [A.] 1827:182 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Probably Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Valid as Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:635 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Coad 1995:27 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:46 [ref. 26178], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26753], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:183 [ref. 28183], Golani 2005:31 [ref. 37112], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:175 [ref. 28369], Fricke et al. 2007:74 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:501 [ref. 29996], Vasil'eva 2007:74 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Kuiter 2009:245, 247 [ref. 30404] as abastes on p. 24, Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:208 [ref. 33547], Barbieri et al. 2015:98 [ref. 35029], Çiçek et al. 2015:151 [ref. 35151], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Gurkan & Innal 2018:241 [ref. 36182], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:176 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36864], Khutornoy & Kvach 2019:919 [ref. 37129], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:253 [ref. 37108], Özuluğ & Saç 2019:33 [ref. 36599], Bariche & Fricke 2020:112 [ref. 37515], Çiçek et al. 2020:259 [ref. 37644], Kovačić et al. 2020:23 [ref. 37519], Kuljanishvili et al. 2020:[7] [ref. 37535], Abliazov et al. 2021:9 [ref. 38576], Bañón & Maño 2021:66 [ref. 38883], Golani 2021:35 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:38 [ref. 39014], Moots 2022:491 [ref. 39722], Çiçek et al. 2023:428 [ref. 40625], Saad et al. 2023:37 [ref. 40501], Shumka et al. 2023:40 [ref. 40747] as Syngnathusabaster, Çiçek et al. 2024:297 [ref. 40789]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Portugal, including Azores. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

abboti, Syngnathus Girard [C. F.] 1858:346 [General report upon zoology of the several Pacific railroad routes, 1857; ref. 4911] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 971. •Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854 -- (Fritzsche 1980:211 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:187 [ref. 6541]). •Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

acus, Syngnathus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:337 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Europe. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.184 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:216-217 [ref. 13434]. •Valid as Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson 1985:183 [ref. 6541], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:635 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1986:457 [ref. 5650], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Zheng 1989:298 [ref. 21202], Dawson 1990:663 [ref. 17542], Liang in Pan et al. 1991:341 [ref. 23876], Chen et al. 1997:35 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:237 [ref. 26385], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952], Santos et al. 1997:74 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:65 [ref. 24952], Fricke 1999:146 [ref. 24106], Wang et al. 2001:197 [ref. 26566], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26753], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:141 [ref. 28072] with change in range, Golani 2005:32 [ref. 37112], Fricke 2007:25 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:74 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:500 [ref. 29996], Vasil'eva 2007:75 [ref. 30517], Kuiter 2009:244 [ref. 30404], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:209 [ref. 33547], Lourie 2016:147 [ref. 34505], Fritzsche 2016:2238 [ref. 34608], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Gurkan & Innal 2018:241 [ref. 36182], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:177 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:113 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:23 [ref. 37519], Bañón & Maño 2021:66 [ref. 38883], Golani 2021:35 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:38 [ref. 39014], Gus'kov et al. 2022:71 [ref. 39564], Ergüden & Ayas 2023:33 [ref. 40488]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: including Azores and Madeira. Habitat: brackish, marine.

acusimilis, Syngnathus Günther [A.] 1873:380 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 12 (no. 71); ref. 18198] Chefoo, Shantung Province, China. Syntypes: BMNH 1873.9.23.28-31 (4). •Valid as Syngnathus acusimilis Günther 1873 -- (Berg 1949:986 [ref. 20662], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:748 [ref. 24702], Savvaitova 1998:113 [ref. 23594], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:184 [ref. 28183]). •Synonym of Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1985:189 [ref. 6541], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:9 [ref. 24670], Kuiter 2009:252 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:307 [ref. 32989], Parin et al. 2014:209 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:59 [ref. 35138]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: China and Russia. Habitat: freshwater.

aeolicus, Syngnathus ethon Di Caporiacco [L.] 1948:91 [23] [Bollettino di Pesca, Piscicoltura e Idrobiologia, Roma (n. s.) v. 26 (n.s. v. 3) (no. 1); ref. 18061] Naples, Messina, Palermo, southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MZUF 5682-85 (4), 5675-76 (2), 5677-81 (5). Type catalog: Vanni 1991:224 [ref. 20099]. On p. 23 of separate. •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

affinis, Syngnathus Günther [A.] 1870:163 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Louisiana, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1854.7.3.2. Preoccupied by Syngnathus affinis Eichwald 1831, and Günther's name should not be used. Replaced by Syngnathus texanus Gilbert 2013. •Possibly the same as Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann & Kendall 1896) -- (Tolan 2008:93 [ref. 29889]). •Valid as Syngnathus affinis Günther 1870 -- (Dawson 1982:90 [ref. 6764], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1061 [ref. 23897], Musick et al. 2000:14 [ref. 24959], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:245 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). •Synonym of Syngnathus texanus Gilbert 2013. 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus texanus Gilbert 2013. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

affinis, Syngnathus Eichwald [C. E. von] 1831:61 [Zoologia specialis quam expositis animalibus tum vivis Pars posterior [3]; ref. 5562] Black Sea at Odessa, Ukraine. No types known. •Uncertain in genus Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Black Sea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

agassiz, Syngnathus Michahelles [C. W.] 1829:1013 [Isis (Oken) v. 22 (no. 9); ref. 17700] Trieste, Italy, Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:635 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

algeriensis, Syngnathus Günther [A.] (ex Playfair) 1870:164 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Confluence of Wed Cherif and Wed Bou-Hamdan, Province Constantine, 60 miles from sea, Algeria (fresh water). Syntypes: (at least 5) BMNH 1868.11.15.6 (1), 1869.1.29.17 (1). Also appeared as new (perhaps independently) in Playfair and Letourneux 1871:393 [ref. 18558]. •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:635 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

alternans, Syngnathus Günther [A.] 1870:162 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Seychelles. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.9.19.1395. •Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Dawson 1985:183 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Syngnathus temminckii Kaup 1856. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus temminckii Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

anguisigola, Syngnathus Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 113 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Lagoon of Venice, Italy, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Available as above, brief description. •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

argentatus, Syngnathus Pallas [P. S.] 1814:120 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Black Sea. No types known. •Valid as Syngnathus argentatus Pallas 1814 -- (Kuiter 2009:249 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1949:982 [ref. 20662], Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952], Oruç & Engin 2018:1 [ref. 35874]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Black Sea [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

