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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Polydactylus: [ 45 ] records


agonasi, Polydactylus Jordan [D. S.] & McGregor [R. C.] 1906:814, Fig. [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 30 (no. 1470); ref. 10634] Tokyo, Japan. Holotype: USNM 55608. Paratypes: CAS-SU 9879 (2). Additional material: BMNH 1923.2.26.217-218 (2), USNM 56398 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:68 [ref. 12291]. Specimens from literature sources regarded as additional material. •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:118 [ref. 25379], Motomura et al. 2001:302 [ref. 25548], Motomura 2002:187 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:276 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:68 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

americanus, Polynemus Cuvier [G.] 1829:155 (footnote 2) [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] American seas. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5504 (1) Dominican Republic, A-3028 (1) Cayenne, A-3031 (1) Martinique. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:717, 728 [ref. 21541]. See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:393 [ref. 4879]. •Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Motomura et al. 2002:365 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:77 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

antillarum, Polynemus Perugia [A.] 1896:16 [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 16; ref. 14615] St. Pierre, Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MSNG 6695. •Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Motomura et al. 2002:365 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:77 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

approximans, Polynemus Lay [G. T.] & Bennett [E. T.] 1839:57 [The zoology of Captain Beechey's voyage; ref. 2730] San Blas and Mazatlán, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): not preserved. Based on a sketch and a brief description by Mr. Collie. See Motomura et al. 2002:362 [ref. 26500] for remarks about type specimens. •Valid as Polydactylus approximans (Lay & Bennett 1839) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:41 [ref. 37559], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:235 [ref. 9277], Pequeño 1989:63 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:195 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:138 [ref. 23101], Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1386 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:467 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:192 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:353 [ref. 24550], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:125 [ref. 25206], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura et al. 2002:359 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:5 [ref. 27601], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:44 [ref. 27970], Motomura 2004:44 [ref. 27970], Love et al. 2005:126 [ref. 37547], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:118 [ref. 35745], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871], Kells et al. 2016:248 [ref. 35888], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859], Burton & Lea 2019:76 [ref. 37205], González-Murcia et al. 2019:305 [ref. 36544], Angulo et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37425], Angulo 2021:7 [ref. 38913], Love et al. 2021:164 [ref. 39279], Angulo et al. 2023:41 [ref. 40676], Siccha-Ramirez et al. 2023:365 [ref. 40816]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus approximans (Lay & Bennett 1839). Polynemidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: central California (U.S.A.) south to Chile, including Gulf of California (Mexico) and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: brackish, marine.

auratus, Polydactylus McKay [R. J.] 1970:9 [Western Australian Fisheries Bulletin v. 9 (no. 5); ref. 19157] Napier Broome Bay, 2 miles west of the Drysdale River, Western Australia, depth 5 fathoms. Holotype: WAM P.16792-001. Paratypes: WAM P.16793-001 (1), P.16794-001 (1), P.16795-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:32 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:35 [ref. 30117]. •Synonym of Polydactylus multiradiatus (Günther 1860) -- (Feltes 2001:3108 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2002:183 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:268 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:59 [ref. 27970], Hoese et al. 2006:1254 [ref. 29092]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus multiradiatus (Günther 1860). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

barakuan, Pogonais Montrouzier [X.] 1857:428 [150] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. On p. 150 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy of Polynemus plebeius; from Woodlark I., South Pacific. •In the synonymy of Polydactylus plebeius Broussonet 1782. •Nomen nudum in Polynemidae -- (Motomura 2004:13 [ref. 27601]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bifurcus, Polydactylus Motomura [H.], Kimura [S.] & Iwatsuki [Y.] 2001:299, Figs. 1, 2, 3A [Ichthyological Research v. 48 (no. 3); ref. 25548] Kuta beach, Lombok Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): NSMT-P 60494. •Valid as Polydactylus bifurcus Motomura, Kimura & Iwatsuki 2001 -- (Motomura 2002:175 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:5 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:46 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:2 [ref. 28177]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus bifurcus Motomura, Kimura & Iwatsuki 2001. Polynemidae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

