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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Acanthurus: [ 132 ] records


achilles, Acanthurus Shaw [G.] 1803:383 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] No locality. No types known. •Valid as Acanthurus achilles Shaw 1803 -- (Randall 1956:201 [ref. 12221], Allen & Robertson 1994:272 [ref. 22193], Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:842 [ref. 22829], Allen & Robertson 1997:832 [ref. 41086], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:45 [ref. 24545], Myers 1999:269 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:27 [ref. 25829], Thomson et al. 2000:256 [ref. 25640], Randall & Frische 2000:51 [ref. 25805], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:30 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3666 [ref. 26301], Yoshigou et al. 2003:2 [ref. 26786], Myers & Donaldson 2003:646 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:76 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:174 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:164 [ref. 37547], Randall 2005:574 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:485 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:420 [ref. 30952], Craig 2008:65 [ref. 29767], Béarez & Séret 2009:151 [ref. 36646], Hobbs et al. 2010:64 [ref. 30769], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Lobel et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37334], Love et al. 2021:208 [ref. 39279], Page et al. 2023:163 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus achilles Shaw 1803. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Pacific: Caroline Islands east to Hawaiian Islands, Marquesas Islands and Pitcairn Group, straying to Clipperton Island (France) and Baja California (Mexico), south to Torres Strait (Queensland, Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Hybridizes with A. nigricans (Linnaeus 1758). Habitat: marine.

albimento, Acanthurus Carpenter [K. E.], Williams [J. T.] & Santos [M. D.] 2017:37, Figs. 3-4, 6A [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 25; ref. 35143] Northeast Luzon, Aurora Province, Philippines, purchased at Dinadiawan City Market, exact locality unknown (vendor stated it was caught in vicinity of Dinadiawan). Holotype: PNM 15199 (ex USNM 438093). Paratypes: PNM, USNM. •Valid as Acanthurus albimento Carpenter, Williams & Santos 2017. Current status: Valid as Acanthurus albimento Carpenter, Williams & Santos 2017. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

albipectoralis, Acanthurus Allen [G. R.] & Ayling [A. M.] 1987:15, Fig. 1 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 48 (no. 1); ref. 13388] Swain Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia, 20°57'S, 152°15'E, depth 5 meters. Holotype: QM I.22341. Paratypes: WAM P.28537-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:43 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Acanthurus albipectoralis Allen & Ayling 1987 -- (Randall et al. 1990:420 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:420 [ref. 25919], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:424 [ref. 25191], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:41 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:575 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1733 [ref. 29094], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus albipectoralis Allen & Ayling 1987. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

aliala, Acanthurus Lesson [R. P.] 1831:150 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Kosrae, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:65 [ref. 22195]. Original as ali-ala. •Synonym of Acanthurus glaucopareius Cuvier 1829 -- (Randall 1956:199 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1988:56 [ref. 14257], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:565 [ref. 24023], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:353 [ref. 28867], Randall 2007:424 [ref. 30952], Craig 2008:65 [ref. 29767]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

annularis, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:209 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0920 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:56 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus blochii Valenciennes 1835 -- (Fricke 1999:535 [ref. 24106], Randall 2022:222 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus blochii Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

aquilinus, Hepatus Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:353, Fig. 66 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype (unique): USNM 51759. •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:215 [ref. 12221], Randall 2005:583 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:427[ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

armiger, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:234 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] No locality [= Caroline Islands]. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:65 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834 -- (Randall 1956:196 [ref. 12221], Bauchot & Randall 1996:65 [ref. 22195]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

aterrimus, Acanthurus Günther [A.] 1872:660 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871 (pt 3) (art. 1) (for 21 Nov. 1871); ref. 1997] Savai'i Island, Samoa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1871.9.13.199. •Synonym of Acanthurus achilles Shaw 1803 -- (Randall 1956:201 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus achilles Shaw 1803. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

atramentatus, Hepatus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1905:393 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 1) (1903); ref. 2451] Not an original description. Based on Teuthis atrimentatus [sic] Jordan & Evermann 1903 [ref. 2450], p. 198. •In the synonymy of Acanthurus nigroris Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 2007:425 [ref. 30952]). •In the synonymy of Acanthurus nigros Günther 1861 -- (Randall et al. 2011:265 [ref. 31249]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigros Günther 1861. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

atrimentatus, Teuthis Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:198 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50673. Paratypes: (20) AMNH 2301 (1); ANSP 24229 (1), 28144-45 (1, 1); BPBM 1707 (1); CAS 1501 (1); FMNH 3968 (1); IU 9818 (1, not found); MCZ 28909 (1); CAS-SU 7482 (1); USFC 2731 (1); USNM 126593 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:104 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:17 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:83 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Acanthurus nigroris Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:187 [ref. 12221], Mundy 2005:489 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2011:265 [ref. 31249]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigroris Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

auranticavus, Acanthurus Randall [J. E.] 1956:210, Figs. 2u, 19 [Pacific Science v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 12221] Atulayan Island, Lagonoy Gulf, eastern coast of Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 136194. Paratypes: BMNH 1956.8.14.1 [ex USNM 136188] (1); CAS-SU 47695 [ex USNM 163619] (2); USNM 136202 (1), 163823 (1). •Valid as Acanthurus auranticavus Randall 1956 -- (Randall et al. 1990:420 [ref. 15987], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:553 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:366 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:420 [ref. 25919], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:44 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Randall et al. 2005:131 [ref. 28745], Allen et al. 2006:1734 [ref. 29094], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1019 [ref. 31980], Carpenter et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35143], Moore et al. 2020:110 [ref. 37357], Randall 2022:221 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus auranticavus Randall 1956. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles and Maldives east to Indonesia, north to Philippines, south to Kimberley (Western Australia) and Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia). Habitat: marine.

aurolineatus, Acanthurus Day [F.] 1876:204, Pl. 48 (fig. 3) [The fishes of India Part 2; ref. 1081] Waltair, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI F1020. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762]. •Synonym of Acanthurus bleekeri Günther 1861 -- (Randall 1956:180 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

australis, Teuthis Gray [J. E.] 1827:435 [List of fish of Australia; ref. 18152] West coast of Australia. BMNH 2012.11.1.1. •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221], Allen et al. 2006:1737 [ref. 29094]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

bahianus, Acanthurus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:24, Pl. 11 (fig. 1) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7078. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:56 [ref. 22195]. •Valid as Acanthurus bahianus Castelnau 1855 -- (Randall 1956:225 [ref. 12221], Robins & Ray 1986:256 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:664 [ref. 9166], Desoutter 1990:962 [ref. 18967], Cervigón 1992:251 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1994:213 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:321 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:168 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1646 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:992 [ref. 25909], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:65 [ref. 26232], Rocha et al. 2002:244 [ref. 25914], Smith-Vaniz et al. 2002:104 [ref. 26570], Collette et al. 2003:124 [ref. 26784], Randall 2003:1803 [ref. 27098], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:100 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:174 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:742 [ref. 28815], Matamoros et al. 2009:26 [ref. 31241], Bernal & Rocha 2011:66 [ref. 31336] with modified range, Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:82 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:10 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:31 [ref. 34324], Triay-Portella et al. 2015:168 [ref. 36561], Rocha in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2861 [ref. 34618], Spier et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36103], Brown et al. 2019:180 [ref. 36444], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:660 [ref. 38945], Carvalho-Filho 2023:244 [ref. 40480], Ceríaco et al. 2023:67 [ref. 40710], Hoff et al. 2023:5 [ref. 40463]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus bahianus Castelnau 1855. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Maranhão south to Santa Catarina (Brazil), including offshore islands; southern central Atlantic: Ascension and St. Helena islands. Invasive at Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

bariene, Acanthurus Lesson [R. P.] 1831:150 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Offack Bay, Waigeo [Waigiou], Indonesia. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:65 [ref. 22195]. •Valid as Acanthurus bariene Lesson 1831 -- (Randall 1956:206 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:232 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:420 [ref. 15987], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:553 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:366 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:420 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:269 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:1328 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:256 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:269 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:51 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301] dated 1830, Nakabo 2002:1328 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:1734 [ref. 29094], Imamura 2009:301 [ref. 30434], Motomura et al. 2010:225 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1019 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:270 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:181 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:99 [ref. 35333], Carpenter et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35143], Fricke et al. 2019:299 [ref. 36673], Randall 2022:221 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus bariene Lesson 1831. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mozambique Channel, Seychelles and Maldives east to Palau and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

bicommatus, Acanthurus Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:694, Pl. 18 (figs. C-D) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 8 (no. 93) (art. 82) (for Sept. 1955); ref. 12476] Shimoni, Kenya, 4°40'S, 39°30'E, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 4. Paratypes: (many) not researched. Published 5 Jan. 1956. •Synonym of Acanthurus tennentii Günther 1861 -- (Randall 1986:815 [ref. 5706] as tennenti). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus tennentii Günther 1861. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

bipunctatus, Acanthurus Günther [A.] 1861:331 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] China Sea [in error, Malay Archipelago] and Fiji Islands. Lectotype: BMNH 1848.3.13.215. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1856.9.4.75 (1) Fiji. Randall et al. 2011:270 [ref. 31149] serve as first revisers, selecting nigros Günther 1861 over bipunctatus Günther; both published in the same publication. Lectotype selected by Randall 1956 [ref. 12221]. •Synonym of Acanthurus nigroris Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:187 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus nigros Günther 1861 -- (Randall et al. 2011:270 [ref. 31249]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigros Günther 1861. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