arundinaceus, Syngnathus Girard [C. F.] 1858:346 [General report upon zoology of the several Pacific railroad routes, 1857; ref. 4911] Coast of California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 972. •Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854 -- (Fritzsche 1980:211 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:187 [ref. 6541]). •Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

auliscus, Siphostoma Swain [J.] 1882:310 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 283); ref. 14300] Santa Barbara and San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 26807 (2, missing). Based on Siphostoma dimidiatum of Jordan & Gilbert 1880, not Gill. •Valid as Syngnathus auliscus (Swain 1882) -- (Fritzsche 1980:199 [ref. 1511], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:130 [ref. 9277], Dawson 1985:184 [ref. 6541], Swift et al. 1993:131 [ref. 22379], Allen & Robertson 1994:97 [ref. 22193], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:294 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:102 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:229 [ref. 24550], Thomson et al. 2000:67 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:71 [ref. 37547], Kuiter 2009:254 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:457 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Kells et al. 2016:124 [ref. 35888], Garcia et al. 2019:[3] 1001 [ref. 38915], González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544], Love et al. 2021:103 [ref. 39279], Page et al. 2023:118 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus auliscus (Swain 1882). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: brackish, marine.

bairdianus, Syngnathus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:574 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Baja California, Mexico [incorrect, probably Atlantic]. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6112 (1), B-2756 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:49 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Dawson 1982:104 [ref. 6764]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

barbarae, Siphostoma Swain [J.] in Swain & Meek 1884:238 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 428); ref. 14404] Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 31253. Based on Siphostoma bairdianum of Swain 1882:311 [ref. 14300] (not Syngnathus bairdianus Duméril). •Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854 -- (Fritzsche 1980:211 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:187 [ref. 6541]). •Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brachyrhynchus, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:42 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6133. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:46 [ref. 19576]. See Fricke 1999:147 [ref. 24106]. •Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Dawson 1985:183 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Syngnathus temminckii Kaup 1856. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus temminckii Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brevirostris, Syngnathus Girard [C. F.] 1854:156 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 969 (orig. 1 in ledger, now 3). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Syngnathus brevirostris Rüppell 1838, replaced by Syngnathus dimidiatus Gill 1862:284. •Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854 -- (Fritzsche 1980:210 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:187 [ref. 6541]). •Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bucculentus, Syngnathus Rathke [H.] 1836:27 [317], Pl. 2 (figs. 9-10) [Mémoires présentés à l'Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg par divers savaus et lus dans ses assemblées. Mémoires des savaus étrangers v. 3; ref. 18611] Sevastopol and Feodosiya [Feodosia], Ukraine. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus nigrolineatus Eichwald 1831 -- (Berg 1949:982 [ref. 20662], Savvaitova 1998:114 [ref. 23594]). •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:635 [ref. 13676], Coad 1995:27 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26753], Parin et al. 2014:208 [ref. 33547], Parin et al. 2014:208 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

californiensis, Syngnathus Storer [D. H.] 1845:73 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 2 (1845-1848); ref. 18837] Ventura, California, U.S.A. Neotype: LACM 58833-1. Non-type: MNHN A-3203 [ex USNM] (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:48 [ref. 19576]. Neotype selected by Garcia et al. 2019:[13] 1011 [ref. 38915]. Original locality California, U.S.A. •Valid as Siphostoma californiense (Storer 1845) -- (Herrera 1896:37 [ref. 39336]). •Valid as Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845 -- (Fritzsche 1980:205 [ref. 1511], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:130 [ref. 9277], Dawson 1985:185 [ref. 6541], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:72 [ref. 37547], Kuiter 2009:256 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Kells et al. 2016:124 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:56 [ref. 37205], Garcia et al. 2019:[3] 1001 [ref. 38915], Love et al. 2021:103 [ref. 39279], Page et al. 2023:118 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

caribbaeus, Syngnathus Dawson [C. E.] 1979:672, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 92 (no. 4); ref. 1069] Fox Bay, Colón, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype: USNM 79703. Paratypes: FMNH 8302 [ex USNM 79669] (1, not found), 8304 (1), 8305 (1), 8306-07 (1, 1); GCRL 1956 (1), 14541 (1), 15524-25 (2, 1); USNM 79697 (1), 79701 (2). •Valid as Syngnathus caribbaeus Dawson 1979 -- (Dawson 1982:108 [ref. 6764], Shimizu in Uyeno et al. 1983:201 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1991:272 [ref. 24472], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:232 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Smith et al. 2003:19 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:36 [ref. 33341], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Carvalho-Filho 2023:103 [ref. 40480], Page et al. 2023:118 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus caribbaeus Dawson 1979. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Cuba and Belize south to São Paulo (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

carinatum, Siphostoma Gilbert [C. H.] 1892:547 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 880); ref. 1626] Gulf of California, Mexico, 31°31'45"N, 114°19'W, Albatross. Lectotype: CAS-SU 240. Paralectotypes: MCZ 35941 [ex USNM 48250] (1); CAS-SU 67670 [ex CAS-SU 240] (3); USNM 48250 (4), 125028 (2), 127139 (2). Lectotype selected by Fritzsche 1980:202 [ref. 1511]. •Valid as Syngnathus carinatus (Gilbert 1892) -- (Fritzsche 1980:202 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:185 [ref. 6541], Thomson et al. 2000:67 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:256 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Garcia et al. 2019:[3] 1001 [ref. 38915], Page et al. 2023:118 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus carinatus (Gilbert 1892). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: northern Gulf of California (Mexico) endemic. Habitat: marine.

caspius, Syngnathus Eichwald [C. E. von] 1831:61 [Zoologia specialis quam expositis animalibus tum vivis Pars posterior [3]; ref. 5562] Balkhan Bay, Caspian Sea. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Also appeared as new in Eichward 1838:106 [ref. 34622]. •Synonym of Syngnathus nigrolineatus Eichwald 1831, but a valid subspecies caspius Eichwald 1831 -- (Berg 1949:982 [ref. 20662], Mitrofanov & Dukravec 1989:121 [ref. 37748], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:748 [ref. 24702], Savvaitova 1998:114 [ref. 23594]). •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Coad 1995:27 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952]). •Valid as Syngnathus caspius Eichwald 1831 -- (Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:895 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:76 [ref. 36089], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:224 [ref. 37983], Kuljanishvili et al. 2020:[7] [ref. 37535], Zarei et al. 2021:6 [ref. 38231], Çiçek et al. 2024:298 [ref. 40789]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus caspius Eichwald 1831. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eurasia: Caspian Sea basin. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

chihiroe, Syngnathus Matsunuma [M.] 2017:386, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4232 (no. 3); ref. 35141] Hirase Shoal, southwest of Yakushima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan (East China Sea), 30°02'N, 130°03'E, depth 160-162 meters. Holotype (unique): NSMT-P 106296. •Valid as Syngnathus chihiroe Matsunuma 2017. Current status: Valid as Syngnathus chihiroe Matsunuma 2017. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Yakushima Island, East China Sea. Habitat: marine.