californiensis, Polynemus Thominot [A.] 1886:161 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 10; ref. 17904] California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1884-0487. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:717-718 [ref. 21541]. •Synonym of Polydactylus approximans (Lay & Bennett 1839) -- (Motomura et al. 2002:359 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:5 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:44 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus approximans (Lay & Bennett 1839). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

commersonii, Polynemus Shaw [G.] 1804:156 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Indian seas. No types known. Unnecessary rpplacement for Polynemus lineatur Lacepede 1803. •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:118 [ref. 25379], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura 2002:187 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:276 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989], Motomura 2022:90 [ref. 39900]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

emoi, Polynemus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:410, 412 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Tahiti, Tana Island, Tropical America, East Indies, Gulf of Bengal, Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], Malabar, Coromandel. No types known. Based in part of Polynemus plebeius Broussonet 1782. •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:118 [ref. 25379], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura 2002:186 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:275 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:68 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

kuru, Polynemus Bleeker [P.] 1853:600 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 337] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 6006 (2). •Valid as Polydactylus kuru (Bleeker 1853) -- (Mishra & Krishnan 1993:290 [ref. 23743]). •Synonym of Polydactylus sexfilis (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:84 [ref. 25248], Motomura et al. 2001:1087 [ref. 25826], Feltes 2001:3111 [ref. 26107], Motomura & Senou 2002:27 [ref. 26355], Motomura 2002:188 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:276 [ref. 26389], Ataur Rahman 2003:296 [ref. 31338] as dura Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Randall 2005:290 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:387 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:257 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus sexfilis (Valenciennes 1831). Polynemidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lineatus, Polynemus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1803:410, 412, Pl. 13 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Tahiti, Society Islands (erroneous, is evidently Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean). Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5440 (dry). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:718 [ref. 21541]. •Synonym of Polynemus plebeius Broussonet 1782 -- (Daget & Njock 1986:353 [ref. 6216]). •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Fricke 1999:305 [ref. 24106] with remark on locality, Motomura et al. 2001:118 [ref. 25379], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura 2002:186 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:275 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:68 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989], Motomura 2022:90 [ref. 39900]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lineatus, Polynemus Günther [A.] 1860:327 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Ambon Island, Moluccs Islands, Indonesia; Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, western Pacific. Syntypes: BMNH 1858.4.21.85 (1) Ambon, BMNH 1855.11.7.35 (1) Guadalcanal. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Polynemus lineatus Lacepède 1803; replaced by Polynemus taeniatus Günther 1860. •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:118 [ref. 25379], Motomura et al. 2002:276 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:68 [ref. 27970], Randall 2005:290 [ref. 28239], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:222 [ref. 35805]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

longipes, Polydactylus Motomura [H.], Okamoto [M.] & Iwatsuki [Y.] 2001:1087, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2001 (no. 4); ref. 25826] Davao market, Mindanao Island, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 363173. Paratypes: FSKU-P 19840 (1), MUFS 20290 (1). •Valid as Polydactylus longipes Motomura, Okamoto & Iwatsuki 2001 -- (Motomura 2002:176 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:6 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:48 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Lim et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30734], Motomura et al. 2011:159 [ref. 31633]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus longipes Motomura, Okamoto & Iwatsuki 2001. Polynemidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines and Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

luparensis, Polydactylus Lim [P. K. A.], Motomura [H.] & Gambang [A. C.] 2010:64, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 2405; ref. 30734] Mouth of Batang Lupar River, Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia, 1°27'68"N, 111°01'83"E, depth 3-5 meters. Holotype: IPPS 08-01. Paratypes: IPPS 08-02 (1), 08-231 (1); KAUM-I.13252 (1). •Valid as Polydactylus luparensis Lim, Motomura & Gambang 2010 -- (Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus luparensis Lim, Motomura & Gambang 2010. Polynemidae. Distribution: Batang Lupar River, Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