bishopi, Teuthis Bryan [W. A.] & Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1903:134 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 15652] Marcus Island, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): BPBM 2442. •Synonym of Acanthurus leucopareius (Jenkins 1903) -- (Randall 1956:185 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus leucopareius (Jenkins 1903). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Acanthurus Günther [A.] 1861:335 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] East Indies. No types known. Based on Acanthurus meta of Bleeker 1854:432, not Chaetodon mata Cuvier 1829. •Valid as Acanthurus bleekeri Günther 1861 -- (Randall 1956:180 [ref. 12221], Dor 1984:253 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:230 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:67 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:554 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:152 [ref. 26476], Fricke 1999:534 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall et al. 1990:423 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:388 [ref. 22896], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:53 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3669 [ref. 26301], Randall 2005:578 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1735 [ref. 29094], Golani & Fricke 2018:166 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

blochii, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:209 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean; Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN (apparently lost), ZMB 1733 (3) Indian Ocean. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:65 [ref. 22195], Paepke 1999:41 [ref. 24282]. Not Acanthurus blochii Bennett 1836 [8 Apr.]. •Questionably a synonym of Acanthurus mata Cuvier 1829 -- (Randall 1956:219 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Dor 1984:255 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Acanthurus blochii Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1986:813 [ref. 5706], Randall 1988:59 [ref. 14257], Randall et al. 1990:421 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:421 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:269 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:535 [ref. 24106], Allen 2000:93 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1330 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:425 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:49 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1330 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:646 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:76 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:400 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:575 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:486 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1734 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:420 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:106 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1019 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:270 [ref. 32706], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:99 [ref. 35333], Carpenter et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35143], Fricke et al. 2018:351 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:299 [ref. 36673], Kim et al. 2021:208 [ref. 39117], Randall 2022:222 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus blochii Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Aldabra (Seychelles), Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Hawaiian Islands (.S.A.) and Society Islands (French Polynesia), north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands (Japan), south to Lord Howe Island (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

brevis, Acanthurus Poey [F.] 1860:207 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:222 [ref. 12221], Desoutter 1990:963 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

broussonnetii, Acanthurus Desmarest [A. G.] 1823:186 [26], Pl. 3 (fig. 1) of separate [Mémoires de la Société linnéenne de Paris v. 2; ref. 1120] Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:65 [ref. 22195]. On p. 26 of separate, Fig. 2, unnumbered Pl. after p. 26. •Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:221 [ref. 12221], Desoutter 1990:963 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

caeruleatus, Acronurus Poey [F.] 1875:143 [69], Pl. 7 [3] (figs. 15-17) [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 4 (for 13 Jan. 1875); ref. 3509] Cuba. No types known. On p. 69 of separate. •Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:222 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

carinatus, Acanthurus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:216 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Red Sea. Unexplained new name for Chaetodon sohal Forsskål 1775. •Objective synonym of Acanthurus sohal (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:194 [ref. 12221], Dor 1984:255 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Acanthurus sohal (Gmelin 1789) -- (Fricke 2008:55 [ref. 30182], Randall 2022:228 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus sohal (Gmelin 1789). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

caroli, Teuthis Curtiss [A.] 1938:124 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Near mouth of Vaiurua River, Tautira township, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

celebicus, Acanthurus Bleeker [P.] 1853:761 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 5); ref. 335] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6331. •Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834 -- (Randall 1956:197 [ref. 12221], Randall 2001:3673 [ref. 26301], Randall 2005:581 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:353 [ref. 28867]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

chirurgus, Chaetodon Bloch [M. E.] 1787:99, Pl. 208 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] Martinique Island, West Indies. Types: ZMB (not found). On p. 74 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Acanthurus chirurgus (Bloch 1787) -- (Randall 1956:223 [ref. 12221], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:406 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:256 [ref. 23100], Desoutter 1990:962 [ref. 18967], Boschung 1992:166 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:251 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1994:215 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:321 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:168 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:992 [ref. 25909], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:68 [ref. 26232], Rocha et al. 2002:244 [ref. 25914], Smith-Vaniz et al. 2002:104 [ref. 26570], Collette et al. 2003:124 [ref. 26784], Randall 2003:1804 [ref. 27098], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:100 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:174 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:743 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:94 [ref. 37265], Bernal & Rocha 2011:63 [ref. 31336], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32972], Kottelat 2013:442 [ref. 32989], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:81 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:10 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:32 [ref. 34324], Triay-Portella et al. 2015:168 [ref. 36561], Rocha in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2861 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961], Costa et al. 2017:46 [ref. 35684], Spier et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36103], Robertson et al. 2020:150 [ref. 38098], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:661 [ref. 38945], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:77 [ref. 38844], Kovačić et al. 2021:58 [ref. 39014], Bennema & van Moorsel 2022:69 [ref. 39585], Carvalho-Filho 2023:245 [ref. 40480], Hoff et al. 2023:5 [ref. 40463], Page et al. 2023:163 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus chirurgus (Bloch 1787). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) south to Santa Catarina (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; western Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

chronixis, Acanthurus Randall [J. E.] 1960:267, Figs. 1-2 [Pacific Science v. 14 (no. 3); ref. 11941] Teawataman Ship Pass, southern side of Kapingamarangi Atoll, 1°02'09"N, 154°45'04"E, 1 mile from shore, Caroline Islands, westrern Pacific, depth to 20 feet. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 52104. Additional material: CAS-SU 52105 (2, juveniles). Juveniles somewhat tentatively regarded as this species, so they are not regarded as types. •Valid as Acanthurus chronixis Randall 1960 -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441], Myers 1999:269 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:1329 [ref. 25182], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1329 [ref. 26193]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus chronixis Randall 1960. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

chrysosoma, Acanthurus Bleeker [P.] 1857:67 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 13 (no. 1); ref. 16866] Kajeli, Buru Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 6425 (4). •Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:203 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

coeruleus, Acanthurus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:214 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Carolinas, U.S.A.; Havana, Cuba; Jamaica. Syntypes: Not preserved. Based on the 'Turdus rhomboides' of Catesby 1743:10, pl. 10 (upper fig.) [ref. 774], the 'Barbero' of Parra 1787:45, pl. 21 (fig. 2) [ref. 6840], and the 'Teuthis fusca cœruleo nitens' of Browne 1789:454 [ref. 69]. •Valid as Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:221 [ref. 12221], Robins & Ray 1986:256 [ref. 23100], Desoutter 1990:963 [ref. 18967], Boschung 1992:166 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:252 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1994:216 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:321 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:168 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1646 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:992 [ref. 25909], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:66 [ref. 26232], Rocha et al. 2002:244 [ref. 25914], Smith-Vaniz et al. 2002:104 [ref. 26570], Collette et al. 2003:125 [ref. 26784], Randall 2003:1805 [ref. 27098], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:101 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:174 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:744 [ref. 28815], Bernal & Rocha 2011:63 [ref. 31336], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:81 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:10 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:32 [ref. 34324], Triay-Portella et al. 2015:169 [ref. 36561], Rocha in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2862 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961], Spier et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36103], Brown et al. 2019:180 [ref. 36444], Robertson et al. 2020:150 [ref. 38098], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:662 [ref. 38945], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:77 [ref. 38844], Golani 2021:80 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:58 [ref. 39014], Bennema & van Moorsel 2022:69 [ref. 39585], Carvalho-Filho 2023:244 [ref. 40480] as aff. coeruleus, Hoff et al. 2023:5 [ref. 40463], Page et al. 2023:163 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands. Invasive at Canary Islands and in Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

couaga, Chaetodon Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:726, 727 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] South Africa. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:132 [ref. 20718]. Based on a Commerson figure. •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

crestonis, Teuthis Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:485, Pl. 47 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Astillero estuary at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: CAS-SU 2899. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.157 (1) from Jordan, CAS-SU 2899 (6, including potential lectotype), USNM 47473 [ex CAS-SU 2899] (1), ZMB 14079 [from Jordan] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:104 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 256, p. 3284 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:215 [ref. 12221], Randall 2005:583 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:428 [ref. 30952]). •Probable synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Thomson et al. 2000:256 [ref. 25640]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

delisiani, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:193 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7067. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:57 [ref. 22195]. The same as Acanthurus delisianus Griffith & Smith 1834. •Synonym of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833 -- (Randall 1956:198 [ref. 12221], Fricke 1999:536 [ref. 24106], Randall 2022:224 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

delisianus, Acanthurus Griffith [E.] & Smith [C. H.] 1834:opp. 214, Pl. 35 (fig. 2) [The class Pisces, arranged by the Baron Cuvier; ref. 1908] [No locality stated] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7067. See also Acanthurus delisiani Valenciennes 1835. •Synonym of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833 -- (Randall 2022:224 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

delissianus, Acanthurus Guérin-Méneville [F. E.] 1829-38:22, Pl. 35 (fig. 2) [Iconographie du Règne animal de G. Cuvier IV, Poissons; ref. 18162] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Perhaps just a new spelling for delisiani Valenciennes 1835. •Evidently the same as Acanthurus delisiani Valenciennes 1835. •Synonym of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833 -- (Randall 2022:224 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

doreensis, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:220 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Doreh Harbor, New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7099. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:57 [ref. 22195]. •Uncertain status -- (Randall 1956:226 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834 -- (Bauchot & Randall 1996:57 [ref. 22195]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

dussumieri, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:201 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-8136. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:57 [ref. 22195]. •Valid as Acanthurus dussumieri Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:213 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:232 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:813 [ref. 5706], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:421 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:372 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Randall 1995:387 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:152 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:364 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:421 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:269 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:535 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:93 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1330 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:425 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:256 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:50 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3667 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1330 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:646 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:400 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:576 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:486 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1734 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:421 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:106 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Caratini & Soriano 2011:26 [ref. 39915], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1020 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:270 [ref. 32706], Francis & Duffy 2015:483 [ref. 36161], Struthers 2015:1592 [ref. 34302], Motomura et al. 2015:30 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:99 [ref. 35333], Carpenter et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35143], Fowler et al. 2017:[4] 2252 [ref. 36358], Fricke et al. 2018:351 [ref. 35805], Dalleau-Coudert et al. 2019:143 [ref. 40104], Fricke et al. 2019:299 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:558 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:110 [ref. 37637], Durville et al. 2021:314 [ref. 38802], Kim et al. 2021:210 [ref. 39117], Randall 2022:222 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus dussumieri Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Madagascar, Saya de Malha Bank (Cargados Carajos) and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.) and Line Islands (Kiribati), north to central Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Rowley Shoals (Western Australia), southern New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island (Australia) and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

