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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Epinephelidae: [ 563 ] records


abdominalis, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:430 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Mozambique at 15°S, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ZMB 32501 (skeleton). Also described as new in Peters 1855:237 [ref. 13448]. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:59 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

acanthistius, Bodianus Gilbert [C. H.] 1892:552 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 880); ref. 1626] Near Cape Lobos on eastern shore of Gulf of California, Mexico, 29°54'30"N, 113°01'W, Albatross station 3017, depth 58 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM. •Valid as Cephalopholis acanthistius (Gilbert 1892) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1993:84 [ref. 21807]). •Valid as Epinephelus acanthistius (Gilbert 1892) -- (Lea & Fukuhara 1991 [ref. 21795], Heemstra & Randall 1993:102 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:108 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:92 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1590 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:283 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:353 [ref. 24555], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:121 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:83 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:111 [ref. 37547], ). •Valid as Hyporthodus acanthistius (Gilbert 1892) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:263 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:237 [ref. 36362], Kells et al. 2016:226 [ref. 35888], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:84 [ref. 37354], Walker et al. 2020:4 [ref. 37499], Love et al. 2021:146 [ref. 39279], Siccha-Ramirez et al. 2023:320 [ref. 40816], Vela-Espinosa et al. 2023:9 [ref. 40981]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus acanthistius (Gilbert 1892). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to central Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

acutirostris, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:286 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7329 (1), MNHN [Bauchot's holotype] not found. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:23 [ref. 19232] as holotype and paratype. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:787 [ref. 13676], Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227]). •Valid as Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:261 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:33 [ref. 25512], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:213 [ref. 25013], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1353 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:165 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:291 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:41 [ref. 33341], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354], Carvalho-Filho 2023:119 [ref. 40480], Hoff et al. 2023:6 [ref. 40463]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Cuba south to Leeward Islands, including western Gulf of Mexico and southern Caribbean Sea; Santa Catarina (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

adscensionis, Trachinus Osbeck [P.] 1765:388 [Reise nach Ostindien und China; ref. 3311] Ascension Island, southeastern Atlantic. Neotype: BMNH 1979.1.5.20. Spelled ascensionis by Bonnaterre 1788:46 [ref. 4940]. See also Trachinus osbeck Lacepède 1800, an unnecessary replacement name. Neotype selected by Fricke et al. 2021:42 [ref. 38901]. •Valid as Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:132 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:635 [ref. 9166], Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Bullock & Smith 1991:82 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:329 [ref. 24472], Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Boschung 1992:105 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:427 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:18 [ref. 25512], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:265 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:206 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:72 [ref. 25466], Thomson et al. 2000:87 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Heemstra et al. 2003:1339 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:142 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:71 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:39 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:13 [ref. 34324], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2387 [ref. 34618], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37509], Brown et al. 2019:176 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:243 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:168 [ref. 38139], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354], Robertson et al. 2020:162 [ref. 38098], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:79 [ref. 38844], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:517 [ref. 38945], Fricke et al. 2021:37 [ref. 38901], González-Lorenzo et al. 2021:145 [ref. 38374], Bennema & van Moorsel 2022:71 [ref. 39585], Fermon et al. 2022:287 [ref. 39448], Carvalho-Filho 2023:115 [ref. 40480]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) south to São Paulo (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena and Ascension islands; eastern Atlantic: Gabon, Azores (Portugal), Canary Islands (Spain), São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

