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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Mobula: [ 61 ] records


alfredi, Ceratoptera Krefft [J. L. G.] 1868:3, 9, Fig. [The Illustrated Sydney News v. 5 (11 July 1868); ref. 5074] Watson's Bay, at entrance to Sydney Harbour, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.1731(stuffed and painted over). Original description reproduced in Whitley 1936:176 [ref. 6075] and with correction of type locality. Spelling of the original genus was Deratoptera, regarded as a typesetting error. It should have been Ceratoptera, Authorship has been attributed to Krefft (by Whitley 1936:176 and unquestioned), the then curator of the Museum; no author is given with the article. •Valid as Manta alfredi, but may be Manta birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:51 [ref. 12442], Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589]). •Synonym of Manta birostris (Donndorff 1798 [Walbaum 1792]) -- (Last & Stevens 1994:460 [ref. 23873], Allen et al. 2006:207 [ref. 29002]). •See Grove & Lavenberg 1997:130 [ref. 24023]. •Valid as Manta alfredi (Krefft 1868) -- (Marshall et al. 2009:13 [ref. 30599], Kitchen-Wheeler 2010:351 [ref. 30962], Fricke et al. 2011:348 [ref. 31242], Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:22 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:368 [ref. 33045], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:107 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:145 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Mobula alfredi (Krefft 1868) -- (White & Last 2016:742 [ref. 35016], White et al. 2017:284 [ref. 35860], Ehemann et al. 2018:27 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:27 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:18 [ref. 36273], White & Ko'ou 2018:67 [ref. 35922], White et al. 2018:69 [ref. 37171], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:179 [ref. 37302], Zajonz et al. 2019:104 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:214 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Mobula alfredi (Krefft 1868). Mobulidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic; Western Sahara south to Senegal; Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra and Madagascar east to Hawaiian Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

americana, Manta Bancroft [E. N.] 1829:454 [Zoological Journal, London v. 4 (no. 16) (art. 55); ref. 5051] American Seas. Apparently an alternate name for Cephalopterus manta Bancroft 1829 proposed in the same paper (p. 453). •Synonym of Manta birostris (Walbaum 1792). •Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Jones et al. 2020:302 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

auriculata, Mobula Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:48, 61 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Based on Raja mobula of Lacepède. •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:77 [ref. 7167] as fabronia, Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:64 [ref. 9133], White et al. 2018:62 [ref. 37171], Parenti 2019:103 [ref. 37117], Jones et al. 2020:304 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

aurita, Raia Suckow [G. A.] 1799:78 [Naturgeschichte der Thiere v. 4, pt. 1; ref. 18858] •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (White et al. 2018:62 [ref. 37171], Jones et al. 2020:304 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

banksiana, Raja Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1800:105, 115, Pl. 5 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 2; ref. 2709] East Indies. No types known. Also appeared in Sonnini 1802:74, 290 [ref. 30461]. •Uncertain in genus Mobula Rafinesque 1810 -- (White et al. 2018:65 [ref. 37171]). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

barbata, Raja Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:369 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Rivière de Saint-André [Sassandra River] estuary, at Sassandra, Ivory Coast, West Africa. Based on "Raye appellé Diable" of Labat 1730:198 [ref. 35528], and on "Seeteufel" of Schneider 1788:85 [ref. 18699]. •Uncertain in genus Mobula Rafinesque 1810 -- (White et al. 2018:65 [ref. 37171]). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