elegans, Teuthis Garman [S.] 1899:70, Pl. L' (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off the Cocos-Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean, at the surface. Syntypes: MCZ 28745 (11). •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Chaetodon Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:454, 473, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Indo-Pacific. Syntypes: MNHN A-7506 (2, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:121 [ref. 20718], Bauchot & Randall 1996:61 [ref. 22195]. •Status uncertain -- (Randall et al. 1990:424 [ref. 15987], Bauchot & Randall 1996:61 [ref. 22195]). •Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 2022:227 [ref. 40150]) Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

eparai, Acanthurus Lesson [R. P.] 1831:147, Poissons Pl. 27 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:65 [ref. 22195] as eparai. Appeared as eparae in text (p. 147); first reviser not researched. •Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:203 [ref. 12221], Bauchot & Randall 1996:65 [ref. 22195]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

erythromelas, Acanthurus (Ctenodon) Swainson [W.] 1839:256 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Lesson, Atl. 27.1 -- which is Lesson 1831:Pl. 27 [ref. 2776]. Unneeded new name for Acanthurus eparei Lesson 1830. •Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:203 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Acanthurus Bliss [R.] 1883:53 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ (not found). •Synonym of Acanthurus polyzona (Bleeker 1868) -- (Fricke 1999:540 [ref. 24106], Randall 2022:228 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus polyzona (Bleeker 1868). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Harpurus Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:215, xxxviii [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Not available, treated in synonymy of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) and not recognized as valid; from Huahaine, Society Is.; Latinized in index on p. xxxviii. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). •In the synonymy of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae.

formosus, Acronurus Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:104 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Noble Island, Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. Lectotype: MNHN A-7096. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-7095 (4), 1995-0960 (1); NMV 51869 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:60 [ref. 22195]. Lectotype selected by Bauchot & Randall 1996:60 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus achilles Shaw 1803 -- (Randall 1956:201 [ref. 12221] with question, Bauchot & Randall 1996:60 [ref. 22195]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus achilles Shaw 1803. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

fowleri, Acanthurus de Beaufort [L. F.] (ex Fowler & Bean) in de Beaufort & Chapman 1951:149 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago; ref. 16097] Buka Island; Maitara; Gomomo Island, Philippines. Syntypes: USNM (as listed in Fowler & Bean). Based on Hepatus pyroferus of Fowler & Bean 1929:232 [ref. 1476] (not Kittlitz); description taken from Fowler & Bean. •Valid as Acanthurus fowleri de Beaufort 1951 -- (Randall 1956:206 [ref. 12221], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:54 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:1734 [ref. 29094], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1020 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:182 [ref. 33932], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus fowleri de Beaufort 1951. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean: east Indian region, Indonesia north to Philippines, east to Solomon Islands, south to New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

fraterculus, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:206 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:66 [ref. 22195]. Based on a drawing. •Unidentifiable -- (Randall 1954:160 [ref. 12221]). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

fuliginosus, Acanthurus Lesson [R. P.] 1831:149 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Kosrae, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:66 [ref. 22195] with uncertain status. Based on a drawing; no types known. •Unidentifiable -- (Randall 1954:160 [ref. 12221]). •Valid as Acanthurus fuliginosus Lesson 1831 -- (Khan 1998:230 [ref. 24980]). •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 2001:3675 [ref. 26301] as fulginosus, with date 1830, Mundy 2005:491 [ref. 28379], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:353 [ref. 28867]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Acanthurus Steindachner [F.] 1861:176, Pl. 5 (fig. 2) [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 11; ref. 18748] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (several) whereabouts unknown •Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834 -- (Randall 1956:197 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

gahm, Chaetodon Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1268 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] No locality stated (Red Sea). No types known. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:55 [ref. 30182]. Based on unnamed variation (Arabic name Gahhm) of Chaetodon nigrofuscus Forsskål in Niebuhr, 1775 of Forsskål in Niebuhr, 1775:64, xiii [ref. 1351] (see Fricke 2008:55 [ref. 30182]); made available as Chaetodon gahm by Gmelin 1789:1268 [ref. 18139]. Spelled gahm by many early authors; spelling gahhm is here retained due to prevailing usage. •Synonym of Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:254 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Acanthurus gahhm (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:207 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:232 [ref. 6441], Randall 1988:56 [ref. 14257], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:45 [ref. 26232], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:579 [ref. 28239], DiBattista et al. 2015:22 [ref. 35706], Carpenter et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35143], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[17] 255 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:166 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871]). •Valid as Acanthurus gahhm (Gmelin 1789) -- (Fricke 2008:55 [ref. 30182], Randall 2022:223 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus gahhm (Gmelin 1789). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Red Sea; northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Socotra (Yemen). Habitat: marine.

gahmoides, Acanthurus Guichenot [A.] 1863:C-8 [Faune ichthyologique 2nd Partie, Annexe C.; ref. 1943] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1315. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:57 [ref. 22195]. •Questionably a synonym of Acanthurus gahhm (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:206 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Fricke 1999:543 [ref. 24106], Randall 2022:230 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

glaucopareius, Acanthurus Cuvier [G.] 1829:224 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Tahiti, Society Islands. BMNH 1979.6.13.8. Available from footnote as, "Ac. glauco-pareius, N., Seb., III, 1734, xxv, 3, qui paraît le vrai Chaetodon nigricans, L." •Valid as Acanthurus glaucopareius Cuvier 1829 -- (Randall 1956:199 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1988:56 [ref. 14257], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:423 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:272 [ref. 22193] as glaucoparieus, Chen et al. 1997:153 [ref. 26476], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:565 [ref. 24023] as glaucopareus, Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Thomson et al. 2000:256 [ref. 25640], Randall & Frische 2000:51 [ref. 25805], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:28 [ref. 26232] dated 1831, Mundy 2005:488 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:424 [ref. 30952], Craig 2008:65 [ref. 29767]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

gnophodes, Harpurus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:544, Pl. 22 (upper fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27750. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:17 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Acanthurus bleekeri Günther 1861 -- (Randall 1956:180 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

grammoptilus, Acanthurus Richardson [J.] 1843:176 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 11 (nos 67-8, 71-2); ref. 13395] Port Essington, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1853.1.4.5 (dry) or 1843.6.15.38 (dry). West Pacific. •Valid as Acanthurus grammoptilus Richardson 1843 -- (Randall 1956:211 [ref. 12221], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:422 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:372 [ref. 23967], Randall et al. 1997:422 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:40 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:353 [ref. 28867], Allen et al. 2006:1734 [ref. 29094], Larson et al. 2013:213 [ref. 32988], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626], Noushad K. et al. 2024:46 [ref. 40947]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus grammoptilus Richardson 1843. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

guentheri, Acanthurus Weber [M.] 1913:317 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia, Siboga station 231; Sri Lanka. Syntypes: BMNH 1858.4.21.158-159 (2), Ambon Island and BMNH 1857.6.13.47 (1, RHS skin), Sri Lanka, ZMA 116476 (2). Based on Acanthurus nigrofuscus of Günther 1862:331 [ref. 1964] and 2 Siboga specimens. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Teuthis guentheri Jenkins 1903, replaced by Hepatus weberi Ahl 1923. •Synonym of Acanthurus bleekeri Günther 1861 -- (Randall 1956:180 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

guentheri, Teuthis Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:477, Fig. 29 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50842 (not found in 1980). Paratypes: (11) CAS-SU 23329 (8). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:104 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:216 [ref. 12221], Dor 1984:255 [ref. 29757], Mundy 2005:491 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Acanthurus Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:215 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Otahaitee [Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific]. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1962.12.14.6. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Author given as 'Schn.' (Schneider). •Valid as Acanthurus guttatus Forster 1801 -- (Randall 1956:184 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:422 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:422 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:28 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:536 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:27 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:93 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1326 [ref. 25182] with authors as Forster & Schneider, Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:40 [ref. 26232] dated 1802, Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1326 [ref. 26193] with authors as Forster & Schneider, Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], with authors as Forster & Schneider, Lobel & Lobel 2004:76 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:576 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:487 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1735 [ref. 29094] with authorship as Bloch & Schneider, Randall 2007:422 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:151 [ref. 36646], Fricke et al. 2009:106 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1020 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Cambra et al. 2018:2 [ref. 36349], Fricke et al. 2019:299 [ref. 36673], Randall 2022:223 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus guttatus Forster 1801. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues), Maldives and Chagos Archipelago (British ndian Ocean Territory) east to Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.) , Marquesas Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia), north to Ryukyu Islands (Japan), south to New Caledonia, Australia and Rapa (French Polynesia); eastern Pacific: Clipperton Atoll (France) and Cocos Island (Costa Rica). Habitat: marine.