aeneus, Serranus Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1817:no page number, Pl. 21 (figs. 3-4) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4184] Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7326. Paratypes: MNHN 0000-6227 (1), B.3116 [ex MNHN 0000-7326] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:23 [ref. 19232]. Species epithet misspelled oeneus by Gruvel & Bouyat 1906:152, Pl. 11, fig. 29 [ref. 30367]. •Valid as Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Tortonese 1973:358 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:783 [ref. 13676], Daget & Smith 1986:302 [ref. 6204], Smith 1990:697 [ref. 18227], Smith 1990:697 [ref. 18227], Heemstra 1991:20 [ref. 19323], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:666 [ref. 21590], Heemstra & Randall 1993:104 [ref. 21042], Afonso et al. 1999:72 [ref. 25466], Glamuzina et al. 2000:306 [ref. 25058], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:78 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:35 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:79 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:41 [ref. 36649], Craig et al. 2011:73 [ref. 31786], Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972] needs confirmation, Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516] needs confirmation, Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2388 [ref. 34618], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Martins & Carneiro 2018:123 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:243 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Reiner 2019:169 [ref. 38139], Bañón et al. 2020:[2] [ref. 37355], Bariche & Fricke 2020:87 [ref. 37515], Dulčić & Sbragaglia in Bo et al. 2020:619 [ref. 37876], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354], Bañón & Maño 2021:81 [ref. 38887], Golani 2021:39 [ref. 38303], González-Lorenzo et al. 2021:145 [ref. 38374], Kovačić et al. 2021:77 [ref. 39014], Fermon et al. 2022:287 [ref. 39448]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: Galicia (Spain) and Portugal south to Angola, including Madeira (Poertugal), Canary Islands (Spain), Cape Verde Islands, and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

afer, Epinephelus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:12, Pl. 327 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Guinea, West Africa. Holotype (unique): ZMB 143. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:135 [ref. 24282]. On p. 10 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. Treated as Plectropoma afrum by Günther 1868:411 [ref. 1994]. See Craig et al. 2006:327 [ref. 29772] for locality information. •Valid as Epinephelus afer Bloch 1793 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:131 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:321 [ref. 24472]). •Valid as Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:20 [ref. 21042], Cervigón 1992:425 [ref. 23827], Grace et al. 1994:11 [ref. 25512], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:314 [ref. 24023], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:203 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Heemstra et al. 2003:1329 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:126 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:128 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2006:328 [ref. 29772], Wirtz et al. 2007:8, 29 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:4 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:38 [ref. 33341], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2378 [ref. 34618], Nión et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35565], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Padovani-Ferreira et al. 2018:4 [ref. 37309], Reiner 2019:165 [ref. 38139], Parenti & Randall 2020:49 [ref. 37354], Robertson et al. 2020:161 [ref. 38098], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:511 [ref. 38945], Carvalho-Filho 2023:115 [ref. 40480], Martínez-Servín et al. 2023:116 [ref. 40726]). Current status: Valid as Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Uruguay, including southern Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Guinea; São Tome and Principe. Habitat: marine.

aguaji, Trisotropis Poey [F.] 1867:229 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14078] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

aitha, Cephalopholis Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1991:29, Pl. 1c, Fig. 5 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 20; ref. 19601] Tripod Reef, lagoon off Nagada Harbor, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea, depth 30 meters. Holotype: BPBM 32655. Paratypes: AMS I.28525-001 (1); BMNH 1989.2.3.1 (1); BPBM 32223 (1), 32229 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 29158 [ex USNM 236462] (1); USNM 236456 (1), 274684 (1). •Valid as Cephalopholis aitha Randall & Heemstra 1991 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:33 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2540 [ref. 24815], Allen & Adrim 2003:30 [ref. 26830], Craig et al. 2011:12 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:260 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:58 [ref. 33932], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:111 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:50 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis aitha Randall & Heemstra 1991. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

akaara, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:9, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Nagasaki Prefecture, Kyūshū, Japan, Lectotype: RMNH D85 (dry). Paralectotypes: RMNH D82 (1), D83 (1), D84 (1); ZMB 5218 [ex RMNH] (1, stuffed). Possible paralectotype: BMNH 1844.2.21.16 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:331 [ref. 25566]. Originally as aka-ara. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:26 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Lee 1990:35 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:91 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:106 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2485 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:717 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:79 [ref. 25480], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Shimizu 2001:28 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:717 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:309, 590 [ref. 26218], Craig et al. 2011:75 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Kim et al. 2020:115 [ref. 39118], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354], Sonoyama et al. 2020:53 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: China and Taiwan to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

alatus, Serranus Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:264, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Hall Sound, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16323-001 [ex MAMU F482]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:240 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

albimaculatus, Epinephelus Seale [A.] 1910:509, Pl. 8 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Butuan Bay, Mindanao Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP 1908 (apparently destroyed). Originally misspelled as albimuculatus in text, correct spelling in figure caption and plate. •Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:117 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