lydiae, Polynemus Curtiss [A.] 1938:43 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura 2002:187 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:276 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:68 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrochir, Polynemus Günther [A.] 1867:60 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 3) v. 20 (no. 115); ref. 1988] New South Wales, Australia [but probably in error for Queensland]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1866.2.13.17. •Valid as Polydactylus macrochir (Günther 1867) -- (Larson & Williams 1997:365 [ref. 23967], Motomura et al. 2000:328 [ref. 25060], Motomura et al. 2001:293 [ref. 25546], Feltes 2001:3105 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2002:176 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:274 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:6 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:49 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Hoese et al. 2006:1253 [ref. 29092], Larson 2013:147 [ref. 32988], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus macrochir (Günther 1867). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: southern New Guinea and northern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

macrophthalmus, Polynemus Bleeker [P.] 1858:10 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 5 (art. 6); ref. 16961] Palembang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 6015. Paralectotypes: RMNH 33967 [ex RMNH 6015] (1). Lectotype selected by Motomura et al. 2001:293 [ref. 25546]. •Valid as Polynemus macrophthalmus Bleeker 1858 -- (Roberts 1989:166 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:129 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:165 [ref. 28284]). •Valid as Polydactylus macrophthalmus (Bleeker 1858) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:290 [ref. 25546], Motomura et al. 2001:1087 [ref. 25826], Feltes 2001:3106 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2002:178 [ref. 26356], Motomura 2004:6 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:51 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Lim et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30734], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus macrophthalmus (Bleeker 1858). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indonesia: Sumatra and Kalimantan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

malagasyensis, Polydactylus Motomura [H.] & Iwatsuki [Y.] 2001:338, Figs. 1, 7a, 8a [Ichthyological Research v. 48 (no.4 ); ref. 25783] Estuary of Mananjary River, about 100 meters from sea, Mananjary, eastern Madagascar, 21°05'S, 48°27'E. Holotype: AMNH 88029. Paratypes: AMNH 231222 (3); AMS I.28114-009 (2); ANSP 54807 (1), 77390 (1), 86372 (2); CAS 66577 (3), 131390 (2); MUFS 20381 (1); NRM 10479-80 (3, 4); SAM 34057 (3); USNM 171045 (1), 278209 (1), 301505 (1), 307631 (1), 358684 (3), 363484 (3). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:222 [ref. 35805]. •Valid as Polydactylus malagasyensis Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001 -- (Motomura & Senou 2002:29 [ref. 26355], Motomura 2002:179 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:6 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:54 [ref. 27970], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:371 [ref. 28072], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Fricke et al. 2018:222 [ref. 35805], Motomura 2022:89 [ref. 39900]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus malagasyensis Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001. Polynemidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) and East Africa (Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya) east to Madagascar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mango, Polynemus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:411, 413 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] America. No types known. •Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:77 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

melanopoma, Polynemus Günther [A.] 1864:148 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] San José, (Pacific) Guatemala. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.321. •Synonym of Polydactylus opercularis (Gill 1863) -- (Motomura et al. 2002:362 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:65 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus opercularis (Gill 1863). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

microstoma, Polynemus Bleeker [P.] 1851:217 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 330] Bulucomba [Balukumba], southern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6044. •Valid as Polydactylus microstoma (Bleeker 1851) (sometimes seen as microstomus) -- (Mishra & Krishnan 1993:289 [ref. 23743], Motomura et al. 2000:331 [ref. 25060], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:102 [ref. 26368], Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001:338 [ref. 25783], Feltes 2001:3107 [ref. 26107], Motomura & Senou 2002:29 [ref. 26355], Motomura 2002:180 [ref. 26356], Motomura 2004:6 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:55 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Randall 2005:289 [ref. 28239], Motomura 2009:169 [ref. 30446], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:94 [ref. 33932], Miesen et al. 2016:90 [ref. 34492], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Motomura et al. 2017:180 [ref. 35490] as microstomus, Psomadakis et al. 2020:498 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus microstoma (Bleeker 1851). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India and Myanmar east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to Taiwan, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