helioides, Teuthis Barbour [T.] 1905:127, Pl. 3 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 46 (no. 7); ref. 15336] Near Cooper's Island, Castle Sound, Bermuda. Holotype (unique): MCZ 29053. •Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:222 [ref. 12221], Desoutter 1990:963 [ref. 18967], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:321 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

hirudo, Acanthurus Bennett [J. W.] 1829:unnum. p., Pl. 11 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon First Edition; ref. 16785] South coast of Sri Lanka. No types known. Sometimes seen as Acanthurus hirundo. •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221], Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:43 [ref. 21456]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

humeralis, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:231 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Carolines [actual = Tahiti]. Syntypes: MNHN A-7027 (1) Caroline Is., A-7030 (1) Tahiti; ZMB 1744 [ex MNHN] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:57 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:203 [ref. 12221], Mundy 2005:490 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Hepatus aliala Schmidt [P. Yu.] 1931:102, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Transactions of the Pacific Committee of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. v. 1; ref. 3937] Kominato, Amami-Oshima Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZIN 23351. •Synonym of Acanthurus glaucopareius Cuvier 1829 -- (Randall 1956:199 [ref. 12221]). •Valid as Acanthurus japonicus (Schmidt 1931) -- (Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1328 [ref. 25182], Randall & Frische 2000:51 [ref. 25805], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:29 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301] dated 1930, Nakabo 2002:1328 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Craig 2008:65 [ref. 29767], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1021 [ref. 31980], Koeda et al. 2016:100 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus japonicus (Schmidt 1931). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Malaysia to Philippines, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Habitat: marine.

kingii, Acanthurus Bennett [E. T.] 1835:119 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1835 (pt 3); ref. 16797] Port Praya, Cape Verde Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Acanthurus bariene Lesson 1831 -- (Randall 1956:206 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus bariene Lesson 1831. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

lamarrii, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:236 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN A-0596 (1), A-7503 (1, dry), A-7765 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus dussumieri Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:211 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Fricke 1999:543 [ref. 24106], Randall 2022:230 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

leucocheilus, Acanthurus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1927:419, Pl. 12 (fig. 3) [Philippine Journal of Science v. 34 (no. 4); ref. 10961] Bantayan, Cebu, and Agutaya, Philippines. Syntypes: BSMP (5) presumed destroyed. •Valid as Acanthurus leucocheilus Herre 1927 -- (Randall 1956:195 [ref. 12221], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:48 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2005:132 [ref. 28745], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1021 [ref. 31980], Carpenter et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35143], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871], Moore et al. 2020:110 [ref. 37357], Randall 2022:224 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus leucocheilus Herre 1927. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles and Maldives east to Caroline Islands, Palau and Line Islands (Kiribati), south to Kimberley (Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

leucopareius, Teuthis Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:476, Fig. 28 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50841. Paratypes: (8) CAS-SU 23324 (3), 23327 (5); USNM 50712 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:104 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Acanthurus leucopareius (Jenkins 1903) -- (Randall 1956:185 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441], Pequeño 1989:66 [ref. 14125], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:27 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1328 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:425 [ref. 25191], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:32 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1328 [ref. 26193], Myers & Donaldson 2003:646 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:76 [ref. 27576], Randall 2005:577 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:487 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:422 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:100 [ref. 35333], Furuhashi & Motomura 2022:16 [ref. 39607]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus leucopareius (Jenkins 1903). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Hong Kong and Taiwan east to Hawaiian Islands (U. S. A.) and Easter Island, north to southern Japan, south to Grande Terre, Loyalty Islands, Matthew and Hunter Islands (New Caledonia) and Rapa (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

leucosternon, Acanthurus Bennett [E. T.] 1833:183 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1832 (pt 2); ref. 16789] Sri Lanka, Indian Ocean. Holotype or syntypes: BMNH 1855.12.26.442 (1). •Valid as Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833 -- (Randall 1956:198 [ref. 12221], Randall 1986:813 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Randall 1995:387 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Fricke 1999:536 [ref. 24106], Allen 2000:93 [ref. 37268], Randall & Frische 2000:51 [ref. 25805], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:26 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301] dated 1832, Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:401 [ref. 28072], Craig 2008:65 [ref. 29767], Fricke et al. 2009:106 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:302 [ref. 30434], Caratini & Soriano 2011:21 [ref. 39915], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1021 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:270 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:351 [ref. 35805], Dalleau-Coudert et al. 2019:145 [ref. 40104], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:558 [ref. 37272], Randall 2022:224 [ref. 40150], Noushad K. et al. 2024:46 [ref. 40947]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Myanmar, Cocos-Keeling Islands (Australia), Christmas Island (Australia) and western Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

leucosternum, Acanthurus Day [F.] 1889:138 [The fauna of British India v. 2; ref. 4888] Apparently an unjustified emendation of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett (which is cited). •Synonym of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus leucosternon Bennett 1833. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

liberatae, Teuthis Curtiss [A.] 1938:125 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Acanthurus (Ctenodon) Swainson [W.] 1839:256 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Benn. pl. 2 -- which is Bennett 1828:Pl. 2 [ref. 16785]. Probably a new combination for Chaetodon lineatus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Acanthurus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:191 [ref. 12221], Randall 2001:3668 [ref. 26301], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Chaetodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:274 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Indies. No types known. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:537 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Acanthurus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:193 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:813 [ref. 5706], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:422 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:373 [ref. 23929], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:554 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:153 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:368 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:422 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:537 [ref. 24106], Mishra et al. 1999:88 [ref. 25315], Allen 2000:93 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1327 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:426 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:62 [ref. 26232] dated 1756, Nakabo 2002:1327 [ref. 26193], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:202 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:577 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:487 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1735 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:423 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:106 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:302 [ref. 30434], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Caratini & Soriano 2011:24 [ref. 39915], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1022 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:182 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:100 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:16 [ref. 35354], Fowler et al. 2017:[4] 2252 [ref. 36358], Fricke et al. 2018:351 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:9 [ref. 36883], Dalleau-Coudert et al. 2019:143 [ref. 40104], Fricke et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 27 [ref. 38321], Psomadakis et al. 2020:558 [ref. 37272], Dewa et al. 2022:29 [ref. 40001], Furuhashi & Motomura 2022:16 [ref. 39607], Randall 2022:225 [ref. 40150], Noushad K. et al. 2024:46 [ref. 40947]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.), Marquesas Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia), north to Kagoshima Prefecture (southern Japan) and Ogasawara Islands (Japan), south to southern New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

lineolatus, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:207 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Sea of the Indies. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Valenciennes specimens: ZMB 1635 [ex MNHN] (1) Vanicolo. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:66 [ref. 22195]. •Questionably a synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:190 [ref. 12221], Randall et al. 1990:424 [ref. 15987], Mundy 2005:489 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:424 [ref. 30952], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

lineolatus, Acronurus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:511 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMB 8011 (1). •Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:254 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989]). •Status uncertain -- (Randall 1954:161 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

lishenus, Acanthurus Shen [S.-C.] & Lim [P.-C.] 1973:121, Fig. 28 [Report of the Institute of Fishery Biology of Ministry of Economic Affairs and National Taiwan Unversity, Taipei v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 52] Hong-tsai-keng, southwestern tip of Taiwan, South China Sea, depth 7 meters. Holotype (unique): NTUM 7312501. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:59 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:59 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

lucillae, Hepatus Fowler [H. W.] 1938:231, Pl. 10 (fig. 23) [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 2; ref. 1428] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: ANSP 68447. Paratypes: ANSP 68448-49 (1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:17 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:191 [ref. 12221], Mundy 2005:489 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

lunulatus, Acanthurus Liénard [E.] in Guichenot 1863:C27 [Faune ichthyologique 2nd Partie, Annexe C.; ref. 1943] Bourbon [La Réunion]. No types known. Not available, name only. •In the synonymy of Acanthurus nigricauda Duncker & Mohr 1929 -- (Fricke 1999:538 [ref. 24106] with question, Randall 2022:226 [ref. 40150]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigricauda Duncker & Mohr 1929. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

machaeropterus, Acronurus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:172, Fig. 23 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 96; ref. 1451] Vanuatu. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71377. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:17 [ref. 13621]. •Postlarval Acanthurus. •Status uncertain -- (Randall 1954:161 [ref. 12221]). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

maculiceps, Hepatus Ahl [E.] 1924:36, Fig. 4 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 19931] Talassia, New Pomerania [Kikiwiei/Comet Harbour, New Britain, Papua New Guinea, Bismarck Sea, western Pacific, ca. 5°32'S, 149°43'E]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 20366. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:96 [ref. 21847]. •Valid as Acanthurus maculiceps (Ahl 1924) -- (Randall 1956:209 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:232 [ref. 6441], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:538 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:28 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Allen 2000:93 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1329 [ref. 25182], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:55 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3664 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1329 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:578 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:488 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1735 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:423 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1022 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:182 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2015:10 [ref. 33930], Koeda et al. 2016:100 [ref. 35333], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143], Fricke et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36673], Moore et al. 2020:110 [ref. 37357], Wada et al. 2021:50 [ref. 38521], Randall 2022:226 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus maculiceps (Ahl 1924). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Maldives east to Marshall Islands and Line Islands (Kiribati), north to Amami Islands (southern Japan), south to Kimberley (Western Australia), Queensland (Australia), Solomon Islands and Samoa; waifs reaching Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

marisrubri, Chaetodon Hasselquist [F.] 1762:379 [Reise nach Palästina; ref. 18250] Red Sea. Original spelling 'maris rubri'. Based on 'Chaetodon (maris rubri) aculeis in utroque latere ...' of Hasselquist 1757:332 [ref. 30181], also a rejected work (ICZN Opinion 57). Listed as Chaetodon aculeis in utroque latere ... of Hasselquist in the synonymy of Chaetodon nigricans Linnaeus 1758. •In the synonymy of Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758). Suppressed. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae.