birostris, Raja Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:535 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. Some authors (e.g., Whitley 1936:180 [ref. 6075]) date to Donndorff 1798:876 because they regarded Walbaum's treatment as non-binominal, but the style of this section suggests that the second word "birostris" was not italicized through an oversite (see index) and binominal nomenclature was intended. Earlier authors, such as Jordan & Evermann 1896:92 [ref. 2443] credited the name to Walbaum. See remarks under Cephalopterus giorna Lesueur 1824. •Valid as Manta birostris (Walbaum 1792) [sometimes with author as Donndorff 1790 or 1798] -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:57 [ref. 9277], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:16 [ref. 6441], Robins & Ray 1986:44 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:28 [ref. 25477], Scott & Scott 1988:59 [ref. 25518], Winterbottom et al. 1989:5 [ref. 13251], McEachran & Séret 1990:73 [ref. 19318], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Randall et al. 1990:31 [ref. 15987], Boschung 1992:28 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:201 [ref. 23827], Allen & Robertson 1994:37 [ref. 22193], Last & Stevens 1994:459 [ref. 23873], Randall 1995:49 [ref. 22896], Acero P. & Franke 1995:17 [ref. 22546], McEachran & Notarbartolo-di-Sciara in Fischer et al. 1995:764 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:62 [ref. 22793], Murdy et al. 1997:49 [ref. 23144], Santos et al. 1997:16 [ref. 23531], Allen 1997:48 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:129 [ref. 24023], Arruda 1997:24 [ref. 24952], Randall et al. 1997:31 [ref. 25919], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:194 [ref. 23897], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:73 [ref. 24555], Myers 1999:40 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:33 [ref. 24106], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:206 [ref. 24490], Compagno & Last 1999:1527 [ref. 24637], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:124 [ref. 25013], Johnson 1999:718 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589], Allen 2000:84 [ref. 37268], Menni & Stehmann 2000:94 [ref. 24909], Nakabo 2000:186 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Thomson et al. 2000:284 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:5 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:96 [ref. 26368], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:147 [ref. 27754], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], McEachran in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:80 [ref. 26158], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:108 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:186 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830] with author and date as Donndorf 1798, Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27192] with author and date as Donndorff 1798, McEachran & Carvalho 2003:588 [ref. 26985], Milessi & Oddone 2003:126 [ref. 27316] with author and date as Donndorf 1798, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Duffy & Abbott 2003:715 [ref. 27479], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:67 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:5 [ref. 27624], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:55 [ref. 27735], Love et al. 2005:15 [ref. 37547], Nelson et al. 2004:57 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:88 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:23 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:107 [ref. 28379], Compagno et al. 2005:80 [ref. 29145], Allen et al. 2006:207 [ref. 29002], Randall 2007:47 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:145 [ref. 36646], Fricke et al. 2009:12 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:16 [ref. 30426], Marshall et al. 2009:4 [ref. 30599], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Kitchen-Wheeler 2010:351 [ref. 30962], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264], Allen & Erdmann 2012:67 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Ebert et al. 2013:369 [ref. 33045], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:21 [ref. 33341] with remarks, Wirtz et al. 2014:2 [ref. 33516], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:108 [ref. 34104], Duffy 2015:202 [ref. 34217], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:135 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:145 [ref. 34211], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara & Séret 2016:1437 [ref. 34552], Fourriére et al. 2016:440 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:5 [ref. 35333], Nión et al. 2016:24 [ref. 35565] with author as Donndorff 1798, Kells et al. 2016:86 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35618]). •Valid as Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (White & Last 2016:743 [ref. 35016], White et al. 2017:286 [ref. 35860], Biscoito et al. 2018:483 [ref. 37562], Ehemann et al. 2018:27 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:27 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:18 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178], Spier et al. 2018:5 [ref. 36103], White & Ko'ou 2018:68 [ref. 35922], White et al. 2018:68 [ref. 37171], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:179 [ref. 37302], Cabanillas-Torpoco et al. 2019:397 [ref. 36704], Carneiro et al. 2019:52 [ref. 37250], Eagderi et al. 2019:12 [ref. 37020], Ehemann et al. 2019:[7] [ref. 36861], Fricke et al. 2019:48 [ref. 36673], Reiner 2019:51 [ref. 38139], Zajonz et al. 2019:61 [ref. 36871], Calle-Morán et al. 2020:247 [ref. 37881], Jones et al. 2020:302 [ref. 37610], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara et al. 2020:3 [ref. 37486], Psomadakis et al. 2020:214 [ref. 37272], Walker et al. 2020:4 [ref. 37499]). Current status: Valid as Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792). Mobulidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical through warm temperate water (including Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Gulf of California); possibly straying to Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

cephaloptera, Raja Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:365 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. Holotype (unique): ZMB 13407 (partial specimen, forepart of skull). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:180 [ref. 21041], Paepke 1999:104 [ref. 24282]. •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:77 [ref. 7167] as fabronia, Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:64 [ref. 9133], White et al. 2018:62 [ref. 37171]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

coilloti, Mobula Cadenat [J.] & Rancurel [P.] 1960:283, Figs. 1-9 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 11901] About 10 miles south of Iridi, Ivory Coast, western Africa. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1965-0144 (in 5 pieces). Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:26 [ref. 9312]. •Valid as Mobula coilloti Cadenat & Rancurel 1960 -- (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:68 [ref. 9133], McEachran & Séret 1990:74 [ref. 19318]). •Synonym of Mobula tarapacana (Philippi 1892) -- (Dyldin 2015:76 [ref. 34524] with question, Notarbartolo-di-Sciara & Séret 2016:1439 [ref. 34552], Jones et al. 2020:305 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula tarapacana (Philippi 1892). Mobulidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

cornu, Aodon Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1798:297, 300 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 1; ref. 2708] Unneeded new name for Squalus edentulus Brunnich 1768. •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (White et al. 2018:62 [ref. 37171], Jones et al. 2020:303 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

cornutus, Anodon Billberg [G. J.] 1833:52 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Marseille, France, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Unnecessary replacement name for Squalus edentulus Brünnich 1768; see Kullander 2016:113 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Kullander 2016:113 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

diabolus, Raja Shaw [G.] 1804:291 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. No types known. Based on literature sources. The name diabolus should not decline. Notarbartolo-di-Sciara (1987) restricted the type locality as the Mediterranean, although Shaw said the Mediterranean, Atlantic and Indian oceans. •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:64 [ref. 9133], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264], Weigmann 2016:146 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Mobula diabolus (Shaw 1804) -- (Dor 1984:21 [ref. 29757], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:16 [ref. 6441], Compagno 1986:134 [ref. 5648], Paxton et al. 1989:51 [ref. 12442], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Goren & Dor 1994:6 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:82 [ref. 27969], Fricke 1999:33 [ref. 24106], Nakabo 2000:186 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:186 [ref. 26001], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899]). Current status: Valid as Mobula diabolus (Shaw 1804). Mobulidae. Distribution: Circumglobal (including Mediterranean Sea). Habitat: marine.