mullani, Polynemus sextarius var. Hora [S. L.] 1926:453, Fig. 1 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 27 (pt 6); ref. 2207] Mumbai, India. Holotype: ZSI F10747. Paratypes: ZSI F10748-10750 (3). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:142 [ref. 20743]. •Valid as Polydactylus mullani (Hora 1926) -- (Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001:344 [ref. 25783], Motomura & Senou 2002:29 [ref. 26355], Motomura 2002:182 [ref. 26356], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Motomura 2004:6 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:57 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Béarez et al. 2011:167 [ref. 31636], Psomadakis et al. 2015:281 [ref. 34104], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 13 [ref. 38321], Motomura 2022:90 [ref. 39900]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus mullani (Hora 1926). Polynemidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Oman east to India. Habitat: marine.

multiradiatus, Polynemus Günther [A.] 1860:324 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] China coast [but probably erroneous]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1852.5.4.5 (stuffed). •Valid as Polydactylus multiradiatus (Günther 1860) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:110 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:176 [ref. 23977], Johnson 1999:743 [ref. 25471], Motomura et al. 2000:293 [ref. 25546], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Feltes 2001:3108 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2002:183 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:268 [ref. 26389], Motomura et al. 2002:364 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:6-7 [ref. 27601], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:107 [ref. 27510], Motomura 2004:59 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Hoese et al. 2006:1254 [ref. 29092], Larson 2013:147 [ref. 32988], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus multiradiatus (Günther 1860). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: southern Indonesia and northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

naso, Polynemus Walbaum [J. J.] 1793:108 [J. T. Kleinii ichthyologia enodata; ref. 12604] Probably Brazil. No types known. Polynemus naso Walbaum 1793 is a nomen oblitum that can be suppressed if conditions of Art. 23.9.1.1 and Art. 23.9.1.2 are met. Donndorff 1798:681 [ref. 17407] cited Klein, Walbaum and others and was not an original description. •Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:77 [ref. 27970]). Nomen Oblitum. Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nigripinnis, Polydactylus Munro [I. S. R.] 1964:156, Fig. 4 [Papua New Guinea Agricultural Journal v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 3058] 2.5 miles off east head of Purari River, Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea, depth 4.75 fathoms. Holotype: CSIRO A 1828. Paratypes: CSIRO A 1827 (1), A 1829-30 (1, 1). •Valid as Polydactylus nigripinnis Munro 1964 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:110 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:176 [ref. 23977], Motomura et al. 2001:86 [ref. 24248], Motomura et al. 2001:1087 [ref. 25826], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Feltes 2001:3109 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2002:184 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:275 [ref. 26389], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:107 [ref. 27510], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:61 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Hoese et al. 2006:1254 [ref. 29092], Larson 2013:147 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus nigripinnis Munro 1964. Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: southern New Guinea and northern Australia, Arafura Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

niloticus, Polynemus Shaw [G.] 1804:151 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Nile River [in error]. No types known. Based on literature sources. •Synonym of Polynemus plebeius Broussonet 1782 -- (Daget & Njock 1986:353 [ref. 6216]). •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:118 [ref. 25379], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura 2002:187 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:275 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:68 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989], Motomura 2022:90 [ref. 39900]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

octofilis, Trichidion Gill [T. N.] 1861:280 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 13; ref. 1779] New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 15074 (poor condition). •Synonym of Polydactylus octonemus (Girard 1858) -- (Feltes 2003:1580 [ref. 27096], Motomura 2004:62 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus octonemus (Girard 1858). Polynemidae. Habitat: marine.