marquesensis, Acanthurus triostegus Schultz [L. P.] & Woods [L. P.] 1948:250, Figs. 1 c-f [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 38 (no. 7); ref. 13076] Ua Huka, Marquesas Islands. Holotype: USNM 89771. Paratypes: FMNH 23062-64 (3), 23065-66 (2); USNM 143447 (13). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:4 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:174 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

mata, Chaetodon Cuvier [G.] 1829:224 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality stated (Coromandel coast, India, eastern Indian Ocean). No types known. Available from footnote as, "Chaetodon meta, Russel, 82." Original spelling as meta regarded as a misspelling of Russell's "mata" (see Randall 1988:56 [ref. 14257]); spelled mata by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:202 [ref. 1004]; also mota by de Beaufort in de Beaufort & Chapman 1951:162 [ref. 16097]. The spelling mata should be conserved. •Valid as Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1956:218 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:232 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:814 [ref. 5706] with species as meta, Randall 1988:56 [ref. 14257], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:423 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:372 [ref. 23929], Randall 1995:387 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:226 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:364 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:423 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:538 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:93 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1326 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:426 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:53 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3669 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1326 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:400 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:578 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2009:107 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:303 [ref. 30434], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1022 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:182 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:306 [ref. 34104], Koeda et al. 2016:100 [ref. 35333], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143], Motomura et al. 2017:205 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:351 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:166 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:121 [ref. 36262], Suresh et al. 2018:303 [ref. 36495], Fricke et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 27 [ref. 38321], Psomadakis et al. 2020:559 [ref. 37272], Robertson et al. 2021:1611 [ref. 39064], Randall 2022:226 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-Pacific: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Gulf of Oman, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Tuamotu Archipelago and Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia), north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia and Lord Howe Island (Australia); eastern Pacific: Isla Darwin (Galapagos Islands, Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

matoides, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:204 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Kosrae, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0597. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus fuliginosus Lesson 1831 -- (Khan 1998:230 [ref. 24980]). •Valid as Acanthurus matoides Valenciennes 1835 -- (Krishnan & Mishra 1994:297 [ref. 24014], Chen et al. 1997:153 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 2001:3675 [ref. 26301], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:190 [ref. 12221], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:257 [ref. 25480], Golani & Fricke 2018:166 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

melanopterus, Acanthurus Shen [S.-C.] & Lim [P.-C.] 1973:122, Fig. 29 [Report of the Institute of Fishery Biology of Ministry of Economic Affairs and National Taiwan Unversity, Taipei v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 52] Wan-li-tung, southwestern tip of Taiwan, South China Sea, depth 5-10 meters. Holotype: NTUM 72121801. Paratypes: NTUM 72111702 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:59 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:59 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

melanosternon, Acanthurus Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:693, Pl. 18 (fig. B) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 8 (no. 93) (art. 82) (for Sept. 1955); ref. 12476] Aldabra Islands, Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 435. Paratypes: (many) not researched. Published 5 Jan. 1956. •Synonym of Acanthurus leucocheilus Herre 1927 -- (Kuiter & Debelius 2001:48 [ref. 26232], Randall 2022:224 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus leucocheilus Herre 1927. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

melanurus, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:240 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0851 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195]. •Status uncertain -- (Randall 1954:161 [ref. 12221], Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195]). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

melas, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:241 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Sri Lanka. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0834 (1) Sri Lanka, 0000-1399 (1) Puducherry. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195] with a holotype and paratype. •Status uncertain -- (Randall 1954:161 [ref. 12221], Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195]). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

meta, Acanthurus Cuvier [G.] 1829:224 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] See Chaetodon mata Cuvier 1829. Misspelling. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae.

mindorensis, Acanthurus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1927:433, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Philippine Journal of Science v. 34 (no. 4); ref. 10961] Calapan, [northeastern] Mindoro Island [Oriental Mindoro], Philippines [Verde Island Passage, Sibuyan Sea and South China Sea, western Pacific]. Holotype and paratype at BSMP were destroyed. Neotype (UPZM) designated by de la Paz et al. 1988:267 [ref. 20217] is probably invalid -- not done in a revisionary work but in a checklist. •Unidentifiable -- (J. Randall, pers. comm. 2/04). •Valid as Acanthurus mindorensis Herre 1927 -- (Randall 1956:183 [ref. 12221], Carpenter et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35143] with question). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus mindorensis Herre 1927. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

monroviae, Acanthurus Steindachner [F.] 1876:208 [160] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Monrovia, Liberia. Holotype (unique): NMW 58842. On p. 160 of separate. Spelled munroviae by Gill 1895:188 [ref. 17662]. •Valid as Acanthurus monroviae Steindachner 1876 -- (Randall 1956:220 [ref. 12221], Desoutter 1973:455 [ref. 7203], Desoutter in Whitehead et al. 1986:962 [ref. 13676], Desoutter 1990:963 [ref. 18967], Golani & Sonin 1996:2 [ref. 22790], Afonso et al. 1999:79 [ref. 25466], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:64 [ref. 26232], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:101 [ref. 27192], Luiz et al. 2004:1173 [ref. 27860], Golani 2005:58 [ref. 37112], Wirtz et al. 2007:40 [ref. 30263], Zenetos et al. 2010:411 [ref. 31201], Bernal & Rocha 2011:63 [ref. 31336], Wirtz et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32972], Psomadakis et al. 2015:306 [ref. 34104], Triay-Portella et al. 2015:169 [ref. 36561], Rocha in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2859 [ref. 34618], Agius Darmanin et al. 2017:338 [ref. 35033], Carneiro et al. 2019:295 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:269 [ref. 38139], Golani 2021:80 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:59 [ref. 39014], Fermon et al. 2022:300 [ref. 39448], Carvalho-Filho 2023:245 [ref. 40480], Orenes-Salazar & García-Charton in Langeneck et al. 2023:613 [ref. 40699]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus monroviae Steindachner 1876. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo (Brazil)f; Mediterranean Sea; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Morocco south to Angola, including Madeira (Portugal), Canary Islands (Spain), Cape Verde Islands, and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

niger, Acanthurus Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:58 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Not available, name only. •In the synonymy of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:254 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae.

nigricans, Chaetodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:274 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Red Sea; unknown locality (probably Indonesia). No types known. Species with composite sources, based on Chaetodon nigrescens of Artedi 1738:90 [ref. 30529], and the 'Chætodon (maris rubri) aculeis in utroque latere ad caudam duobus' of Hasselquist 1757:332 [ref. 30181]. The Red Sea material desribed by Hasselquist belongs to another species, so a neotype to fix the current usage following Artedi is needed. •Valid as Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:254 [ref. 29757], Randall 1988:54 [ref. 14257], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:423 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:272 [ref. 22193], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:842 [ref. 22829], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Allen & Robertson 1997:832 [ref. 41086], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:565 [ref. 24023], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:46 [ref. 24545], Randall et al. 1997:423 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Allen 2000:93 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1328 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:426 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:256 [ref. 25640], Randall & Frische 2000:51 [ref. 25805], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:28 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1328 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:203 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:76 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:174 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:164 [ref. 37547], Randall 2005:579 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:488 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1736 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:424 [ref. 30952], Craig 2008:65 [ref. 29767], Béarez & Séret 2009:151 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1023 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2014:182 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:307 [ref. 34104], Fourriére et al. 2016:450 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:101 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:16 [ref. 35354], Golani & Fricke 2018:166 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871] as cf. nigricans, Lobel et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37334], Love et al. 2021:208 [ref. 39279], Page et al. 2023:163 [ref. 40505], Vela-Espinosa et al. 2023:12 [ref. 40981]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, Pacific: Andaman Sea and Cocos-Keeling Islands east to Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.), north to southern Japan and Hawaiian Islands, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia, Tonga and Austral Islands; eastern Pacific: southern tip of Baja California Sur (Mexico) south to Ecuador, including Revillagigedo Islands (Mexico), Clipperton Island (France) and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Hybridizes with A. achilles Shaw 1803. Habitat: marine.

nigricauda, Acanthurus gahm var. Duncker [G.] & Mohr [E.] 1929:75 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Staatsinstitut und Zoologischen Museum in Hamburg. v. 44; ref. 15892] Massau Island, St. Matthias Islands, northeast of New Ireland Island, Bismarck Archipelago. Lectotype: ZMH H149 [ex 11759, 1 of 2]. Paralectotypes: ZMH H150 [ex 11759] (1); ZMH 11760 (1) and 11761 (1) ? = ZMH 8229 (1) and 8230 (1). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:407 [ref. 21161] as syntypes. Lectotype selected by Ladiges et al. 1958:166 [ref. 19181] as ZMH 144 [sic 149]. •Synonym of Acanthurus gahhm (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:207 [ref. 12221]). •Valid as Acanthurus nigricaudus Duncker & Mohr 1929 -- (Nakabo 2000:1329 [ref. 25182], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:46 [ref. 26232], Nakabo 2002:1329 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:203 [ref. 27510], Motomura et al. 2017:205 [ref. 35490]). •Valid as Acanthurus nigricauda Duncker & Mohr 1929 -- (Randall 1986:814 [ref. 5706], Randall 1988:56 [ref. 14257], Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:423 [ref. 15987], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:555 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:366 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:423 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:270 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:535 [ref. 24106], Allen 2000:93 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:427 [ref. 25191], Randall et al. 2001:115 [ref. 25316], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Randall 2001:3670 [ref. 26301], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495] with first author as Dunker, Lobel & Lobel 2004:76 [ref. 27576] with first author as Dunker, Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:579 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:488 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1736 [ref. 29094], Fricke et al. 2009:107 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1023 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:182 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:101 [ref. 35333], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143], Fricke et al. 2018:352 [ref. 35805], Dalleau-Coudert et al. 2019:144 [ref. 40104], Fricke et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871], Kim et al. 2020:177 [ref. 39118], Psomadakis et al. 2020:559 [ref. 37272], Durville et al. 2021:314 [ref. 38802], Randall 2022:226 [ref. 40150], Noushad K. et al. 2024:46 [ref. 40947]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus nigricauda Duncker & Mohr 1929. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia), north to southern Korea and southern Japan, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