draco, Dicerobatis Günther [A.] 1872:422 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 10 (no. 60) (art,. 60); ref. 18195] Misool [Misol] Island, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Syntypes: BMNH 1870.8.31.68-69 (2). •Synonym of Mobula kuhlii (Valenciennes 1841) -- (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:47 [ref. 9133], Last el al. 2010:262 [ref. 32461], White et al. 2018:58 [ref. 37171] with authors as Müller & Henle). Current status: Synonym of Mobula kuhlii (Valenciennes 1841). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

dumerillii, Cephaloptera Billberg [G. J.] 1833:51 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Montredon, near Marseille, France, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Based on the "Molubar" [sic, should have been Mobular] of Lacepède 1798:151 [ref. 2708]; see Kullander 2016:112 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Kullander 2016:112 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

edentula, Cephalopterus Griffini [A.] (ex Brüun) 1903:132, Fig. 73 [Ittiologia italiana. Descrizione dei pesci di mare e d'acqua dolce; ref. 18159] Italian seas. No types known. •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:77 [ref. 7167], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:64 [ref. 9133], White et al. 2018:63 [ref. 37171], Jones et al. 2020:304 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

edentulus, Squalus Brünnich [M. T.] 1768:6 [Ichthyologia Massiliensis, sistens piscium descriptiones eorumque apud incolas nomina; ref. 17290] Marseille, France, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Questionably the same as Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:64 [ref. 9133]). •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (White et al. 2018:62 [ref. 37171], Jones et al. 2020:304 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

ehrenbergii, Ceratoptera Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:187 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMB 4708 (1), 22621 [ex Anat.-zool. Mus. 8731] (1) Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:180 [ref. 21041]. •Valid as Manta ehrenbergii (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Dor 1984:21 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:6 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Manta birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Marshall et al. 2009:4 [ref. 30599], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264]). •Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:18 [ref. 36273], Jones et al. 2020:302 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792). Mobulidae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

elliotti, Diabolicthys Holmes [F. S.] 1856:45 (39?) [Proceedings of the Elliott Society of Natural History v. 1; ref. 2194] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Jones et al. 2020:302 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

eregoodoo, Dicerobatis Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1420 [438] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Penang, Malaysia; Coromandel, India. Neotype: CAS 56095. On p. 438 of separate. Based on Raja No. IX of Russell 1803:5, Pl. 9, Ereegoodoo-tenkee [ref. 13862], in footnote in genus Cephaloptère as "Eregoodo-tenkee" of Cuvier 1829:402 [ref. 995], and on 1 specimen. A neotype was designated for Cephaloptera eregoodootenkee Bleeker 1859 by Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:30 [ref. 9133] for Cuvier 1829, which was considered as an unneeded subsequent new name for Dicerobatis eregoodoo Cantor 1849 by Notarbartolo-di-Sciara et al. 2019 [ref. 37090]. •Synonym of Mobula kuhlii (Valenciennes 1841) -- (White et al. 2018:58 [ref. 37171] with authors as Müller & Henle). •Valid as Mobula eregoodoo (Cantor 1849) -- (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara et al. 2019:[9] [ref. 37090]). Current status: Valid as Mobula eregoodoo (Cantor 1849). Mobulidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Papua New Guinea, north to Philippines, south to New South Wales, Australia. Habitat: marine.

eregoodootenkee, Cephaloptera Bleeker [P.] 1859:214 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 6 (art. 3); ref. 371] Gulf of Thailand off Cambodia, about 1 mile east of Goh Choaw, 11°03'-11°05'N, 103°03'30"-103°05'E. Neotype: CAS 56095. Treated as unneeded new name for Dicerobatis eregoodoo Cantor 1849 -- see Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 2019 [ref. 37090]. Based on Raja No. IX of Russell 1803:5, Pl. 9, Ereegoodoo-tenkee [ref. 13862]. Appeared first in a footnote in Cuvier 1829:402 [ref. 995] in genus Cephaloptère, as "Eregoodoo-tenkee, Russ. I, 9" but based on style elsewhere in work, this treatment is in the vernacular and probably not available. A neotype was designated by Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:30 [ref. 9133] for Cuvier 1829, and the species treated as valid by him; but that neotype designation probably does not apply for Bleeker 1859. Species may date to Bleeker 1859:214 [ref. 371] as above with reference to Cuvier and to Russell -- also see Compagno 1999:498 who treats Garman 1913 as establishing the valid binomial. •In the synonymy of Mobula diabolus (Shaw 1804) -- (Dor 1984:21 [ref. 29757] which Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:34 [ref. 9133] indicates is another species). •Valid as Raja eregoodootenkee (Bleeker 1859), but questionably the same as Raja diabolus (Shaw 1804) -- (Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:vi [ref. 21953] with author as Cuvier 1829, Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Mobula eregoodootenkee (Bleeker 1859) -- (Last & Stevens 1994:460 [ref. 23873] with author as Cuvier 1829, Compagno & Last 1999:1527 [ref. 24637], Johnson 1999:718 [ref. 25471], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377] as eregoodootenke and with author as Cuvier 1829, Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:56 [ref. 27735], Compagno et al. 2005:81 [ref. 29145], Allen et al. 2006:207 [ref. 29002], Allen & Erdmann 2012:67 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:22 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:15 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:108 [ref. 34104], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara et al. 2016:[4] 200 [ref. 37502], Weigmann 2016:145 [ref. 34211]). •Synonym of Mobula eregoodoo (Cantor 1849) -- (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara et al. 2019:[9] [ref. 37090]). •Synonym of Mobula kuhlii (Valenciennes 1841) -- (White & Last 2016:745 [ref. 35016], White et al. 2018:58 [ref. 37171] with authors as Müller & Henle). Current status: Synonym of Mobula kuhlii (Valenciennes 1841). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