albimarginata, Variola Baissac [J. de B.] 1953:214 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Mauritius v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 12639] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): NHMI [Mus. Port Louis, Mauritius Inst.] (lost). Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:209 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Misspelled albomarginata in literature. •Valid as Variola albimarginata Baissac 1953 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:126 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:536 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:501 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:27 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:62 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:119 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:305 [ref. 19601], Manilo 1992:23 [132] [ref. 39140], Heemstra & Randall 1993:303 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:247 [ref. 27969], Randall et al. 1997:119 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:117 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:208 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2538 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:709 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:611 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:709 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830] as albomarginata, dated 1952, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S105 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:622 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:56 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624] as albomarginata, Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:167 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:120 [ref. 28745], Hoese et al. 2006:1024 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:49 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:387 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2010:101 [ref. 31256], Craig et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:285 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:103 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:65 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:20 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:158 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:126 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:94 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:56 [ref. 38701], Durville et al. 2021:311 [ref. 38802], Dewa et al. 2022:17 [ref. 40001], Heemstra 2022:77 [ref. 39742], Mochizuki et al. 2022:21 [ref. 39612]). Current status: Valid as Variola albimarginata Baissac 1953. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa (Tanzania), Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Marshall Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to Kagoshima Prefecture (southern Japan), south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

albofuscus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:340, 384 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] East Indies. No types known. Originally albo-fuscus, correction mandatory. New name for Holocentrus maculatus Bloch. •Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:189 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:181 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

alboguttatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:366 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 0000-6406. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:23 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601] as caeruleopunctatus, Heemstra & Randall 1993:120 [ref. 21042] as caeruleopunctatus, Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:53 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

albomarginatus, Cephalopholis Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1930:235, Fig. 11 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 100, v. 10; ref. 1477] Danawan Island, vicinity of Sibuko Bay, Borneo [Sabah, Malaysia, ca. 4°18'28 N, 118°51'56 E]. Holotype: USNM 89985. Paratypes: USNM 99780 (2), 149319 (1), 183851-58 (1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1), 183860 (1). •Valid as Cephalopholis albomarginatus Fowler & Bean 1930 -- (Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Gracila albomarginata (Fowler & Bean 1930) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:534 [ref. 5667], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1988:13 [ref. 9299], Paxton et al. 1989:499 [ref. 12442] as albomarginatus, Winterbottom et al. 1989:26 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:59 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:116 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:286 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:254 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:102 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:116 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:116 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:201 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2530 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:710 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:190 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:710 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:164 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:348 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:260 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:281 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:62 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35490] as Gracilla, Fricke et al. 2019:120 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:59 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:54 [ref. 38701], Durville et al. 2021:311 [ref. 38802], Heemstra 2022:72 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Gracila albomarginata (Fowler & Bean 1930). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa (Mozambique, Tanzania), Seychelles, Aldabra (Seychelles) Comoros, Mozambique Channel and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to northern Line slands and Tuamotu Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands (Japan), south to New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

albomarginatus, Epinephelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1903:65, Pl. 4 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 15011] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.2.6.2 (1), 1903.2.6.3 (1). •Valid as Mycteroperca albomarginata (Boulenger 1903) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as albomarginatus). •Valid as Epinephelus albomarginatus Boulenger 1903 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:522 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:94 [ref. 19601], Manilo 1992:22 [131] [ref. 39140], Heemstra & Randall 1993:108 [ref. 21042], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:164 [ref. 28072], Craig et al. 2011:78 [ref. 31786], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:50 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:50 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus albomarginatus Boulenger 1903. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) north to Quissico (Mozambique). Habitat: marine.