octonemus, Polynemus Girard [C. F.] 1858:167 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 10; ref. 1813] Brazos Santiago, and Galveston, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 22900 [ex USNM] (1), USNM 739 (orig. 8, now 2), 762 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:144 [ref. 13621]. See also Girard 1859:19, Pl. 10 (figs. 5-9) [ref. 13405]. •Valid as Polydactylus octonemus (Girard 1858) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:215 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:154 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:381 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:388 [ref. 24474], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:354 [ref. 24550], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Feltes 2003:1580 [ref. 27096], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:62 [ref. 27970], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:407 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Carvalho-Filho 2023:203 [ref. 40480]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus octonemus (Girard 1858). Polynemidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: New York south to Florida (U.S.A.), including Gulf of Mexico. IUCN (2015): Least Concern. Habitat: marine.

oligodon, Polynemus Günther [A.] 1860:322 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Jamaica. Lectotype: BMNH 1853.4.18.23. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1848.1.12.890 (1, skin) Jamaica. Lectotype was designated by Randall 1966:601 [ref. 27197]. •Valid as Polydactylus oligodon (Günther 1860) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:396 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:215 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:381 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:386 [ref. 24474], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:401 [ref. 24427], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Camargo & Isaac 2001:142 [ref. 27639], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Feltes 2003:1581 [ref. 27096], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Dennis et al. 2004:78 [ref. 31601], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:63 [ref. 27970], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:408 [ref. 28815], Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708] Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:56 [ref. 33341], Nión et al. 2016:48 [ref. 35565], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Spier et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36103], Schmidt & Wright 2020:247 [ref. 37821], Rotundo et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:595 [ref. 38945], Carvalho-Filho 2023:203 [ref. 40480], Martínez-Servín et al. 2023:116 [ref. 40726]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus oligodon (Günther 1860). Polynemidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: southern Florida (U.S.A.) and Bahamas south to southern Brazil, including southern Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. IUCN (2015): Least Concern. Habitat: brackish, marine.

opercularis, Trichidion Gill [T. N.] 1863:168 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1681] Western coast of Central America [probably Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico]. Holotype (unique): USNM 4954 or 4955 (both lost). Type catalog: Smith 2018:81 [ref. 36061]. See Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500] for comment about type locality. •Valid as Polydactylus opercularis (Gill 1863) -- (Hiyama in Kumada 1937:29 [ref. 39147], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:236 [ref. 9277], Pequeño 1989:63 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:195 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:138 [ref. 23101] as operularis [sic], Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1387 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:192 [ref. 24555], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:125 [ref. 25206], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:65 [ref. 27970], Love et al. 2005:126 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:248 [ref. 35888], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:305 [ref. 36544], Love et al. 2021:164 [ref. 39279], Angulo et al. 2023:42 [ref. 40676], Siccha-Ramirez et al. 2023:366 [ref. 40816]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus opercularis (Gill 1863). Polynemidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Chile, including Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: brackish, marine.

pentadactyla, Sciaena Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:310, 316 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Tahiti, Society Islands. Neotype: FMNH 108655. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:32 [ref. 6382]. Based on Commerson manuscript. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:306 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Neotype designated by Kottelat (2013). •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Fricke 1999:305 [ref. 24106], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). •Incertae sedis in Sciaenidae -- (Parenti 2020:58 [ref. 37439]). •Nomen nudum in Polynemidae -- (Motomura 2004:14 [ref. 27601]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pentedactyla, Trigla Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:17 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tahiti, Society Islands [French Polynesia, South Pacific]. Neotype: FMNH 108655. Neotype designated by Motomura et al. 2001:119 [ref. 25379]. Based on the Trigla asiatica of Forster, MS III, 27; see Forster 1844:236 [ref. 18092]. Unnecessary replacement name for Polynemus plebeius Broussonet 1782. •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

persicus, Polydactylus Motomura [H.] & Iwatsuki [Y.] 2001:347, Figs. 5, 7d, 8b [Ichthyological Research v. 48 (no.4 ); ref. 25783] Kuwait Bay, Kuwait, Persian Gulf, 29°30'N, 47°50'E. Holotype: MCZ 60001. Paratypes: AMS I.40432-001 (1); BMNH 2000.9.25.1 (1); KU 10528 (1); MCZ 592251 (5, 1 c&s), 158350 (2); MUFS 20410 (1); USNM 363075 (1). •Valid as Polydactylus persicus Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001 -- (Motomura & Senou 2002:29 [ref. 26355], Motomura 2002:185 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:66 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Eagderi et al. 2019:93 [ref. 37020], Motomura 2022:90 [ref. 39900]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus persicus Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001. Polynemidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf endemic. Habitat: marine.