fabroni, Apterurus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:48 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Unjustified emendation of Raja fabroniana Lacepède 1800. •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:77 [ref. 7167], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:64 [ref. 9133], White et al. 2018:62 [ref. 37171], Parenti 2019:102 [ref. 37117], Jones et al. 2020:304 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

fabroniana, Raia Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1800:104, 111, Pl. 5 (figs. 1-2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 2; ref. 2709] Livourne, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MZUF (not found in 1995). Also appeared in Sonnini 1802:73, 285 [ref. 30461]. •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:77 [ref. 7167] as fabronia, Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:64 [ref. 9133], White et al. 2018:62 [ref. 37171], Jones et al. 2020:304 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

fimbriata, Raja Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:671, 677, Pl. 16 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] North Atlantic. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:34 [ref. 9312]. Also appeared in Sonnini 1802:76, 299 [ref. 30461] with author as Lacepède. •Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Jones et al. 2020:302 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

formosana, Mobula Teng [H.-T.] 1962:259, Fig. 74 [Classification and distribution of the Chondrichthyes of Taiwan; ref. 12623] Keelung, northern Taiwan. Holotype (unique): TFRI 2911. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:21 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Mobula tarapacana (Philippi 1892) -- (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:68 [ref. 9133], Ho & Shao 2011:21 [ref. 31432], Dyldin 2015:76 [ref. 34524], Jones et al. 2020:305 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula tarapacana (Philippi 1892). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

fowleri, Manta Whitley [G. P.] 1936:182 [Australian Zoologist v. 8 (pt 3); ref. 6075] Tabuaeran [= Fanning Island], Line Islands, central Pacific. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Based on illustrations and a description of Manta birostris by Fowler 1927:3, Pl. 1 (figs. D-G) [ref. 15785]. •Synonym of Manta alfredi (Krefft 1868) -- (Marshall et al. 2009:13 [ref. 30599]). •Synonym of Mobula alfredi (Krefft 1868). Current status: Synonym of Mobula alfredi (Krefft 1868). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

giorna, Cephalopterus Lesueur [C. A.] 1824:115 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 4 (pt 1); ref. 17520] Off entrance of Delaware River, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.; Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.; Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A. No types known. Not Raja giorna Lacepède 1803. Based on a specimen collected off Delaware River mouth, on the "Devil-fish, Diabolus marinus" of Catesby 1771:xxxii [ref. 774], and on a specimen from Savannah, Georgia described in the Philadelphia Gazette of 6 Aug. 1824. Marshall et al. 2009:13 [ref. 30599] tentatively recognize a valid species distinct from (but occurring with) birostris; it occurs in the Atlantic. A neotype selection would be needed to fix the name of this species as giorna Lesueur 1824 if the species is shown to be distinct from birostris. •Synonym of Manta birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (authors). •Treated as a synonym of Manta sp. cf. birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Marshall et al. 2009:22 [ref. 30599], also Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:21 [ref. 33341]). •Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Jones et al. 2020:302 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792). Mobulidae. Distribution: Atlantic, including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean (if valid). Habitat: marine.

giorna, Raja Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:662, 666, Pl. 20 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Bay of Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:34 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:77 [ref. 7167] as fabronia, Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:64 [ref. 9133], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:16 [ref. 36649] as Cephaloptera giorna, Biscoito et al. 2018:483 [ref. 37562], White et al. 2018:62 [ref. 37171], Jones et al. 2020:304 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

hamiltoni, Brachioptilon Hamilton [F.] & Newman [E.] in Newman 1849:2358 [The Zoologist: a Popular Miscellany of Natural History v. 7 (for 1849); ref. 3169] Gulf of California, Mexico. No types known. Description based on account by Hamilton, Newman provided name; therefore we treat authorship as Hamilton & Newman. •May be a synonym of Manta birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589]). •See Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:73 [ref. 24555]. •Synonym of Manta birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Mecklenburg et al. 2002:108 [ref. 25968], Marshall et al. 2009:4 [ref. 30599], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:135 [ref. 34398] with author as Newman). •Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Jones et al. 2020:302 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

hypostomus, Cephalopterus Bancroft [E. N.] 1831:134 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 15966] Kingston, Jamaica. Holotype (unique): not preserved. Also appeared in Bancroft 1835:411 [ref. 15971], Suppl. Pl. 50. McEachran & Carvalho 2003:588 [ref. 26985] indicated that e. Atlantic specimens are M. rochebrunei. •Valid as Mobula hypostoma (Bancroft 1831) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:45 [ref. 23100], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:25 [ref. 9133], Boschung 1992:28 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:202 [ref. 23827], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:61 [ref. 22793], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:195 [ref. 23897], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:204 [ref. 24490], Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:401 [ref. 24427], Menni & Stehmann 2000:94 [ref. 24909], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:147 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639] as hipostoma Robins & Ray 1986, McEachran & Carvalho 2003:588 [ref. 26985], Gadig et al. 2003:869 [ref. 27134], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:57 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:136 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:145 [ref. 34211], White & Last 2016:744 [ref. 35016], Nión et al. 2016:24 [ref. 35565], Ehemann et al. 2018:27 [ref. 36194], Spier et al. 2018:5 [ref. 36103], Ehemann et al. 2019:[7] [ref. 36861], White et al. 2018:57 [ref. 37171], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:177 [ref. 37302], Jones et al. 2020:303 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Valid as Mobula hypostoma (Bancroft 1831). Mobulidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Argentina, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