coquerelii, Syngnathus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:575 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Madagascar; Indian seas [incorrect, probably Atlantic]. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6114 (2) Madagascar, 0000-2653 (1) Indian seas, Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:47 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Dawson 1982:104 [ref. 6764], Fricke et al. 2018:120 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

cuvieri, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:38 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Catwyk, North Sea; Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: RMNH, MNHN. •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dawsoni, Micrognathus (Micrognathus) Herald [E. S.] 1969:1, Fig. 1 [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences No. 73; ref. 7816] Fish Bay, St. John, Virgin Islands, depth 5 feet. Holotype (unique): USNM 203148. •Valid as Syngnathus dawsoni (Herald 1969) -- (Dawson 1982:101 [ref. 6764], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus dawsoni (Herald 1969). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

dekayi, Syngnathus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:569 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Nova Scotia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4842. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:48 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839 -- (Dawson 1982:77 [ref. 6764], Smith 1986:419 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

delalandi, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] (ex Bribron) 1856:45 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Cape of Good Hope and Cape seas, South Africa. Syntypes: ZMB 4358 (now 1); MNHN 0000-6139 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:47 [ref. 19576] with a holotype. •Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Dawson 1985:182 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:457 [ref. 5650], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Syngnathus temminckii Kaup 1856. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus temminckii Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

delalandi, Typhlus Bibron [G.] in Kaup 1856:45 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Not available, museum name mentioned in passing; published in an available way as Syngnathus delalandi Kaup 1856. Nomen Nudum. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

dimidiatus, Syngnathus Gill [T. N.] 1862:284 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 1667] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: (3). Replacement name for Syngnathus brevirostris Girard 1854, preoccupied by Syngnathus brevirostris Rüppell 1838. •Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854 -- (Fritzsche 1980:211 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:187 [ref. 6541]). •Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dumerilii, Syngnathus Duméril [A. H. A.] (ex Moreau) 1870:556 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Côte du Hâvre, France. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6108 (2, poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:47 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Syngnathus rostellatus Nilsson 1855 -- (Wheeler 1973:275 [ref. 7190]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus rostellatus Nilsson 1855. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ethon, Syngnathus Risso [A.] 1827:182 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Probably Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:635 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

euchrous, Syngnathus Fritzsche [R. A.] 1980:208, Fig. 12A [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 42 (no. 6); ref. 1511] Bahia Todos Santos, Baja California, Mexico, 31°52'N, 116°38'W, depth 0.3-1.5 meters. Holotype: SIO H47-68. Paratypes: CAS 27405 (11); GCRL 15757 [ex SIO H47-158] (22); SIO H47-68 (86), H48-319 (16). Described as a new species and subspecies. •Valid as Syngnathus euchrous Fritzsche 1980 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:130 [ref. 9277], Dawson 1985:185 [ref. 6541], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:72 [ref. 37547], Kuiter 2009:256 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Kells et al. 2016:124 [ref. 35888], Garcia et al. 2019:[3] 1001 [ref. 38915], Love et al. 2021:103 [ref. 39279], Page et al. 2023:118 [ref. 40505]). •Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845 -- (Garcia et al. 2019:[13] 1011 [ref. 38915]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico) (if valid). Habitat: marine.

exile, Siphostoma Osburn [R. C.] & Nichols [J. T.] 1916:153, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 35 (art. 16); ref. 15062] West San Benito Island, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 87543 [ex AMNH 5203]. Paratypes: AMNH 5588 (5). •Valid as Syngnathus exilis (Osburn & Nichols 1916) -- (Fritzsche 1980:204 [ref. 1511], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:131 [ref. 9277], Dawson 1985:186 [ref. 6541], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:72 [ref. 37547], Kuiter 2009:256 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Kells et al. 2016:124 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:56 [ref. 37205], Love et al. 2021:103 [ref. 39279], Page et al. 2023:118 [ref. 40505]). •Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845 -- (Garcia et al. 2019:[13] 1011 [ref. 38915]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico) (if valid). Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Syngnathus DeKay [J. E.] 1842:319, Pl. 54 (fig. 174) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York, U.S.A. Holotype or syntypes: New York State coll. (whereabouts unknown). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Syngnathus fasciatus Risso 1810. •Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ferrugineus, Syngnathus Michahelles [C. W.] 1829:1013 [Isis (Oken) v. 22 (no. 9); ref. 17700] Ragusa, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Valid as Syngnathus ferrugineus Michahelles 1829 -- (Herrera 1896:36 [ref. 39336]). •Synonym of Syngnathus variegatus Pallas 1814 -- (Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus variegatus Pallas 1814. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

flavescens, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:35 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Tripoli, Libya, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3851 (apparently lost). •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

floridae, Siphostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:263 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 282); ref. 2472] Pensacola Bay, Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: MCZ 35958 [ex USNM 30826]. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 407 (3); ?USNM 30773 (9), 30826 (5), 119832 [ex USNM 30826] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:61 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype selected by Herald 1965:369 [ref. 9215]. •Valid as Syngnathus floridae (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Dawson 1982:57 [ref. 6764], Robins & Ray 1986:126 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:95 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:139 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1062 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:230 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:191 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Smith et al. 2003:19 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], García-Hernández et al. 2009:92 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Martínez-Servín et al. 2023:117 [ref. 40726], Page et al. 2023:118 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus floridae (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico and northwestern Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