plebeius, Polynemus Broussonet [P. M. A.] 1782:[35], Pl. [8] [Ichthyologia, sistens piscium descriptiones et icones. Decas I.; ref. 17287] Tahiti, Society Islands [French Polynesia, South Pacific]. Neotype: FMNH 108655. On unnumbered p. 35 and unnumbered Pl. 8. Lectotype selected by Fricke 1999:306 [ref. 24106] as the specimen figured in Pl. 8 of the original description (specimen lost). Neotype (FMNH 108655) was designated by Motomura et al. 2001:119 [ref. 25379]. •Valid as Polynemus plebeius Broussonet 1782 -- (Daget & Njock 1986:353 [ref. 6216] as plebius, Mohsin & Ambak 1996:209 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:38 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:121 [ref. 6441] as plebejus, Smith 1986:721 [ref. 5712], Allen & Swainston 1988:110 [ref. 25477], Kottelat et al. 1993:128 [ref. 23448] as plebejus, Mishra & Krishnan 1993:289 [ref. 23743] as plebius, Goren & Dor 1994:52 [ref. 25356] as plebius, Allen 1997:176 [ref. 23977] as plebius, Fricke 1999:305 [ref. 24106], Motomura et al. 2000:331 [ref. 25060], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:968 [ref. 25182], Motomura et al. 2000:115 [ref. 25299], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:254 [ref. 27511], Motomura et al. 2001:87 [ref. 24248], Motomura et al. 2001:118 [ref. 25379], Sakai et al. 2001:105 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Feltes 2001:3110 [ref. 26107], Nakabo 2002:968 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:346, 618 [ref. 26218], Motomura & Senou 2002:29 [ref. 26355], Motomura 2002:186 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:275 [ref. 26389], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3327 [ref. 27945], Motomura 2004:68 [ref. 27970], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:371 [ref. 28072], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Randall 2005:290 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:387 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1254 [ref. 29092], Fricke et al. 2009:68 [ref. 30213], Motomura 2009:169 [ref. 30446], Motomura et al. 2010:127 [ref. 31256], Psomadakis et al. 2015:282 [ref. 34104], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Motomura et al. 2017:181 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:222 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:25 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:173 [ref. 36673], Bogorodsky et al. 2020:532 [ref. 38001], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 13 [ref. 38321], Kim et al. 2020:137 [ref. 39118] as plebieus, Psomadakis et al. 2020:498 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:85 [ref. 37637], Wada et al. 2021:44 [ref. 38521], Motomura 2022:90 [ref. 39900]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa (Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya), Socotra (Yemen), Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Philippines, Society Islands and Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia), north to Korea and central Japan, south to Western Australia, Port Stephens (New South Wales), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: brackish, marine.

plumierii, Polydactylus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:419, 420, Pl. 14 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] No locality stated. No types known. •Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:77 [ref. 27970]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