japanica, Cephaloptera Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:185 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Japan [Nagasaki, Japan]. Lectotype: RMNH D2440 (dry, young). Paralectotypes: RMNH (1, lost). Type information: Boeseman 1947:228 [ref. 12876] as japonica. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:228 [ref. 12876]. The original spelling was japanica and that spelling should be maintained. •Valid as Mobula japanica (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:58 [ref. 9277], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:16 [ref. 6441], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:53 [ref. 9133], Paulin et al. 1989:30 [ref. 24556] as japonica, Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Last & Stevens 1994:461 [ref. 23873], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:vi [ref. 21953], McEachran & Notarbartolo-di-Sciara in Fischer et al. 1995:761 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:60 [ref. 22793], Chen et al. 1997:11 [ref. 26476], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:131 [ref. 24023], Morón et al. 1999:150 [ref. 24253], Compagno & Last 1999:1528 [ref. 24637], Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:186 [ref. 25086], Choi et al. 2003:73, 486 [ref. 26218], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27192], Gadig et al. 2003:869 [ref. 27134], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Duffy & Abbott 2003:715 [ref. 27479], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:56 [ref. 27735], Nelson et al. 2004:57 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:15 [ref. 37547], Mundy 2005:107 [ref. 28379], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Allen et al. 2006:208 [ref. 29002], Randall 2007:48 [ref. 30952], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Last el al. 2010:260 [ref. 32461], Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Ebert et al. 2013:369 [ref. 33045] as japonica, Psomadakis et al. 2015:108 [ref. 34104], Duffy 2015:203 [ref. 34217], Pinheiro et al. 2015:4 [ref. 34324], Dyldin 2015:76 [ref. 34524], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:137 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016::[146] 982 [ref. 34211], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara et al. 2016:[4] 200 [ref. 37502], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara & Séret 2016:1437 [ref. 34552], Fourriére et al. 2016:453 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Nión et al. 2016:24 [ref. 35565], Kells et al. 2016:86 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35618] as japonica, Sonoyama et al. 2020:15 [ref. 37637] as japonica). •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (White & Last 2016:746 [ref. 35016], White et al. 2018:63 [ref. 37171], Jones et al. 2020:304 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

johnii, Ceratoptera Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:186, [Pl. 59 (right)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Jamaica. Holotype (unique): RUSM uncat. (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Jones et al. 2020:302 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

kuhlii, Cephaloptera Valenciennes [A.] in Müller & Henle 1841:185, [Pl. 59 (left)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-1596. Possible paralectotypes: BMNH 2008.12.1.1 [ex ZSL] (1, stuffed and mounted). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:92 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:26 [ref. 9312]. Lectotype listed in Séret & McEachran 1987:26 [ref. 9312] on verbal information from Notarbartolo-di-Sciara; it is uncertain if this established the lectotype -- see Compagno et al. 2005:81 [ref. 29145]. Subsequent workers perhaps established the lectotype. Authorship changed to Valenciennes 1841 -- Jones et al. 2015:570 [ref. 34086]. •Synonym of Mobula diabolus (Shaw 1804) -- (Dor 1984:22 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Mobula kuhlii (Valenciennes 1841) -- (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:47 [ref. 9133], Randall 1995:51 [ref. 22896], Compagno & Last 1999:1528 [ref. 24637], Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Compagno et al. 2005:81 [ref. 29145] with author as Valenciennes, Last el al. 2010:262 [ref. 32461], Psomadakis et al. 2015:109 [ref. 34104], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara et al. 2016:[5] 201 [ref. 37502], Weigmann 2016:145 [ref. 34211] needs further examination, may be Mobula eregoodootenkee, White & Last 2016:745 [ref. 35016] with authorship as Müller & Henle, White et al. 2017:288 [ref. 35860], Fricke et al. 2018:28 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:18 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:68 [ref. 35922], White et al. 2018:69 [ref. 37171], Chin et al. 2019:[A] 100 [ref. 37669], Eagderi et al. 2019:13 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:48 [ref. 36673], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara et al. 2019:[9] [ref. 37090], Bineesh et al. 2020:26 [ref. 37641], Psomadakis et al. 2020:215 [ref. 37272], Ray & Mohapatra 2021:494 [ref. 38156]). Current status: Valid as Mobula kuhlii (Valenciennes 1841). Mobulidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf and Madagascar east to Philippines, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

lacepedei, Cephaloptera Billberg [G. J.] 1833:51 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] No locality stated. No types known. Genus erroneously abbreviated as "M."; should be C. = Cephaloptera. Based on the "La raie manatia" of Lacepède 1798:160 [ref. 2708]; see Kullander 2016:112 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Raja manatia Schneider 1801 and Manta birostris (Walbaum, 1792) -- (Kullander 2016:112 [ref. 34147]). •Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Jones et al. 2020:302 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

lesueurii, Ceratoptera Swainson [W.] 1839:320, Fig. 100 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Les. Am. Tr. i. p. 115. f. 6 -- whice is Lesueur, probably in Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. •Uncertain in genus Mobula Rafinesque 1810 -- (White et al. 2018:65 [ref. 37171]). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

lucasana, Mobula Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1938:299, Pls. 1-3 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 23 (pt 3, no. 15); ref. 249] San Lucas Bay, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): AMNH 15675-76 [ex NYZS 24793] (in two pieces). Type catalog: Mead 1958:133 [ref. 20648]. •Valid as Mobula lucasana Beebe & Tee-Van 1938 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:58 [ref. 9277], Pequeño 1989:17 [ref. 14125], McEachran & Séret 1990:74 [ref. 19318], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783]). •Synonym of Mobula thurstoni (Lloyd 1908) -- (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:36 [ref. 9133], McEachran & Notarbartolo-Di-Sciara in Fischer et al. 1995:763 [ref. 22829], Acero P. & Franke 1995:18 [ref. 22546], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:60 [ref. 22793]). •Mention -- (Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:61 [ref. 22793]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula thurstoni (Lloyd 1908). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

macrourus, Ceritius Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:12 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Generic account preceeding the proposal of this name listed as Cerictius. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:45 [ref. 3595] as Cerictius macrourus. Possibly imaginary (Jordan 1917:78 [ref. 2407]). •Questionable synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Parenti 2019:109 [ref. 37117] as Mobular mobula). Current status: Uncertain as Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae.