albopunctulatus, Epinephelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:234, Pl. 9 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum 2nd edition v. 1; ref. 537] Nuka Hiva, Marquesas Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1978.2.1.1. •Synonym of Epinephelus irroratus (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:174 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:169 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2504 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:157 [ref. 28239], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus irroratus (Forster 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

aldabrensis, Dermatolepis Smith [J. L. B.] 1955:311, Pl. 3 (fig. B) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 8 (no. 88) (art. 38); ref. 4096] Aldabra Island, western Indian Ocean, depth 5-10 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 429 (head, skin, fins). Paratypes: (3) not researched. •Synonym of Dermatolepis striolatus (Playfair 1867) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:520 [ref. 5667]). •Synonym of Dermatolepis striolata (Playfair 1867) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:76 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:68 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:59 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:46 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Dermatolepis striolata (Playfair 1867). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

alexandrinus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:281 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7325. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:23 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus alexandrinus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:784 [ref. 13676], Smith 1990:698 [ref. 18227], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666]). •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:55 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

alternatus, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1944:9 [Further notes on the zoology of Tahiti.; ref. 12574] Lagoon near Papeete, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Fowler 1949:85 [ref. 1462], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

altivelioides, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1849:38 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. •Synonym of Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:125 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:132 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

altivelis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:324, Pl. 35 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia, and unknown locality. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7174 (1, dry) no locality, RMNH (not found). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1996:241 [ref. 22899]. •Valid as Epinephelus altivelis (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Cromileptes altivelis (Valenciennes 1828) [genus both as Chromileptes and Cromileptes in current literature] -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:132 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:519 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:492 [ref. 12442] with genus as Chromileptes, Lee 1990:32 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:105 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:73 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:63 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:129 [ref. 23929] with genus as Chromileptes, Mohsin & Ambak 1996:232 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:52 [ref. 26476], Larson & Williams 1997:354 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:106 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:105 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:112 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2484 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:725 [ref. 25086] with genus as Chromileptes, Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:180 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:78 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:725 [ref. 26001] with genus as Chromileptes, Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:51 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:153 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:345 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1007 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242] with genus as Cromileptes, Craig et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31786] with genus as Cromileptes, Allen & Erdmann 2012:267 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:98 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2019:116 [ref. 36673] as Cromileptes a., Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321] as Cromileptes a., Parenti & Randall 2020:58 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:386 [ref. 37272] as Cromileptes a., Akhilesh et al. 2021:50 [ref. 38701], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:665 [ref. 40722] as Cromileptes a., Ray et al. 2023:2 [ref. 39988]). Current status: Valid as Chromileptes altivelis (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: West Bengal (India), Bangladesh, Myanmar, Andaman Sea and Indonesia east to Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Hawaiian records probably are based on released aquarium fish. Habitat: marine.

amarui, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1938:93 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Fowler 1949:84 [ref. 1462], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

amblycephalus, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1857:32 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5159. •Valid as Epinephelus amblycephalus (Bleeker 1857) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:222 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:170 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:36 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:95 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:109 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:232 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:44 [ref. 26476], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2486 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:719 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:719 [ref. 26001], Hoese et al. 2006:1008 [ref. 28999], Hoese et al. 2006:1008 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2007:49 [ref. 29493], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:86 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:80 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32988], Tucker et al. 2016:661 [ref. 34684], Motomura et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35490], Frable et al. 2018:[9] [ref. 36287], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:116 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:387 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:50 [ref. 38701]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus amblycephalus (Bleeker 1857). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar, Andaman Sea and Indonesia east to Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

amboinensis, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1852:258 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 16825] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5466. •Synonym of Epinephelus undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:284 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:250 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2529 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:83 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

analis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:307 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] New Ireland, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7269. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:24 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Cephalopholis analis (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:490 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:23 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:26 [ref. 19830], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall et al. 1990:104 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:36 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:35 [ref. 21042], Fricke et al. 2019:112 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

analogus, Epinephelus Gill [T. N.] 1863:163 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1681] Western coast of Central America. Holotype (unique): USNM 4944. Type catalog: Smith 2018:74 [ref. 36061]. •Valid as Epinephelus analogus Gill 1863 -- (Hiyama in Kumada 1937:38 [ref. 39147], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:197 [ref. 9277], Heemstra & Randall 1993:110 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:109 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:92 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1591 [ref. 22830], Allen & Robertson 1997:835 [ref. 41086], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:317 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:359 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:265 [ref. 24550], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:121 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:84 [ref. 25640], Thomson et al. 2000:87 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:111 [ref. 37547], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:82 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:397 [ref. 34894], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Knuden & Clements 2016:261 [ref. 34458], Kells et al. 2016:224 [ref. 35888], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354], Love et al. 2021:146 [ref. 39279], Siccha-Ramirez et al. 2023:314 [ref. 40816], Vela-Espinosa et al. 2023:9 [ref. 40981]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus analogus Gill 1863. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico) and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