quadrifilis, Polynemus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:390, Pl. 68 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0756 (poor condition). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:719 [ref. 21541]. •Valid as Polynemus quadrifilis Cuvier 1829 -- (Daget & Njock 1986:354 [ref. 6216], Njock 1990:867 [ref. 18540], Reiner 2019:219 [ref. 38139]). •Valid as Polydactylus quadrifilis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Daget in Lévêque et al. 1992:794 [ref. 21590], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:70 [ref. 27970], Snoeks & Vreven 2007:447 [ref. 30079], Wirtz et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32972], Motomura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2628 [ref. 34618], Skelton 2019:228 [ref. 36564], Fermon et al. 2022:230 [ref. 39448]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus quadrifilis (Cuvier 1829). Polynemidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola, including Cape Verde Islands, and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sexfilis, Polynemus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:515 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-9731. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-9728 (1), A-3027 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1972:719 [ref. 21541]. Lectotype selected by Motomura et al. 2001:84 [ref. 25248]. •Synonym of Polydactylus sextarius (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Fricke 1999:306 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Polydactylus sexfilis (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:122 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:51 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:293 [ref. 15987], Mishra & Krishnan 1993:290 [ref. 23743], Randall et al. 1997:293 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:158 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:16 [ref. 25829], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:968 [ref. 25182], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:255 [ref. 27511], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:345 [ref. 25191], Motomura et al. 2000:115 [ref. 25299], Motomura et al. 2001:84 [ref. 25248], Motomura et al. 2001:1087 [ref. 25826], Feltes 2001:3111 [ref. 26107], Nakabo 2002:968 [ref. 26193], Motomura & Senou 2002:27 [ref. 26355], Motomura 2002:188 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:276 [ref. 26389], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:628 [ref. 27495], Ataur Rahman 2003:296 [ref. 31338], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Randall et al. 2004:17 [ref. 27624], Motomura 2004:72 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Randall 2005:290 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:387 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:257 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:502 [ref. 31980], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 13 [ref. 38321], Psomadakis et al. 2020:499 [ref. 37272], Tomimori & Matsunuma 2020:22 [ref. 37961], Motomura 2022:91 [ref. 39900]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus sexfilis (Valenciennes 1831). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles and Mescarenes (Mauritius) east to Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.) and Pitcairn (British Overseas Territories), north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa (French Polynesia). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sextarius, Polynemus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:18, Pl. 4 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 565. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:117 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Polynemus sextarius Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:210 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:38 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Polydactylus sextarius (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:45 [ref. 19754], Smith 1986:721 [ref. 5712], Daget & Njock 1986:354 [ref. 6216], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:910 [ref. 20764], Mishra & Krishnan 1993:290 [ref. 23743], Goren & Dor 1994:52 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:233 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:188 [ref. 23922], Motomura et al. 1999:57 [ref. 23928], Fricke 1999:306 [ref. 24106], Mishra et al. 1999:88 [ref. 25315], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:968 [ref. 25182], Motomura et al. 2000:115 [ref. 25299], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:256 [ref. 27511], Motomura et al. 2001:86 [ref. 24248], Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001:350 [ref. 25783], Motomura et al. 2001:1087 [ref. 25826], Feltes 2001:3112 [ref. 26107], Motomura & Senou 2002:29 [ref. 26355], Nakabo 2002:968 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:346, 618 [ref. 26218], Motomura 2002:189 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:10 [ref. 27710] with author as Bloch, Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:74 [ref. 27970], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:371 [ref. 28072], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2015:61 [ref. 34319], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Ali et al. 2018:334 [ref. 36183], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:189 [ref. 36460], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 13 [ref. 38321], Psomadakis et al. 2020:499 [ref. 37272], Taki et al. 2021:380 [ref. 39830], Motomura 2022:91 [ref. 39900]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus sextarius (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Polynemidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India and Myanmar east to Vietnam and New Guinea, north to southern Japan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sheridani, Polynemus Macleay [W.] 1884:21 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 1); ref. 4932] Mary River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): ?MAMU (whereabouts unknown, probably lost). •Valid as Polydactylus sheridani (Macleay 1884) -- (Mishra & Krishnan 1993:289 [ref. 23743], Johnson 1999:743 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847]). •Synonym of Polydactylus macrochir (Günther 1867) -- (Motomura et al. 2000:328 [ref. 25060], Motomura et al. 2001:302 [ref. 25548], Feltes 2001:3105 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2002:176 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:274 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:6 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:49 [ref. 27970], Hoese et al. 2006:1253 [ref. 29092]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus macrochir (Günther 1867). Polynemidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