manatia, Raja Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Lacepède) 1801:364 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tropical America. No types known. •Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Jones et al. 2020:302 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

manta, Cephalopterus Bancroft [E. N.] 1829:453 [Zoological Journal, London v. 4 (no. 16) (art. 55); ref. 5051] Kingston, Jamaica. No types known. •Synonym of Manta birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Allen et al. 2006:207 [ref. 29002]). •Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Jones et al. 2020:302 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

marinus, Raja diabolus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:368 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] India. No types known. Not the same as Raja diabolus Shaw 1904. •Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Jones et al. 2020:302 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

massena, Cephalopterus Risso [A.] 1810:15 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:34 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:77 [ref. 7167], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:64 [ref. 9133], White et al. 2018:62 [ref. 37171], Jones et al. 2020:304 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

massenoidea, Cephaloptera Hill [R.] 1862:176 [The Intellectual observer. London v. 2; ref. 21782] Jamaica. No types known. •Synonym of Mobula hypostoma (Bancroft 1831) -- (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:25 [ref. 9133], White et al. 2018:57 [ref. 37171], Jones et al. 2020:303 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula hypostoma (Bancroft 1831). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

mobular, Raia Bonnaterre [J. P.] 1788:5 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Montredon, near Marseille, France, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:34 [ref. 9312]. Based on earlier description by du Monceau. Original genus should have been spelled Raja. Misspelled mobularis by Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:12 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:186 [ref. 30438]. •Synonym of Mobula japanica (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara & Séret 2016:1437 [ref. 34552]). •Valid as Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:77 [ref. 7167], McEachran & Capapé in Whitehead et al. 1984:210 [ref. 13675], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:64 [ref. 9133], McEachran & Séret 1990:74 [ref. 19318], Santos et al. 1997:16 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:24 [ref. 24952], Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589], Bradaï & Capapé 2001:389 [ref. 25924], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:28 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:15 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:21 [ref. 29533], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:16 [ref. 36649], Weigmann 2016:146 [ref. 34211], White & Last 2016:746 [ref. 35016], White et al. 2017:290 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:305 [ref. 36183], Biscoito et al. 2018:483 [ref. 37562], Ehemann et al. 2018:27 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:28 [ref. 35805], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:68 [ref. 35922], White et al. 2018:62 [ref. 37171], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:177 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:52 [ref. 37250], Bariche & Fricke 2020:22 [ref. 37515], Calle-Morán et al. 2020:247 [ref. 37881], Jones et al. 2020:304 [ref. 37610], Kovačić et al. 2020:9 [ref. 37519], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara et al. 2020:2 [ref. 37486], Psomadakis et al. 2020:215 [ref. 37272], Serena et al. 2020:502 [ref. 37963]). Current status: Valid as Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas (including Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea). Habitat: marine.

monstrosa, Raja Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:535 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. •Uncertain in genus Mobula Rafinesque 1810 -- (White et al. 2018:65 [ref. 37171]). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

monstrum, Dicerobatis Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:687 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMNS 1632 (lost). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:13 [ref. 20296]. Fricke 2005:48 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Mobula diabolus (Shaw 1804) -- (Dor 1984:21 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula diabolus (Shaw 1804). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

munkiana, Mobula Notarbartolo-di-Sciara [G.] 1987:9, Figs. 3-7, 8A [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 91 (no. 1); ref. 9133] Bahia de la Ventana, Baja California Sur, Mexico, 24°04'N, 109°53'W, near surface over depth of 15 meters. Holotype: SIO 84-29. Paratypes: SIO 53-178-6A (1), 84-29 (2), 85-34 (1), 85-35 (2). •Valid as Mobula munkiana Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987 -- (Acero P. & Franke 1995:18 [ref. 22546], McEachran & Notarbartolo-di-Sciara in Fischer et al. 1995:762 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:61 [ref. 22793], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:130 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:73 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589], Thomson et al. 2000:284 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:57 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:137 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:146 [ref. 34211], White & Last 2016:747 [ref. 35016], Ehemann et al. 2018:27 [ref. 36194], White et al. 2018:69 [ref. 37171], Calle-Morán et al. 2020:247 [ref. 37881]). Current status: Valid as Mobula munkiana Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987. Mobulidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

olfersii, Cephaloptera Müller [J.] 1836:311 [Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1834; ref. 3060] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9966 (1, dry); ? ZMB 31636 [ex ZMB 8923] (1), ? ZMB 31637 (1). Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:26 [ref. 9312], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:179 [ref. 21041]. •Synonym of Mobula hypostoma (Bancroft 1831) -- (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:25 [ref. 9133], White et al. 2018:57 [ref. 37171], Jones et al. 2020:303 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula hypostoma (Bancroft 1831). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