folletti, Syngnathus Herald [E. S.] 1942:126 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 13205] Flores Island, Montevideo, Uruguay. Holotype: USNM 39144. Paratypes: USNM 86172 (1), 119829 (1). •Valid as Syngnathus folletti Herald 1942 -- (Dawson 1982:95 [ref. 6764], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27192], Kuiter 2009:253 [ref. 30404], Catelani et al. 2014:932 [ref. 37496], Nión et al. 2016:44 [ref. 35565], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717], Carvalho-Filho 2023:101 [ref. 40480]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus folletti Herald 1942. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Ceará (Brazil) south to northern Argentina. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Syngnathus Storer [D. H.] 1839:504 [162] [Boston Journal of Natural History v. 2 (nos 3-4) (art. 12); ref. 4278] Nahant, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): lost (not MCZ 36046). •Valid as Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839 -- (Smith 1986:419 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:126 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:350 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:134 [ref. 14674], Dawson 1982:76 [ref. 6764], Murdy et al. 1997:140 [ref. 23144], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:192 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:324 [ref. 26158], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:253 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Carneiro et al. 2019:177 [ref. 37250], Page et al. 2023:118 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Northwestern Atlantic: Canada south to Florida (U.S.A.). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ganzirriensis, Syngnathus abaster var. D'Ancona [U.] 1934:53 [Memoria, Comitato Talassografico Italiano No. 210; ref. 15918] Lake Ganzirri, Messina, Sicily, Italy. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190] as ganzirrensis, Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201] as ganzirrensis, Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

griseolineatus, Syngnathus Ayres [W. O.] 1854:14 [The Pacific [newspaper] v. 3 and 4 (thru no. 6); ref. 157] Presumably near San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Possible type: ANSP 835 (many small pieces). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621]. Originally as griseo-lineatus. Appeared first as above on 27 Oct.; then in Ayres 1854:14 [ref. 18923]. •Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854 -- (Fritzsche 1980:210 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:187 [ref. 6541], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:336 [ref. 25968], Pietsch & Orr 2015:29 [ref. 34694]). •Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

heptagonus, Typhle Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:18 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Unneeded new name for Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hexagonus, Tiphle Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:18 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Unneeded new name for Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:36 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952], Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hubbsi, Syngnathus floridae Herald [E. S.] 1965:368 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 32 (no. 12); ref. 9215] Lower York River, Virginia, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 91321. Paratypes: CAS 24295 [ex USNM] (2); USNM 133053 (orig. 33, now 31), 218351 (1). •Synonym of Syngnathus floridae (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Dawson 1982:59 [ref. 6764]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus floridae (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

hymenolomus, Syngnathus Richardson [J.] 1845:52, Pl. 30 (figs. 11-13) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Harbors of Falkland Islands. Syntypes: (several). See Hymenolomus richardsoni. •Uncertain as Syngnathus hymenolomus Richardson 1845. Current status: Uncertain as Syngnathus hymenolomus Richardson 1845. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

insulae, Syngnathus Fritzsche [R. A.] 1980:215, Fig. 12D [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 42 (no. 6); ref. 1511] Caleta Malpómene, cove at southern end of Guadalupe Island, Mexico, depth 22-50 meters. Holotype: SIO 63-169. Paratypes: GCRL 15756 [ex SIO H50-28] (2); SIO H46-143 (2), H46-144 (1), H50-31 (1), 54-214 (2), 63-169 (32), 63-188 (1). •Valid as Syngnathus insulae Fritzsche 1980 -- (Dawson 1985:187 [ref. 6541], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:72 [ref. 37547], Kuiter 2009:254 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Garcia et al. 2019:[3] 1001 [ref. 38915], Love et al. 2021:103 [ref. 39279], Page et al. 2023:118 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus insulae Fritzsche 1980. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Isla Guadalupe (Mexico) endemic. Habitat: marine.

leptorhynchus, Syngnathus Girard [C. F.] 1854:156 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 970. Non-types: MNHN A-3273 [ex USNM] (1); ?UMMZ 64416 (1), ?66044 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:48 [ref. 19576]. •Valid as Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854 -- (Fritzsche 1980:210 [ref. 1511], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:131 [ref. 9277], Dawson 1985:187 [ref. 6541], Matarese et al. 1989:264 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:134 [ref. 14674], Swift et al. 1993:131 [ref. 22379], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:295 [ref. 24545], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:336 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:72 [ref. 37547], Kuiter 2009:255 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:29 [ref. 34694], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Kells et al. 2016:124 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:56 [ref. 37205], Love et al. 2021:103 [ref. 39279], Page et al. 2023:118 [ref. 40505]). •Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845 -- (Garcia et al. 2019:[13] 1011 [ref. 38915]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: southern Alaska south to Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico) (if valid). Habitat: brackish, marine.

longicephalus, Syngnathus phelgon Nikitin [S. A.] & Natradze [A. G.] 1946:170 Batumi, Georgia. Taken from "Fauna of Russia" 2014:210 [ref. 33547]. •Synonym of Syngnathus schmidti Popov 1928 -- (Parin et al. 2014:210 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus schmidti Popov 1928. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish.

louisianae, Syngnathus Günther [A.] 1870:160 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1852.8.16.25. •Valid as Syngnathus louisianae Günther 1870 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:127 [ref. 23100], Dawson 1982:70 [ref. 6764], Boschung 1992:96 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:139 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1063 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:230 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:192 [ref. 25013], Ross et al. 2001:388 [ref. 25978], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:254 [ref. 30404], García-Hernández et al. 2009:92 [ref. 37265] as Syngtnathus l., Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Page et al. 2023:118 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus louisianae Günther 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda south to Jamaica, including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

macrobrachium, Syngnathus Fritzsche [R. A.] 1980:207, Fig. 10A [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 42 (no. 6); ref. 1511] Huasco, Chile, 28°28'S, 71°14'W. Holotype: USNM 176501. Paratypes: Estacíon de Biología Marina, Chile 10108-9 (2); IMARPE uncat. (2, 10); SIO 72-168 (2); UCLA W58-116 (3), W59-49 (1); USNM 213485 (4). •Valid as Syngnathus macrobrachium Fritzsche 1980 -- (Dawson 1985:188 [ref. 6541], Pequeño 1989:55 [ref. 14125], Kuiter 2009:254 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Garcia et al. 2019:[3] 1001 [ref. 38915]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus macrobrachium Fritzsche 1980. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Peru south to central Chile. Habitat: marine.