siamensis, Polydactylus Motomura [H.], Iwatsuki [Y.] & Yoshino [T.] 2001:122, Fig. 1B [Ichthyological Research v. 48 (no. 2); ref. 25379] Samyan market, Bangkok, Thailand. Holotype: URM-P 14050. Paratypes: MUFS 18280 (1). •Valid as Polydactylus siamensis Motomura, Iwatsuki & Yoshino 2001 -- (Motomura et al. 2001:302 [ref. 25548], Motomura & Senou 2002:29 [ref. 26355], Motomura 2002:190 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:364 [ref. 26500], Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:75 [ref. 27970], Motomura et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28177], Motomura 2009:170 [ref. 30446], Kottelat 2013:355 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2020:499 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus siamensis Motomura, Iwatsuki & Yoshino 2001. Polynemidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar and Andaman Sea east to Gulf of Thailand. Habitat: brackish, marine.

specularis, Polynemus De Vis [C. W.] 1883:285 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 1088] Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: QM I.28 (1, apparently lost). •Synonym of Polydactylus multiradiatus (Günther 1860) -- (Feltes 2001:3108 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2002:183 [ref. 26356], Motomura et al. 2002:268 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:7 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:59 [ref. 27970], Hoese et al. 2006:1254 [ref. 29092]). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus multiradiatus (Günther 1860). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

taeniatus, Polynemus Günther [A.] 1860:526 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Ambon Island, Moluccs Islands, Indonesia; Guadalcanal, Solomon Island, western Pacific. Syntypes: BMNH 1858.4.21.85 (1) Ambon, BMNH 1855.11.7.35 (1) Guadalcanal. Replacement name for Polynemus lineatus Günther 1860, preoccupied by Polynemus lineatus Lacepède 1803. •Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:118 [ref. 25379], Motomura et al. 2001:302 [ref. 25548], Motomura et al. 2002:276 [ref. 26389], Motomura 2004:8 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:68 [ref. 27970]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet 1782). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

virginicus, Polynemus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:317 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America. No types known. Misspelled verginicus by Walbaum 1792:630 [ref. 4572]. •Valid as Polynemus virginicus Linnaeus 1758 -- (López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808]). •Valid as Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:215 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:381 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:387 [ref. 24474], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:218 [ref. 22947], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:269 [ref. 25013], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:401 [ref. 24427], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Motomura et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25548], Camargo & Isaac 2001:142 [ref. 27639], Motomura et al. 2002:363 [ref. 26500], Feltes 2003:1582 [ref. 27096], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Motomura 2004:9 [ref. 27601], Smith et al. 2003:38 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:77 [ref. 27970], Dennis et al. 2004:78 [ref. 31601], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:409 [ref. 28815], Matamoros et al. 2009:19 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:1003 [ref. 33194], Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:56 [ref. 33341], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Nión et al. 2016:48 [ref. 35565], Kang et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35524], Spier et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Rotundo et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:596 [ref. 38945], Koerber et al. 2022:68 [ref. 39235], Angulo et al. 2023:42 [ref. 40676], Carvalho-Filho 2023:203 [ref. 40480], Ceríaco et al. 2023:63 [ref. 40710]). Current status: Valid as Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus 1758). Polynemidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) and Bahamas south to northern Argentina, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. IUCN (2015): Least Concern. Habitat: brackish, marine.

zophomus, Polydactylus Jordan [D. S.] & McGregor [E. A.] in Jordan & Seale 1907:11, Fig. 4 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 606) (for 1906); ref. 2498] Cavite Province, Manila Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype: CAS-SU 20113 [not USNM 55598]. Paratypes: ?CAS-SU 20111 (1), USNM 55598 (1 of 2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:69 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Polydactylus microstomus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Motomura et al. 2001:302 [ref. 25548], Motomura & Iwatsuki 2001:339 [ref. 25783], Feltes 2001:3107 [ref. 26107], Motomura 2002:180 [ref. 26356], Motomura 2004:6 [ref. 27601], Motomura 2004:55 [ref. 27970], Kottelat 2013:354 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Polydactylus microstoma (Bleeker 1851). Current status: Synonym of Polydactylus microstoma (Bleeker 1851). Polynemidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.


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