orissa, Ceratoptera Lloyd [R. E.] 1908:176, Fig. 1, Pl. 5 (figs. 1-3) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 14327] Puri, Bay of Bengal, Orissa coast, India. Holotype: ZSI F72968/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:97 [ref. 20743]. •Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Jones et al. 2020:302 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

pakoka, Manta Whitley [G. P.] 1936:183 [Australian Zoologist v. 8 (pt 3); ref. 6075] Near Hat Island (Teuaua), Ua Huka, Marquesas Islands. No types known. Based on a Manta with the Polynesian vernacular name Pakoka by Pinchot, "To the South Seas" 1930:406, 408, 421, fig. •Synonym of Manta alfredi (Krefft 1868) -- (Marshall et al. 2009:13 [ref. 30599] as pakota). •Synonym of Mobula alfredi (Krefft 1868). Current status: Synonym of Mobula alfredi (Krefft 1868). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

pinchoti, Manta Whitley [G. P.] 1936:182 [Australian Zoologist v. 8 (pt 3); ref. 6075] Near Hat Island, Ua Huka, Marquesas Islands. Holotype: USNM 89721 (parts). Paratypes: USNM 89722 (parts), 143796 (pieces), 143797 (1). Based on descriptions of Manta birostris by Fowler 1932:2 [ref. 1412]. Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

rancureli, Mobula Cadenat [J.] 1959:1331, Figs. 1-10 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 21 (no. 4); ref. 11984] Ivory Coast, western Africa. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1965-0146 (in 5 pieces). Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:27 [ref. 9312]. •Valid as Mobula rancureli Cadenat 1959 -- (McEachran & Séret 1990:75 [ref. 19318]). •Synonym of Mobula japanica (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:47 [ref. 9133], Weigmann 2016:145 [ref. 34211]). •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (White et al. 2018:63 [ref. 37171], Jones et al. 2020:304 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

raya, Manta Baer [G. A.] 1899:112 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 15635] Zorritos, about 40 kilometers south of Tombez, 4 kilometers from Grau, Peru. No types known. •Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Jones et al. 2020:302 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Uncertain as Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

rissoi, Cephaloptera Billberg [G. J.] 1833:51 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Genus erroneously abbreviated as "M."; should have been Cephaloptera. Based on the Cephalopterus massena of Risso 1810:15 [ref. 3755]; see Kullander 2016:112 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Kullander 2016:112 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

rissoi, Cephalopterus Billberg [G. J.] 1833:51 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] No types known. •Synonym of Cephalopterus massena Risso 1810 and synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Kullander 2016:51 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula massena Risso 1810. Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

robertsii, Ceratobatis Boulenger [G. A.] 1897:227 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 20 (no. 116); ref. 540] Jamaica. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1897.7.1.40. •Valid as Ceratobatis robertsii Boulenger 1897 -- (Cervigón 1992:202 [ref. 23827] as robertsi). •Synonym of Mobula hypostoma (Bancroft 1831) -- (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:25 [ref. 9133], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:61 [ref. 22793], White et al. 2018:57 [ref. 37171], Jones et al. 2020:303 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula hypostoma (Bancroft 1831). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

rochebrunei, Cephaloptera Vaillant [L. L.] 1879:187 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 3; ref. 17850] Senegal, western Africa. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9967 (dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:92 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:26 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:77 [ref. 7167]). •Valid as Mobula rochebrunei (Vaillant 1879) -- (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:22 [ref. 9133], McEachran & Seret 1990:75 [ref. 19318], Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589], Menni & Stehmann 2000:94 [ref. 24909] as rochebrunnei, Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:588 [ref. 26985], Gadig et al. 2003:869 [ref. 27134], Weigmann 2016:146 [ref. 34211], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara & Séret 2016:1438 [ref. 34552]). •Synonym of Mobula hypostoma (Bancroft 1831) -- (White & Last 2016:744 [ref. 35016], White et al. 2018:57 [ref. 37171], Jones et al. 2020:303 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula hypostoma (Bancroft 1831). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

stelligera, Cephaloptera Günther [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) 1870:498 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMB 4701 (1), 22621 [ex 8731] (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:179 [ref. 21041] with ZMB 47801 and 22621 as syntypes. In footnote as name on unpublished plate under Ceratoptera ehrengergii; later appeared in Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899:7, Pl. 2 (figs. 1-9) and second pl. 10 [ref. 4977] but treated in synonymy by editor Hilgendorf so not available. •In the synonymy of Manta ehrenbergii (Müller & Henle 1841) -- (Dor 1984:21 [ref. 29757]). •In the synonymy of Manta birostris (Walbaum 1792). •In the synonymy of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Jones et al. 2020:302 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792). Mobulidae.