macrophthalmus, Syngnathus Duncker [G.] 1915:85 [Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen (Zoologischen) Museum in Hamburg v. 32; ref. 6567] Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1869.6.21.8. •Valid as Syngnathus macrophthalmus Duncker 1915 -- (Dor 1984:80 [ref. 29757], Dawson 1985:188 [ref. 6541], Paulus 1992:32 [ref. 20074], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Kuiter 2009:257 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:52 [ref. 36273], Moots 2022:492 [ref. 39722]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus macrophthalmus Duncker 1915. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

maeoticus, Syngnathus nigrolineatus Slastenenko [E. P.] 1938:174 [Annales scientifiques de l'Université de Jassy Pt. 2 Sciences Naturelles v. 25 (pt 2, no. 1); ref. 18722] Sea of Azov; lower reaches of Don River, lakes of the Danube delta in Romania. No types at ZIN. Also appeared in Slastenenki 1938:174 [ref. 18722] but not available, no distingusihing features. •Synonym of Syngnathus nigrolineatus Eichwald 1831 -- (Berg 1949:982 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952], Parin et al. 2014:209 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

makaxi, Syngnathus scovelli Herald [E. S.] & Dawson [C. E.] 1972:781 [Copeia 1972 (no. 4); ref. 17349] Laguna Makax, Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo, Mexico, depth 0-1.6 meters. Holotype: USNM 206235. Paratypes: AMNH 30222 (4); ANSP 117432 (4); CAS 13617 (22); FMNH 70761 (4); GCRL 3015 (7), 3690 (2), 6521 (23); IBUNAM-P 335 (4); LACM 31993-1 (4); MCZ 48476 (4); UF 229690 [ex UMML 29690] (4); UMMZ 197690 (4); USNM 206236 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:82 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Syngnathus makaxi Herald & Dawson 1972 -- (Dawson 1982:93 [ref. 6764], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:255 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Page et al. 2023:118 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus makaxi Herald & Dawson 1972. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Isla Mujeres, Mexico, Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

martini, Syngnathus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1936:358, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Philippine Journal of Science v. 59 (no. 3); ref. 5609] Western Atlantic. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 30973. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:62 [ref. 12291]. Locality not Manila Bay, Philippines, but Atlantic Ocean (see Herald in Schultz et al. 1953:232 [ref. 3975]). •Synonym of Syngnathus peckianus Storer 1839 (or S. fuscus Storer) -- (Herald in Schultz et al. 1953:232 [ref. 3975] as marteni). •Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839 -- (Dawson 1982:78 [ref. 6764]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

mckayi, Siphostoma Swain [J.] & Meek [S. E.] 1884:239 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 428); ref. 14404] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: CAS-SU 1894 (138.5 mm female) missing. Paralectotypes: (6) CAS-SU 1894 (3 of 4, missing), USNM 34989 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:61 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype selected by Herald 1965:369 [ref. 9215]. •Synonym of Syngnathus floridae (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Dawson 1982:57 [ref. 6764], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:231 [ref. 24550] as mackayi, Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:191 [ref. 25013] as mackayi). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus floridae (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

microchirus, Syngnathus Moreau [É.] 1891:188 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 16 (no. 6); ref. 21621] Pineto Lagoon, Bastia, Corsica, France. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

milbertianus, Syngnathus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:573 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ?MNHN 0000-6109. Based on Syngnathus fasciatus of Kaup 1856:45. •Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839 -- (Dawson 1982:77 [ref. 6764], Smith 1986:419 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nesiotes, Syngnathus mackayi Herald [E. S.] 1942:128 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 13205] Nonsuch Island, Bermuda. Holotype: USNM 170915 [ex NYZS 8919]. Paratypes: FMNH 5340-41 (1, 1), 5342-43 (2), 5347-49 (1, 1, 1), 5351 (1); CAS-SU 36484-85 (1, 1); USNM 170916-20 (1, 1, 2, 3, 1). Type catalog: Mead 1958:134 [ref. 20648], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:82 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Syngnathus floridae (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Dawson 1982:58 [ref. 6764], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:192 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus floridae (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

nigrolineatus, Syngnathus Eichwald [C. E. von] 1831:61 [Zoologia specialis quam expositis animalibus tum vivis Pars posterior [3]; ref. 5562] Black Sea near Odessa, Ukraine. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Also appeared as new in Eichward 1838:106 [ref. 34622]. •Valid as Syngnathus nigrolineatus Eichwald 1831 -- (Berg 1949:982 [ref. 20662], Mitrofanov & Dukravec 1989:121 [ref. 37748], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:748 [ref. 24702], Savvaitova 1998:114 [ref. 23594], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:46 [ref. 26178]). •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:635 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Coad 1995:27 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26753], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:501 [ref. 29996], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Parin et al. 2014:208 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ollotropis, Syngnathus euchrous Fritzsche [R. A.] 1980:209, Fig. 12B [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 42 (no. 6); ref. 1511] 1.2 kilometer east of Cabo Tortolo, Bahía Tortugas, Baja California, Mexico, 27°38'53"N, 114°51'46"W, depth 1 meter. Holotype: SIO H48-53. Paratypes: GCRL 15758 [ex SIO H48-51] (15); SIO H47-112 (1), H48-53 (35), H48-55 (47), 54-131 (1); CAS-SU 19260 (1). •Synonym of Syngnathus euchrous Fritzsche 1980 -- (Dawson 1985:185 [ref. 6541]). •Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

peckianus, Syngnathus Storer [D. H.] 1839:506 [163], Pl. 6 [Pl. 1] (fig. 2) [Boston Journal of Natural History v. 2 (nos 3-4) (art. 12); ref. 4278] Holmes Hole, Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. On p. 163 and Pl. 1 (fig. 2) of separate. •Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839 -- (Dawson 1982:77 [ref. 6764], Smith 1986:419 [ref. 22186], Scott & Scott 1988:352 [ref. 25518]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

peckii, Syngnathus Storer [D. H.] 1839:3, 163 [Boston Journal of Natural History v. 2 (nos 3-4) (art. 12); ref. 4278] Mentioned in footnote of separate, but not in journal, as being the original name chosen for Syngnathus peckianus; later changed to peckianus, but the name peckii remained in introductory text on p. 3. From Nahant, Massachusetts, U.S.A. •In the synonymy of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839 -- (Dawson 1982:76 [ref. 6764], Smith 1986:419 [ref. 22186]). Misspelling. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