nigriculus, Acronurus Poey [F.] 1875:143 [69], Pl. 7 [3] (figs. 18-19) [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 4 (for 13 Jan. 1875); ref. 3509] Cuba. No types known. On p. 69 of separate. •Synonym of Acanthurus bahianus Castelnau 1855 -- (Randall 1956:225 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus tractus Poey 1860 -- (Bernal & Rocha 2011:64 [ref. 31336]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus tractus Poey 1860. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

nigrofuscus, Chaetodon Forsskål [P. S.] in Niebuhr 1775:64, xiii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. No types known. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:55 [ref. 30182]. Spelled nigro-fuscus on p. xiii. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:540 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Kottelat (2013) cites inland records. •Valid as Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:190 [ref. 12221], Dor 1984:254 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:814 [ref. 5706], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:424 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:373 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:154 [ref. 26476], Randall et al. 1997:424 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:539 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:93 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1327 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:256 [ref. 25480], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:187 [ref. 25703], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:63 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3671 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1327 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:76 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:401 [ref. 28072], Larson & Pidgeon 2004:197 [ref. 28107], Randall 2005:580 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:489 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1736 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:424 [ref. 30952], Fricke 2008:55 [ref. 30182], Fricke et al. 2009:107 [ref. 30213], Randall et al. 2011:272 [ref. 31249], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1023 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:182 [ref. 33932], Struthers 2015:1593 [ref. 34302], Koeda et al. 2016:101 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:16 [ref. 35354], Fowler et al. 2017:[4] 2252 [ref. 36358], Fricke et al. 2018:352 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:166 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:9 [ref. 36883], Dalleau-Coudert et al. 2019:144 [ref. 40104], Fricke et al. 2019:301 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871], Durville et al. 2021:314 [ref. 38802], Randall 2022:227 [ref. 40150], Noushad K. et al. 2024:46 [ref. 40947]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.) and Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia), north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands (Japan), south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), southern New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island (Australia), Norfolk Island (Australia) and Rapa (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

nigroris, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:208 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Hawaiian Island. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0593. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195]. References before 31249 are referable to Acanthurus nigros Günther 1861. •Valid as Acanthurus nigroris Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:187 [ref. 12221], Randall et al. 1990:424 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:424 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:32 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:76 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:580 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:489 [ref. 28379], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:353 [ref. 28867], Allen et al. 2006:1736 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:425 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus nigroris Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Atoll endemic [on ref. 31249]. Habitat: marine.

nigros, Acanthurus Günther [A.] 1861:332 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Aneiteum Island, Vanuatu. Lectotype: BMNH 1861.5.31.29 (dry). Paralectotypes: (2) BMNH 1861.5.31.41 (1, stuffed). Regarded as an original description, Acanthurus nigroris included in synonymy with question; an alternate interpretation is that this is an unjustified emendation of Acanthurus nigroris. Lectotype selected by Randall 1956:100 [ref. 12221]. •Synonym of Acanthurus nigroris Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:187 [ref. 12221], Mundy 2005:489 [ref. 28379]). •Valid as Acanthurus nigros Günther 1861 -- (Randall et al. 2011:267 [ref. 31249], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Hanahara et al. 2021:45 [ref. 38636]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus nigros Günther 1861. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Minamidaitojima Island (off southern Japan), Palau, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia east to Marshall Islands, Line Islands and French Polynesia. Habitat: marine.

nubilus, Hepatus Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1929:253, Fig. 15 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 100, v. 8; ref. 1476] Dodepo Island, Gulf of Tomini, Sulawesi, Indonesia, Albatross. Holotype: USNM 89980. •Valid as Acanthurus nubilus (Fowler & Bean 1929) -- (Randall 1956:179 [ref. 12221], Randall 1986:814 [ref. 5706], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:43 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall 2005:580 [ref. 28239], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1024 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2019:301 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus nubilus (Fowler & Bean 1929). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to Melanesia, Tuamotu Islands and Pitcairn Islands. Habitat: marine.

nummifer, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:234 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Waigeo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6986. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus bariene Lesson 1831 -- (Randall 1956:206 [ref. 12221], Randall et al. 1990:420 [ref. 15987], Randall 2022:221 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus bariene Lesson 1831. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

olivaceus, Acanthurus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Forster) 1801:214 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Otahaitee [Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1962.12.14.5. Name spelled olivacei on p. 214, as olivaceus on p. xxxviii; correct spelling is olivaceus, while olivacei is the genitive. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Author given as 'Schn.' (Schneider). •Valid as Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:203 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:424 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:371 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:555 [ref. 27969] with author as Forster, Allen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:154 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:364 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:424 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965], Randall & Earle 1999:473 [ref. 24181], Allen 2000:93 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1329 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:427 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:257 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Shinohara et al. 2000:183 [ref. 25987], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:104 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:58 [ref. 26232], Randall et al. 2001:115 [ref. 25316], Randall 2001:3672 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1329 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830] as olivaceous, with author as Foster, Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495] with authors as Forster & Schneider, Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:203 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624] with author as Forster, Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:581 [ref. 28239] with author as Forster, Mundy 2005:490 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1736 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:425 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1024 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:183 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:101 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:17 [ref. 35354], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143], Fowler et al. 2017:[4] 2252 [ref. 36358], Fricke et al. 2019:301 [ref. 36673], Sonoyama et al. 2020:110 [ref. 37637], Dewa et al. 2022:29 [ref. 40001]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Christmas Island, Cocos Keeling Islands and Indonesia east to Hawaiian Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to central Japan and Ogasawara Islands (Japan), south to Western Australia, southern New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

orbicularis, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Quoy & Gaimard) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:237 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0845 (1), A-6979 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:58 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus achilles Shaw 1803. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus achilles Shaw 1803. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

paroticus, Harpurus Forster [J. R.] in Lichtenstein 1844:183 [Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis; ref. 17531] Otahaitee [= Tahiti, Society Islands]. Not available; Lichtenstein (editor, p. 183, footnote) treats as a synonym of "Acanthurus olivaceus Bl. Schn. p. 213" and "Acanthurus humeralis Cuv. Val. X. p. 231". Specimen from Tahiti, Society Is., BMNH 1962.12.14.5. •In the synonymy of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:203 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae.

pawnee, Hepatus Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1927:73, Fig. 32 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 635] Glovers Reef, Belize. Holotype: YPM 302. Paratypes: YPM 303 (44), 304 (5, stained). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:6-7 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:222 [ref. 12221], Desoutter 1990:963 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

pentazona, Acanthurus Bleeker [P.] 1850:13 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 23 (no. 10); ref. 16905] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): SMNS 10563 [ex SMNS 760 cg]. Bleeker specimens: RMNH 6322 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:7 [ref. 13474] and Fricke 2005:11 [ref. 29864] with SMNS 10563 as holotype, not RMNH 6322. Also appeared in Bleeker 1850:107 [ref. 16888]. •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

philippinus, Acanthurus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1927:434, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Philippine Journal of Science v. 34 (no. 4); ref. 10961] Calapan, [northeastern] Mindoro Island [Oriental Mindoro], Philippines [Verde Island Passage, Sibuyan Sea and South China Sea, western Pacific]. Syntypes: BSMP (9) presumed destroyed. •Synonym of Acanthurus thompsoni (Fowler 1923) -- (Randall 1956:182 [ref. 12221], Randall et al. 1990:425 [ref. 15987], Randall 2005:582 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:426 [ref. 30952], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989], Randall 2022:229 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus thompsoni (Fowler 1923). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

phlebotomus, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:176, Pl. 287 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Martinique Island, West Indies; Brazil; Havana, Cuba; Guadeloupe; Santo Domingo; New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN A-6969 (1) Brazil, MNHN A-6873 (1) Guadeloupe, A-6974 (1) Gorée, A-6975 (1) Santo Domingo, A-6976 (1) Martinique, A-6977 (1) New York. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:59 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus chirurgus (Bloch 1787) -- (Randall 1956:223 [ref. 12221], Desoutter 1990:962 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus chirurgus (Bloch 1787). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

plagiatus, Acanthurus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1876:439 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 18495] Mauritius [Île aux Fouquets, 8 kilometers east of Mahébourg], Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: ZMB 9451 (1). Type locality see Möbius 1880 [ref. 30489]. •Synonym of Acanthurus tennentii Günther 1861 -- (Randall 1956:205 [ref. 12221], as tennenti Fricke 1999:541 [ref. 24106], Randall 2022:228 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus tennentii Günther 1861. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

polyzona, Rhombotides Bleeker [P.] 1868:277 [Archives néerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles v. 3; ref. 17052] Mayotte Island, Comoro Islands; Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (6) RMNH 4396 (1), 6366 (3). •Valid as Acanthurus polyzona (Bleeker 1868) -- (Randall 1956:179 [ref. 12221], Fricke 1999:540 [ref. 24106], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:39 [ref. 26232], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Fricke et al. 2009:107 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2018:352 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:9 [ref. 36883], Dalleau-Coudert et al. 2019:143 [ref. 40104], Randall 2022:228 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus polyzona (Bleeker 1868). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Mayotte (France), Madagascar, Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues). Habitat: marine.