tarapacana, Cephaloptera Philippi [R. A.] 1892:8, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Anales del Museo Nacional de Chile. Primera seccion, Zoología No. 3; ref. 22759] 12 miles west of Iquique, Tarapacà Province, Chile [southeastern Pacific]. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Appeared as Cephaloptera? tarapacana. On p. 9 of German edition (Philippi 1893 [ref. 14560]). •Valid as Mobula tarapacana (Philippi 1892) -- (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:68 [ref. 9133], Pequeño 1989:17 [ref. 14125], Randall et al. 1990:32 [ref. 15987], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:viii [ref. 21953], Allen & Robertson 1994:37 [ref. 22193], McEachran & Notarbartolo-di-Sciara in Fischer et al. 1995:764 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:60 [ref. 22793], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:131 [ref. 24023], Childs 1997:39 [ref. 24970], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:196 [ref. 23897], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:73 [ref. 24555], Randall et al. 1997:32 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:40 [ref. 23965], Compagno & Last 1999:1529 [ref. 24637], Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:186 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:104 [ref. 25191], Nakabo 2002:186 [ref. 26001], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27192] dated 1893, McEachran & Carvalho 2003:589 [ref. 26985], Gadig et al. 2003:869 [ref. 27134], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:57 [ref. 27735], Nelson et al. 2004:57 [ref. 27807] with date as 1893, Love et al. 2005:15 [ref. 37547], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Randall 2007:49 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:12 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Fricke et al. 2011:348 [ref. 31242], Ho & Shao 2011: 21 [ref. 31432], Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32972], Ebert et al. 2013:370 [ref. 33045], Wirtz et al. 2014:2 [ref. 33516], Psomadakis et al. 2015:109 [ref. 34104], Dyldin 2015:76 [ref. 34524], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:137 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:146 [ref. 34211], Duffy & Vogiatzis 2016:141 [ref. 34488], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara & Séret 2016:1439 [ref. 34552], Fourriére et al. 2016:440 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara et al. 2016:[4] 200 [ref. 37502], White & Last 2016:748 [ref. 35016], White et al. 2017:292 [ref. 35860], Biscoito et al. 2018:487 [ref. 37562], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:173 [ref. 35920], Ehemann et al. 2018:27 [ref. 36194], Golani & Fricke 2018:18 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:68 [ref. 35922], White et al. 2018:69 [ref. 37171], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:178 [ref. 37302], Brown et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:52 [ref. 37250], Ehemann et al. 2019:[7] [ref. 36861], Reiner 2019:52 [ref. 38139], Bineesh et al. 2020:27 [ref. 37641], Calle-Morán et al. 2020:247 [ref. 37881], Jones et al. 2020:305 [ref. 37610], Psomadakis et al. 2020:215 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:15 [ref. 37637], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:59 [ref. 38158]). Current status: Valid as Mobula tarapacana (Philippi 1892). Mobulidae. Distribution: Probably circumglobal in tropical seas (including Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Red Sea, Sea of Japan, Gulf of California). Habitat: marine.

tatraniana, Cephaloptera van Hasselt [J. C.] 1823:316 [Algemeene Konst- en Letter-bode voor het Jaar I Deel (no. 20); ref. 4513] An incorrect subsequent spelling of Raja fabroniana Lacepède 1800 (see Kottelat 1987:369 [ref. 5962]). •In the synonymy of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Current status: Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae.

thurstoni, Dicerobatis Lloyd [R. E.] 1908:179, Fig. 3, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 14327] India. Syntypes: Madras Museum (whereabouts unknown). •Valid, but possibly a synonym of Mobula eregoodoo (Cantor 1849) -- (Compagno 1999:498 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Mobula thurstoni (Lloyd 1908) -- (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987:36 [ref. 9133], Randall 1994:260 [ref. 21644], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:viii [ref. 21953], Allen & Robertson 1994:37 [ref. 22193], Last & Stevens 1994:463 [ref. 23873], Randall 1995:51 [ref. 22896], Acero P. & Franke 1995:18 [ref. 22546], McEachran & Notarbartolo-di-Sciara in Fischer et al. 1995:763 [ref. 22829], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:60 [ref. 22793], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:131 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:73 [ref. 24555], Compagno & Last 1999:1529 [ref. 24637], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Thomson et al. 2000:284 [ref. 25640], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:31 [ref. 27192], Gadig et al. 2003:869 [ref. 27134], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Nelson et al. 2004:57 [ref. 27807], Compagno et al. 2005:82 [ref. 29145], Love et al. 2005:15 [ref. 37547], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Allen et al. 2006:208 [ref. 29002], Béarez & Séret 2009:145 [ref. 36646], Last el al. 2010:264 [ref. 32461], Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Ebert et al. 2013:370 [ref. 33045], Psomadakis et al. 2015:109 [ref. 34104], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:138 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:146 [ref. 34211], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara et al. 2016:[4] 200 [ref. 37502], Notarbartolo-di-Sciara & Séret 2016:1440 [ref. 34552], White & Last 2016:749 [ref. 35016], Nión et al. 2016:24 [ref. 35565], Ehemann et al. 2018:27 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:28 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:18 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36178], White et al. 2018:69 [ref. 37171], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:178 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:53 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:53 [ref. 38139], Zajonz et al. 2019:61 [ref. 36871], Calle-Morán et al. 2020:248 [ref. 37881], Psomadakis et al. 2020:216 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Mobula thurstoni (Lloyd 1908). Mobulidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in warm seas (including Red Sea, Gulf of California). Habitat: marine.

vampyrus, Cephalopterus Mitchill [S. L.] 1824:23, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 1; ref. 17777] Near entrance to Delaware Bay, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Manta birostris (Walbaum 1792). •Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792) -- (Jones et al. 2020:302 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula birostris (Walbaum 1792). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.

vespertilio, Raja Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:535 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Azores, northeastern Atlantic. On Raie cornue Duhamel 1769 sect. 9 p. 293 pl. 17 figs. 1-2, Azores. •Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (White et al. 2018:62 [ref. 37171], Jones et al. 2020:304 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Synonym of Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre 1788). Mobulidae. Habitat: marine.