pelagicus, Syngnathus Linnaeus [C.] (ex Osbeck) 1758:337 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] No locality stated [Sargasso Sea, western Atlantic]. No types known. Based on a description by Osbeck 1757:305 [ref. 3311]. •Valid as Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Herrera 1896:36 [ref. 39336], Dawson 1982:103 [ref. 6764], Robins & Ray 1986:127 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:352 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:135 [ref. 14674], Dawson 1990:663 [ref. 17542], Boschung 1992:96 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1064 [ref. 23897], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:192 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Mehanna & Al-Mahdawi 2006:127 [ref. 36858], Kuiter 2009:252 [ref. 30404], Matamoros et al. 2009:16 [ref. 31241], García-Hernández et al. 2009:92 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Fritzsche 2016:2239 [ref. 34608], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Marceniuk et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35324], Carneiro et al. 2019:177 [ref. 37250], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:416 [ref. 38945], Fermon et al. 2022:219 [ref. 39448] with question, Carvalho-Filho 2023:103 [ref. 40480], Martínez-Servín et al. 2023:117 [ref. 40726], Page et al. 2023:118 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia (Canada) and Bermuda south to Santa Catarina (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. IUCN (2015): Least Concern. Habitat: marine.

pelagicus, Syngnathus Risso [A.] 1810:63 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758, replaced by Syngnathus pyrois Risso 1827. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pellegrini, Syngnathus Fowler [H. W.] 1919:265, Fig. 11 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 56 (no. 2294); ref. 15209] ? Western North Atlantic [errouneously stated as Gabon, West Africa]. Holotype: ANSP 975. Paratypes: ANSP 976 (1), 977 (1), 978 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:160 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839 -- (Dawson 1981:465 [ref. 1071], Dawson 1982:78 [ref. 6764]). •Valid as Syngnathus pellegrini Fowler 1919 -- (Arruda 1997:65 [ref. 24952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

phlegon, Syngnathus Risso [A.] 1827:181, Pl. 15 (fig. 41) [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Galicia, Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. •Mention as Syngnathus phlegon Risso 1827 -- (Dor 1984:80 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Syngnathus phlegon Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:275 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:636 [ref. 13676], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:67 [ref. 26753] dated 1826, Golani 2005:32 [ref. 37112] dated 1826, Fricke et al. 2007:74 [ref. 29533], Kuiter 2009:245 [ref. 30404], Bañon et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31029], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:177 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36864], Kovačić et al. 2020:23 [ref. 37519], Bañón & Maño 2021:66 [ref. 38883], Golani 2021:35 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:38 [ref. 39014]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus phlegon Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Galicia (Spain) and Portugal south to northern Morocco, including Madeira. Habitat: marine.

poeyi, Siphostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1896 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2443] Replacement Name. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

ponticus, Syngnathus Pallas [P. S.] 1814:118 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Black Sea and Azov Sea. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

punctipinnis, Dermatostethus Gill [T. N.] 1862:283 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 1667] San Diego, California, U.S.A. [apparently in error]. Lectotype: USNM 8128. Paralectotypes: (3) USNM 214484 [ex USNM 8128] (2). Genus misspelled Dermatosthus once. Lectotype selected by Fritzsche 1980:185 [ref. 1511]. •Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fritzsche 1980;185 [ref. 1511]), Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pustulatus, Syngnathus Billberg [G. J.] 1833:54, Fig. 1 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Bohuslän Archipelago, Sweden. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kullander 2016:115 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pyrois, Syngnathus Risso [A.] 1827:180 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Replacement name for Syngnathus pelagicus Risso 1810, preoccupied by Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

richardsonii, Hymenolomus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:607 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Non-types: MNHN 0000-4448 (2), 0000-5429 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:42 [ref. 19576]. An unneeded substitute name for Syngnathus hymenolomus Richardson 1845 apparently proposed to avoid Strickland tautonomy. •Synonym of Syngnathus hymenolomus Richardson 1845. Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus hymenolomus Richardson 1845. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

rondeletii, Syngnathus Delaroche [F. E.] 1809:324 [38], Pl. 21 (fig. 5) [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 13; ref. 17380] [Iviça] Ibiza, Baleares Islands, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN. On p. 38 and Pl. 2 of separate. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rostellatus, Syngnathus Nilsson [S.] 1855:687 [Skandinavisk fauna; ref. 3205] Sweden. Syntypes: ZMB 4915 (2). •Valid as Syngnathus rostellatus Nilsson 1855 -- (Wheeler 1973:275 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:636 [ref. 13676], Fricke 2007:28 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:74 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:500 [ref. 29996], Kuiter 2009:246 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Carneiro et al. 2019:178 [ref. 37250], Bañón & Maño 2021:67 [ref. 38883], Kovačić et al. 2021:38 [ref. 39014]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus rostellatus Nilsson 1855. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea; North Sea; northeastern Atlantic: English Channel south to Portugal. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rotundatus, Syngnathus Michahelles [C. W.] 1829:1014 [Isis (Oken) v. 22 (no. 9); ref. 17700] Trieste, Italy, Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rousseau, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:40 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6125 (dry, poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:48 [ref. 19576]. Name only, not available. •In the synonymy of Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Dawson 1982:104 [ref. 6764]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

rubescens, Syngnathus Risso [A.] 1810:66 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson 1985:183 [ref. 6541], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:635 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Dawson 1990:663 [ref. 17542], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26753], Kuiter 2009:244 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

safina, Syngnathus Paulus [T.] 1992:28, Figs. 1-2, 5, 7-8 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 72 (nos 1/3) [1991]; ref. 20074] Gulf of Aqaba, Jordan, about 17 kilometers south of Aqaba, Red Sea, 29°25'54"N, 34°58'26"E. Holotype: SMF 23924. Paratypes: SMF 23925 (1). •Valid as Syngnathus safina Paulus 1992 -- (Kuiter 2009:257 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:52 [ref. 36273], Moots 2022:492 [ref. 39722]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus safina Paulus 1992. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea: Gulf of Aqaba endemic. Habitat: marine.