pyroferus, Acanthurus Kittlitz [F. H.] 1834:193, Pl. 12 (fig. 2) [Museum Senckenbergianum: Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der beschreibenden Naturgeschichte, von Mitgliedern der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main v. 1; ref. 10022] Uléa, Caroline Islands, western Pacific, ca. 7°22'N, 143°54'E. No types preserved. Based on a drawing by Kittlitz (Friedrich Heinrich Freiherr von Kittlitz, 1799-1874, German ornithologist and naturalist). •Valid as Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834 -- (Randall 1956:196 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:425 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:372 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:366 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:425 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965], Allen 2000:93 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1327 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:427 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Randall et al. 2001:115 [ref. 25316], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:36 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3673 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1327 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:204 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:581 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1737 [ref. 29094], Motomura et al. 2010:227 [ref. 31256], Ho & Shao 2011:59 [ref. 31432], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1024 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:183 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:102 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2019:302 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:559 [ref. 37272], Wada et al. 2021:50 [ref. 38521]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar, Christmas and Cocos-Keeling islands and Indonesia east to Marquesas Islands and Tuamotu Islands, north to Amami Islands (southern Japan) and Ogasawara Islands, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

rackliffei, Acanthurus Schultz [L. P.] 1943:163, Fig. 13 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 180; ref. 3957] Pool on reef of Hull Island, Phoenix Islands. Holotype: USNM 115174. Paratypes: MCZ 37227 [ex USNM 115175] (1), USNM 115175-76 (1, 1). •A hybrid of Acanthurus achilles Shaw and Acanthurus glaucopareius Cuvier -- (Randall 1956:160 [ref. 12221], Randall et al. 2001:115 [ref. 25316], Mundy 2005:490 [ref. 28379]). Hybrid. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

randalli, Acanthurus Briggs [J. C.] & Caldwell [D. K.] 1957:43, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 12135] Jetties on west side of inlet, St. Andrews State Park, Panama City, Bay County, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: UF 5394. Paratypes: ANSP 75167 [ex UF 5416] (1); FMNH 62060 [ex UF 5416] (1); CAS-SU 49254 [ex UF 5416] (1); UF 5400 (2), 5416 (orig. 18, now 14); USNM 174925 [ex UF 5416] (1). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:114 [ref. 21035], Böhlke 1984:17 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:4 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Acanthurus randalli Briggs & Caldwell 1957 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:256 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:167 [ref. 23239], Musick 2000:19 [ref. 24959], Rocha et al. 2002:244 [ref. 25914], Randall 2003:1802 [ref. 27098]). •Synonym of Acanthurus bahianus Castelnau 1855 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 2002:104 [ref. 26570]). •Synonym of Acanthurus tractus Poey 1860 -- (Pers. Comm., W. F. Smith-Vaniz, 11 Nov. 2014). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus tractus Poey 1860. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Eastern Gulf of Mexico (if valid). Habitat: marine.

rasi, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:203 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Puducherry, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0599. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:59 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus mata Cuvier 1829 -- (Randall 1956:219 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Bauchot & Randall 1996:59 [ref. 22195]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

reticulatus, Acanthurus Shen [S.-C.] & Lim [P.-C.] 1973:119, Fig. 27 [Report of the Institute of Fishery Biology of Ministry of Economic Affairs and National Taiwan Unversity, Taipei v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 52] Hai-koa, southwestern tip of Taiwan, South China Sea, depth 6 meters. Holotype: NTUM 7011901. Paratypes: NTUM 7011902-03 (2). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:59 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 2005:583 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:428 [ref. 30952], Ho & Shao 2011:59 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

reversus, Acanthurus Randall [J. E.] & Earle [J. L.] 1999:475, Figs. 2-6 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 51 (no. 14); ref. 24181] Nuku Hiva, off point at southern end of Marquisienne Bay, Marquesas Islands, depth 15 meters. Holotype: BPBM 12474. Paratypes: BPBM 12441 (1), CAS 204429 (1), MNHN 1999-0060 (1), USNM 169871 (1). •Valid as Acanthurus reversus Randall & Earle 1999 -- (Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Randall 2005:582 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:425 [ref. 30952], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus reversus Randall & Earle 1999. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Marquesas Islands; stray in Tuamotu Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

rubropunctatus, Acanthurus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:59, Pl. 15 (fig. 1) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Northern Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 1944 (4). •Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:190 [ref. 12221], Dor 1984:254 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål 1775). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

rueppellii, Acanthurus (Ctenodon) Swainson [W.] 1839:256, Fig. 74 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Red Sea. Possible types: BMNH 1845.10.29.54. Based on Rüpp. 16 -- which is Rüppell 1828:Pl. 16 [ref. 3843]. Originally spelled Rüppelii, corrected to rueppellii Kullander 2016:94 [ref. 34436]. •Synonym of Acanthurus sohal (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:194 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus sohal (Gmelin 1789). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus sohal (Gmelin 1789). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

sandvicensis, Acanthurus triostegus var. Streets [T. H.] 1877:67 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum v.1 (no. 7); ref. 4290] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 15398. Paratypes: MCZ 35991 [ex USNM 15398] (2), USNM 143446 (20). •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Myers 1999:272 [ref. 23965], Thomson et al. 2000:256 [ref. 25640], Mundy 2005:491 [ref. 28379], Coleman & Bowen 2022:[3] [ref. 39231]). •Valid as Acanthurus sandvicensis Streets 1877. Current status: Valid as Acanthurus sandvicensis Streets 1877. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll, Hawaiian Ridge and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

sohar, Chaetodon Gmelin [J. F.] (ex Forsskål) 1789:63, xiii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [No locality stated] Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMUC P6749 (dry skin). Paralectotypes: ZMUC P6750 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:72 [ref. 9588]. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:55 [ref. 30182]. Forsskål 1775 introduced the name sohal as a substitute for a possible to be named taxon, but in synonymy of Chaetodon lineatus Linnaeus 1758; name made available as Chaetodon sohar by Gmelin 1789:1268 [ref. 18139] (see Fricke 2008:55 [ref. 30182]); name sohal here retained due to prevailing usage. Spelled sohar by Lacepède 1802:556, 557 [ref. 4929]; sohab in Cuvier 1816:331 [ref. 993]. Lectotype selected by Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:24 [ref. 20847]. Lectotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 34 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Acanthurus sohal (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1956:194 [ref. 12221], Dor 1984:254 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:388 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:218 [ref. 23922], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:60 [ref. 26232], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Kottelat 2013:442 [ref. 32989], Ali et al. 2018:339 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:167 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:34 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871], Kovačić et al. 2021:59 [ref. 39014]). •Valid as Acanthurus sohal (Gmelin 1789) -- (Fricke 2008:55 [ref. 30182], Randall 2022:228 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus sohal (Gmelin 1789). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Red Sea; northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Socotra (Yemen), Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf. One specimen recorded from Mediterranean Sea, probably an aquarium release. Habitat: marine.

striatus, Acanthurus Cuvier [G.] 1829:224 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality. Available from footnote as, "Ac. striatus, N.; Paningu, Renard, I, pl. i, f. 8." Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Acanthurus striatus Quoy & Gaiard 1825. 1°Homonym. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

subarmatus, Acanthurus Bennett [F. D.] 1840:278, fig'd. [Narrative of a whaling voyage round the globe v. 2; ref. 260] Raiatea, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

tennentii, Acanthurus Günther [A.] 1861:337 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Sri Lanka, Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1857.6.13.48 (skin). •Valid as Acanthurus tennentii Günther 1861 [often as tennenti] -- (Randall 1956:205 [ref. 12221], Dor 1984:255 [ref. 29757], Randall 1986:815 [ref. 5706] as tennenti, Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Manilo 1992:23 [133] [ref. 39140], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356] as tennenti, Randall 1995:388 [ref. 22896], Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:541 [ref. 24106], Randall et al. 2001:117 [ref. 25316], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:56 [ref. 26232], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830] as tennenti, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Fricke et al. 2009:107 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:303 [ref. 30434], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:82 [ref. 35264], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1025 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143], Fricke et al. 2018:352 [ref. 35805], Dalleau-Coudert et al. 2019:145 [ref. 40104], Zajonz et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:560 [ref. 37272], Durville et al. 2021:314 [ref. 38802], Randall 2022:228 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus tennentii Günther 1861. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Myanmar and western Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

thompsoni, Hepatus Fowler [H. W.] 1923:386 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 8 (no. 7); ref. 1398] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): BPBM 3394 (not found in 1996). Kottelat (2013) cites inland record. •Valid as Acanthurus thompsoni (Fowler 1923) -- (Randall 1956:182 [ref. 12221], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:231 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:815 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom et al. 1989:63 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:425 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:425 [ref. 25919], Chen et al. 1999:116 [ref. 38834], Fricke 1999:541 [ref. 24106], Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:93 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:428 [ref. 25191], Nakabo 2000:1326 [ref. 25182], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:42 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1326 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:62 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:402 [ref. 28072], Randall et al. 2004:29 [ref. 27624], Mundy 2005:490 [ref. 28379], Randall 2005:582 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1737 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:426 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:107 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:303 [ref. 30434], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1025 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Kottelat 2013:443 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:183 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:102 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:353 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:302 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:560 [ref. 37272], Durville et al. 2021:314 [ref. 38802], Wada et al. 2021:51 [ref. 38521], Randall 2022:229 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus thompsoni (Fowler 1923). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.), Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) and Ducie (Pitcairn Group), north to Amami Islands (southern Japan) and Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia, New Caledonia and Rapa (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

tractus, Acanthurus Poey [F.] 1860:208 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 21856. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:206 [ref. 22926] with MCZ 21856 as holotype. •Synonym of Acanthurus bahianus Castelnau 1855 -- (Randall 1956:225 [ref. 12221]). •Valid as Acanthurus tractus Poey 1860 -- (Bernal & Rocha 2011:64 [ref. 31336], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:182 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:82 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961], Robertson et al. 2020:150 [ref. 38098], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:77 [ref. 38844], Bennema & van Moorsel 2022:69 [ref. 39585], Page et al. 2023:163 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus tractus Poey 1860. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) and Bermuda to Trinidad and Tobago, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean islands. Habitat: marine.