schlegeli, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] 1853:232 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 19 (pt. 1); ref. 2569] Japan and China. Holotype (unique): RMNH. Non-type specimens: BMNH (1), MNHN 0000-6110 (2) China. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:47 [ref. 19576]. Appeared in 1953, not 2575:46, 75. The original description states that the description of the original specimen was a specimen belonging to the Leiden Museum. Schlegel says he has seen dried Chinese examples, and these are regarded as additional non-type material (Eddy Derijst and James Maclaine assisted WNE in this interpretation). •Valid as Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup 1853 -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:87 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:189 [ref. 6541], Kim 1997:394 [ref. 24032], Nakabo 2000:523 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:57 [ref. 25480], Shimizu 2001:24 [ref. 25799], Kim & Park 2002:316 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:523 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:233, 555 [ref. 26218], Hagiwara 2003:37 [ref. 27188], Kuiter 2009:252 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:307 [ref. 32989], Parin et al. 2014:209 [ref. 33547] dated 1856, Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:59 [ref. 35138], Matsunuma 2017:395 [ref. 35141], Kim et al. 2020:87 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:37 [ref. 37637], Dyldin et al. 2021:34 [ref. 38804]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: China to Sea of Japan (Korea, Japan, Russia) and Sakhalin (Russia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

schmidti, Syngnathus Popov [A. M.] 1928:391, Fig. [Ezhegodnik, Zoologicheskago Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk v. 28 (for 1927); ref. 15817] Off Caucasian, Crimean, Romanien and Bulgarian coasts of the Black Sea. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1929.8.7.13 [ex ZIN] (1); ZIN 21011-14 (2, 1, 1, 1), 21018 (2), 21035-37 (6+, 6, 1), 21091 (1), 21183 (1), 21639-43 (6+, 1, 1, 2, 1). •Valid as Syngnathus schmidti Popov 1928 [date changed 5 Feb. 1928] -- (Wheeler 1973:275 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:637 [ref. 13676], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:67 [ref. 26753] dated 1928, Fricke et al. 2007:75 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:75 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Kuiter 2009:250 [ref. 30404], Parin et al. 2014:210 [ref. 33547], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Abliazov et al. 2021:9 [ref. 38576], Niță et al. 2022:142 [ref. 40471]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus schmidti Popov 1928. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Black Sea, Sea of Azov, and Sea of Marmara. Habitat: brackish.

scovelli, Siphostoma Evermann [B. W.] & Kendall [W. C.] 1896:113 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 18 (no. 1043); ref. 14580] Shamrock Point, Corpus Christi, Texas, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 47300. Paralectotypes: USNM 218366 [ex USNM 47300] (1); plus mention of a total of 130 specimens: CAS-SU 5470 (4), 8613 (3); USNM 69367 (11). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:61-62 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype selected by Dawson 1982:83 [ref. 6764]. •Valid as Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann & Kendall 1896) -- (Lee et al. 1980:568 [ref. 22416], Dawson 1982:83 [ref. 6764], Robins & Ray 1986:126 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:270 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:96 [ref. 23239], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:136 [ref. 22947], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1065 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:231 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Ross et al. 2001:388 [ref. 25978], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:592 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:19 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:417 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2007:36 [ref. 30398], Kuiter 2009:256 [ref. 30404], Matamoros et al. 2009:16 [ref. 31241], García-Hernández et al. 2009:92 [ref. 37265], Page & Burr 2011:465 [ref. 31215], Martin et al. 2013:376 [ref. 36668], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:998 [ref. 33194], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:242 [ref. 35886], Carvalho-Filho 2023:103 [ref. 40480], Page et al. 2023:118 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann & Kendall 1896). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) south to São Paulo (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico; Central and South America; usually in nearshore marine habitats; some records from freshwater: Belize, Brazil, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, U.S.A., and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sinaloae, Siphostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1896:268 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 6; ref. 12310] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 2945. Paratypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.322 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:62 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Syngnathus auliscus (Swain 1882) -- (Fritzsche 1980:201 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:184 [ref. 6541], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:230 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus auliscus (Swain 1882). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

soldatovi, Syngnathus schlegeli Lindberg [G. U.] in Soldatov & Lindberg 1930:79, Fig. 22 [Izvestiia Tikhookeanskogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Rybnogo Khoziaistva i Okeanografii [Proceedings, Pacific Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography, TINRO, Moskva] v. 5; ref. 4164] Peter the Great Bay, Russia. Syntypes: ZIN 12611-12 (10, 11), 13115 (1). •Synonym of Syngnathus acusimilis Günther 1873 -- (Berg 1949:986 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1985:189 [ref. 6541], Kottelat 2013:307 [ref. 32989], Parin et al. 2014:209 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:59 [ref. 35138]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

springeri, Syngnathus Herald [E. S.] 1942:125 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 13205] Lemon Bay, Englewood, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: CAS-SU 36460. Paratypes: ANSP 15753 (1); USNM 25628 (1), 100453 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:160 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Syngnathus springeri Herald 1942 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:126 [ref. 23100], McAllister 1990:135 [ref. 14674], Dawson 1982:67 [ref. 6764], Scott & Scott 1988:352 [ref. 25518], Boschung 1992:96 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1066 [ref. 23897], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:255 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Page et al. 2023:118 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus springeri Herald 1942. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

taenionotus, Syngnathus Canestrini [G.] 1871:1062 [Atti del Regio Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti (ser. 3) v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 21164] Venice, Italy, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Syntypes: MSNG 14038 (3), MZUF 5667 (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:312 [ref. 10351], Vanni 1991:224 [ref. 20099], Nocita & Vanni 1998:68 [ref. 36144]. Also appeared in Canestrini 1872:142, Pl. 3 [ref. 14130]. •Valid as Syngnathus taenionotus Canestrini 1871 -- (Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:637 [ref. 13676], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:500 [ref. 29996], Kuiter 2009:245 [ref. 30404], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Kovačić et al. 2020:23 [ref. 37519], Kovačić et al. 2021:38 [ref. 39014]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus taenionotus Canestrini 1871. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea endemic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

temminckii, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:36 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Syntypes: RMNH 3876 (2, apparently lost). Type catalog: Dawson 1985:182 [ref. 6541]. •Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Dawson 1985:182 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:457 [ref. 5650], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). •Valid as Syngnathus temminckii Kaup 1856 -- (Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:141 [ref. 28072], Kuiter 2009:252 [ref. 30404], Mwale et al. 2013:2058 [ref. 38388], Moots 2022:493 [ref. 39722]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus temminckii Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Walvis Bay (Namibia) south to Cape of Good Hope (South Africa), then north to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: brackish, marine.

tenuirostris, Syngnathus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:273, Pl. 120 (fig. 5) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Japan. No types known. Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:195 [ref. 12876]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Syngnathus tenuirostris Rathke 1837. •Synonym of Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup 1853 -- (Kottelat 2013:307 [ref. 32989], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:59 [ref. 35138]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

tenuirostris, Syngnathus Rathke [H.] 1836:23 [313], Pl. 2 (figs. 11-12) [Mémoires présentés à l'Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg par divers savaus et lus dans ses assemblées. Mémoires des savaus étrangers v. 3; ref. 18611] Crimea coast, Ukraine, Black Sea. No types known. •Valid as Syngnathus tenuirostris Rathke 1836 -- (Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:637 [ref. 13676], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:67 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:75 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:76 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Kuiter 2009:251 [ref. 30404], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:210 [ref. 33547], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615] dated 1837, Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:178 [ref. 37250], Kovačić et al. 2020:23 [ref. 37519], Kovačić et al. 2021:38 [ref. 39014], Niță et al. 2022:143 [ref. 40471]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus tenuirostris Rathke 1836. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Black Sea; Sea of Marmara; northern Mediterranean Sea, including Aegean Sea and Adriatic Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

texanua, Syngnathus Gilbert [C. R.] in Page et al. 2013:216, No figure [ ref. 32708] Proposed as a new name for Syngnathus affinis, preoccupied by Syngnathus affinis endemic to the Black Sea. •In the synonymy of Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann & Kendall 1896) -- (Tolan 2008:93 [ref. 29889]). •We do not accept this species as valid (Eschmeyer 2013). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann & Kendall 1896). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

texanus, Syngnathus Gilbert [C. R.] In Page, Espinosa-Pérez, Findley, Gilbert, Lea, Mandrak et al. 2013:216 [ ref. 32708] Louisiana, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1854.7.3.2. Replacement name for Syngnathus affinis Günther 1870, preoccupied by Syngnathus affinis Eichwald 1831. •Possibly the same as Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann & Kendall 1896) -- (Tolan 2008:93 [ref. 29889]). •Valid as Syngnathus affinis Günther 1870 -- (Dawson 1982:90 [ref. 6764], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1061 [ref. 23897], Musick et al. 2000:14 [ref. 24959], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:245 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). •Valid as Syngnathus texanus Gilbert 2013 -- (Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Page et al. 2023:118 [ref. 40505]). Replacement Name. Current status: Valid as Syngnathus texanus Gilbert 2013. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

triacanthos, Balistes Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Machado 1857:24 [Catálogo de los peces que habitán ó frecuentan las costas de Cadiz y Huelva con inclusion de los del Rio Guadalquivir.; ref. 17320] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only; not available. Based on Balistes triacantos of Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:10 [ref. 17319]. Also appeared in Graells 1887:184 [ref.30438] as triacantos. •In the synonymy of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

triacantos, Balistes Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:10 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly an unpublished work. Also appeared in Graells 1887:184 [ref. 30438]. See also Balistes triacanthos Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Machado 1857:24 [ref. 17320]. •In the synonymy of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

tweedliei, Syngnathus Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:259, Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Chame Point, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 82088. •Synonym of Syngnathus auliscus (Swain 1882) -- (Fritzsche 1980:201 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:184 [ref. 6541], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:230 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus auliscus (Swain 1882). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

typhle, Syngnathus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:336 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Europe. Syntypes: LS 49 (1, left half-skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:42 [ref. 20705] but possible type is not same as species usually called typhle (see Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Spelled Syngnanthus typhele by Berkenhout 1789:63 [ref. 12437]. •Valid as Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Herrera 1896:36 [ref. 39336], Berg 1949:980 [ref. 20662], Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:638 [ref. 13676], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:67 [ref. 26753], Falcón et al. 2003:145 [ref. 39343], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:184 [ref. 28183], Golani 2005:32 [ref. 37112], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:175 [ref. 28369], Fricke 2007:28 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:75 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:500 [ref. 29996], Vasil'eva 2007:76 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:169 [ref. 31251], Kuiter 2009:248 [ref. 30404], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:210 [ref. 33547], Fritzsche 2016:2239 [ref. 34608], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Oruç & Engin 2018:1 [ref. 35874], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:178 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36864], Kovačić et al. 2020:23 [ref. 37519], Abliazov et al. 2021:9 [ref. 38576], Bañón & Maño 2021:66 [ref. 38883], Golani 2021:35 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:38 [ref. 39014], Niță et al. 2022:146[ref. 40471], Ergüden & Ayas 2023:34 [ref. 40488]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

variegatus, Syngnathus Pallas [P. S.] 1814:119 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Crimean coast, Ukraine, Black Sea. No types known. •Valid as Syngnathus variegatus Pallas 1814 -- (Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:638 [ref. 13676], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:68 [ref. 26753], Vasil'eva 2007:77 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Kuiter 2009:250 [ref. 30404], Parin et al. 2014:211 [ref. 33547], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Abliazov et al. 2021:9 [ref. 38576], Niță et al. 2022:148 [ref. 40471]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus variegatus Pallas 1814. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Habitat: brackish, marine.

virens, Syngnathus Billberg [G. J.] 1833:115, Fig. 2 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Bohuslän Archipelago, Sweden. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kullander 2016:115 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

viridescens, Syngnathus DeKay [J. E.] 1842:321, Pl. 54 (fig. 176) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Sing Sing, New York and Hudson River, U.S.A. Syntypes: New York State coll. (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839 -- (Dawson 1982:77 [ref. 6764], Smith 1986:419 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

viridis, Siphostoma Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:37, 56 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Parenti 2019:116 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

viridis, Syngnathus Risso [A.] 1810:65 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Mer de Island Hospice, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

watermeyeri, Syngnathus Smith [J. L. B.] 1963:538, Pl. 82 (figs. G-H) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 27; ref. 6516] Bushmans River near Port Alfred, 33°50'S, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 124. Other specimens: (11) GCRL [ex SAIAB [formerly RUSI]] (2), NMW 75532 (1), RMNH 920 (orig. 13, now 11). •Valid as Syngnathus watermeyeri Smith 1963 -- (Dawson 1985:190 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:457 [ref. 5650], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Whitfield 1995:152 [ref. 22144], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:141 [ref. 28072], Kuiter 2009:257 [ref. 30404], Mwale et al. 2013:2059 [ref. 38388], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Moots 2022:493 [ref. 39722]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus watermeyeri Smith 1963. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Eastern Cape (South Africa) endemic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.


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