triostegus, Chaetodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:274 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Indies. Holotype (unique): NRM 55. Type catalog: Goode & Bean 1885:198 [ref. 1841], Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:269 [ref. 20707], Wheeler 1985:62-63 [ref. 20705]. •Valid as Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Allen & Robertson 1997:832 [ref. 41086]). •Valid as Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:172 [ref. 12221], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:236 [ref. 7348], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:230 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:816 [ref. 5706], Allen & Swainston 1988:140 [ref. 25477], Pequeño 1989:66 [ref. 14125], Winterbottom et al. 1989:64 [ref. 13251], Desoutter 1990:964 [ref. 18967], Randall et al. 1990:426 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:373 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:167 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:272 [ref. 22193], Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:843 [ref. 22829], AMohsin & Ambak 1996:556 [ref. 27969], llen 1997:224 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:47 [ref. 24545], Chen et al. 1997:154 [ref. 26476], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:565 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:368 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:426 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:542 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:28 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:93 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1326 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:428 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:255 [ref. 25640], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:294 [ref. 27511], Sakai et al. 2001:122 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:38 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3674 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1326 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:204 [ref. 27510], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377] as a valid subspecies, Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495] as a valid subspecies, Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Nelson et al. 2004:174 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:402 [ref. 28072], Love et al. 2005:164 [ref. 37547], Randall 2005:583 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:491 [ref. 28379] with subspecies, Allen et al. 2006:1737 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:426 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:151 [ref. 36646], Fricke et al. 2009:107 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:304 [ref. 30434], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957] as subspecies, Motomura et al. 2010:227 [ref. 31256], Caratini & Soriano 2011:22 [ref. 39915], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1025 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:184 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:117 [ref. 36167], Struthers 2015:1594 [ref. 34302], Fourriére et al. 2016:450 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:102 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:17 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:353 [ref. 35805], Suresh et al. 2018:304 [ref. 36495], Arndt & Fricke 2019:9 [ref. 36883], Dalleau-Coudert et al. 2019:142 [ref. 40104], Eagderi et al. 2019:34 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:302 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871], Love et al. 2021:208 [ref. 39279], Furuhashi & Motomura 2022:16 [ref. 39607], Randall 2022:229 [ref. 40150], Page et al. 2023:163 [ref. 40505], Noushad K. et al. 2024:46 [ref. 40947]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.), north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands (Japan), south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), Sydney (New South Wales, Australia), Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, Kermadec Islands, Rapa (French Polynesia) and Ducie (Pitcairn Group); eastern Pacific: southern tip of Baja California Sur (Mexico) south to Chile, including Gulf of California (Mexico), Clipperton Island (France) and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

tristis, Acanthurus Tickell [S. R.] in Day 1888:788 [The fishes of India Suppl.; ref. 1082] Published in synonymy. See Acanthurus tristis Randall 1993. •In the synonymy of Acanthurus tristis Randall 1993. Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus tristis Randall 1993. Acanthuridae.

tristis, Acanthurus Randall [J. E.] 1993:4, Figs. 1-3 [The J.L.B Smith Institute of Ichthyology Special Publication No. 54; ref. 21092] Lively Rocks, Trincomalee, east coast of Sri Lanka, depth 10-12 meters. Holotype: BPBM 18802. Paratypes or non-types: BPBM 35043 (1), 34752 (1); ROM 39948 (1), 40376 (1); SMF 17869 (1). Tickell names published in synonymy by Day 1888:788 [ref. 1082] were not made available before 1961 (see Eschmeyer 1990:647 [ref. 20647]) (contra Myers 1951:26 [ref. 13464]) and therefore cannot date to Tickell in Day 1888. In the case of Acanthurus tristis Tickell, Day is unclear if he treats it as valid, but he calls it a "form" which is infrasubspecific. Therefore, the species dates to Randall's use of tristis as above. We regard Randall's "neotype" to be the holotype of the species [Art. 71.1 of the Code]; his additional specimens can be regarded as either paratypes or non-types. •Synonym of Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz 1834 -- (Randall 1956:197 [ref. 12221]). •Valid as Acanthurus tristis Randall 1993 -- (Myers 1999:271 [ref. 23965] as trisits, Kuiter & Debelius 2001:34 [ref. 26232] with author and date as Tickell 1888, Randall 2001:3665 [ref. 26301], Randall et al. 2001:115 [ref. 25316], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Hobbs et al. 2008:10 [ref. 39350], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1026 [ref. 31980], Psomadakis et al. 2020:560 [ref. 37272], Randall 2022:230 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus tristis Randall 1993. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Maldives, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Andaman Sea, Christmas Island (Australia), western Sumatra, Java and Bali (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

troughtoni, Teuthis Whitley [G. P.] 1928:233, Pl. 16 (fig. 1) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 4661] Naunaha Island, Vanikoro Lagoon, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific. Holotype: AMS IA.2860. Paratypes: AMS IA.2851 (1), IA.2844 (1). •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:174 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

umbra, Teuthis Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:477 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50841. •Synonym of Acanthurus leucopareius (Jenkins 1903) -- (Randall 1956:185 [ref. 12221], Mundy 2005:487 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus leucopareius (Jenkins 1903). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

undulatus, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:205 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Indian seas. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7456. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:59 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus dussumieri Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:211 [ref. 12221]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus dussumieri Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

violaceus, Acanthurus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:25, Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-7066 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:60 [ref. 22195]. Figure caption listed as "Acanthurus coeruleus ? B." •Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:222 [ref. 12221], Desoutter 1990:963 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

vittatus, Acanthurus Bennett [J. W.] 1828:unnum. p., Pl. 2 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon First Edition; ref. 16785] South coast of Sri Lanka. No types known. •Synonym of Acanthurus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:191 [ref. 12221], Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:43 [ref. 21456], Randall 2022:225 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus lineatus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

weberi, Hepatus Ahl [E.] 1923:37 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 19931] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia, Siboga Sta. 231; and Sri Lanka. Syntypes: BMNH 1858.4.21.158-159 (2), Ambon Island and BMNH 1857.6.13.47 (1, RHS skin), Sri Lanka, ZMA 116476 (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:105 [ref. 19236]. Replacement name for Acanthurus guentheri Weber 1913 [ref. 4602], secondarily preoccupied by Teuthis guentheri Jenkins 1903 [ref. 2341] when both are in Hepatus. •Mentioned: Paepke 1995:96 [ref. 21847]. •Synonym of Acanthurus bleekeri Günther 1861 -- (Randall 1956:180 [ref. 12221]). •Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus mata (Cuvier 1829). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.

xanthopterus, Acanthurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1835:215 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 10; ref. 1004] Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN A-7087. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-0745 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:60 [ref. 22195]. Lectotype selected by Bauchot & Randall 1996:60 [ref. 22195]. •Synonym of Acanthurus fuliginosus Lesson 1831 -- (Khan 1998:230 [ref. 24980] as xanthopternus). •Valid as Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835 -- (Randall 1956:215 [ref. 12221], Kyushin et al. 1977:320 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:255 [ref. 29757], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:232 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:816 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom et al. 1989:64 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:426 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:273 [ref. 22193], Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:843 [ref. 22829], Goren & Dor 1994:68 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:556 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Allen & Robertson 1997:832 [ref. 41086], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:45 [ref. 24545], Larson & Williams 1997:372 [ref. 23967], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:566 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:364 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:426 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:543 [ref. 24106], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:458 [ref. 24550], Myers 1999:272 [ref. 23965], Johnson 1999:750 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:93 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1330 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:428 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:256 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Sakai et al. 2001:122 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:270 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:45 [ref. 25847], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:52 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3675 [ref. 26301], Nakabo 2002:1330 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:647 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:204 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:175 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3330 [ref. 27945], Love et al. 2005:164 [ref. 37547], Randall 2005:583 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:491 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:427 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:108 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:304 [ref. 30434], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:82 [ref. 35264], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:227 [ref. 31256], Ho & Shao 2011: 59 [ref. 31432], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1026 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:214 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:442 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:184 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:307 [ref. 34104], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:450 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:102 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:17 [ref. 35354], Carpenter et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35143], Motomura et al. 2017:206 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:353 [ref. 35805], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35859], Arndt & Fricke 2019:9 [ref. 36883], Dalleau-Coudert et al. 2019:144 [ref. 40104], Campos-León et al. 2019:377 [ref. 37184], Fricke et al. 2019:302 [ref. 36673], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 27 [ref. 38321], Psomadakis et al. 2020:561 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:110 [ref. 37637], Love et al. 2021:208 [ref. 39279], Adel et al. 2022:135 [ref. 39216], Randall 2022:230 [ref. 40150], Hasan et al. 2023:2209 [ref. 40412], Page et al. 2023:163 [ref. 40505], Pradhan et al. 2023:261 [ref. 40772], Vela-Espinosa et al. 2023:12 [ref. 40981], Noushad K. et al. 2024:46 [ref. 40947]). Current status: Valid as Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes 1835. Acanthuridae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Seychelles, Saya de Malha Bank, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.), north to central Japan and Ogasawara Islands (Japan), south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia; eastern Pacific: southern tip of Baja California Sur (Mexico) south to Ecuador, including Gulf of California (Mexico), Clipperton Island (France) and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Doubtful record from southeastern Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

xanthosoma, Rhombotides Bleeker [P.] 1865:288 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 415] Not available; appeared as "Rhombotides xanthosoma Blkr = Acanthurus xanthosoma Blkr." but Bleeker did not treat an A. xanthosoma; de Beaufort 1951:165 [ref. 12403] suggested that this was a lapsis for chrysosoma; from Ambon I., Moluccas Is., Indonesia. •In the synonymy of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall 1956:203 [ref. 12221] with question). Misspelling. Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Acanthuridae.

zebra, Acanthurus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:546, 548, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Indonesia. Lectotype: whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot & Randall 1996:67 [ref. 22195]. Lectotype selected by Fricke 1999:543 [ref. 24106] as the specimen illustrated in the original Pl. 6 (fig. 3). •Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall 1956:173 [ref. 12221], Fricke 1999:542 [ref. 24106], Randall 2022:229 [ref. 40150]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus 1758). Acanthuridae. Habitat: marine.


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