andersoni, Epinephelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1903:66, Pl. 5 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 15011] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1903.2.6.4. •Valid as Mycteroperca andersoni (Boulenger 1903) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Epinephelus andersoni Boulenger 1903 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:522 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:96 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:111 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:164 [ref. 28072], Craig et al. 2011:83 [ref. 31786], Fricke et al. 2018:147 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:50 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:50 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus andersoni Boulenger 1903. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Western Cape, Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) north to Mozambique, east to Madagascar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

angularis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:353 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Sri Lanka. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7280 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:24 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus angularis (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:112 [ref. 21042], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:51 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

angustifrons, Serranus Steindachner [F.] 1864:230, Pl. 7 (figs. 2-3) [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 14; ref. 13938] Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:195 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

apiarius, Prospinus Poey [F.] 1962:55, Pl. 47 (fig. P) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 26395] Posthumous publication. •Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793) -- (Poey 2000:903 [ref. 26366], Parenti & Randall 2020:49 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

apiarius, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:143 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 9998 (1), 10068 (1, missing), 10158 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:189-190 [ref. 22926] with a holotype. •Synonym of Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:38 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:29 [ref. 38901]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

apua, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:50, Pl. 229 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Brazil. No types known. On p. 37 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

ara, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:9 [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Unjustified emendation of Serranus ura Valenciennes 1828. •In the synonymy of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:275 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:244 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

arara, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:377 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0885 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:24 [ref. 19232], with MNHN 885 as holotype. Based in part on the 'Bonací arará' of Parra 1787:30, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:43 [ref. 38901]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

arara, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:132 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Serranus arara Valenciennes 1828. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

areolata, Perca Forsskål [P. S.] in Niebuhr 1775:xi, 42 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Possible holotype: ZMUC P43570 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:61 [ref. 9588] not definitely referred ZMUC P43570 as holotype due to confusion of some labels in Forsskål's collection. As Perca summana var. areolata on p. xi, and as "[PERCA summana] (c) Perca areolata" on p. 42. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. Possible type figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965: Pl. 10 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:208 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:175 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:523 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:36 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:105 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Baranes & Golani 1993:306 [ref. 22372], Heemstra & Randall 1993:112 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:128 [ref. 22896], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:233 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:143 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:45 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:110 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:105 [ref. 25919], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2487 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:715 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:181 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:80 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:715 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:51 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:154 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1008 [ref. 28999], Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:86 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:96 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:85 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:267 [ref. 31980], Almukhtar et al. 2012:174 [ref. 41009], Randall et al. 2013:524 [ref. 32685], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:99 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:196 [ref. 34104], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Motomura et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:147 [ref. 35805], Jawad et al. 2018:103 [ref. 36262], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:100 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:106 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:116 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Kim et al. 2020:115 [ref. 39118], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:387 [ref. 37272], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:110 [ref. 37300], Wu et al. 2020:134 [ref. 37525], Akhilesh et al. 2021:50 [ref. 38701], Golani 2021:40 [ref. 38303], Kawano et al. 2021:12 [ref. 38469], Kovačić et al. 2021:77 [ref. 39014], Nakamura in Motomura et al. 2021:19 [ref. 38121], Nakamura & Motomura 2021:275 [ref. 38066], Heemstra 2022:51 [ref. 39742], Sabour et al. 2022:121 [ref. 40008], Zajonz et al. 2022:71 [ref. 40522], Ali et al. 2023:58 [ref. 40802], Ergüden et al. 2023:256 [ref. 40685], Hasan et al. 2023:2210 [ref. 40412], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:666 [ref. 40722], Murase et al. 2023:39 [ref. 40935], Vilasri et al. 2023:78 [ref. 40764]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa (Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya), Persian Gulf, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles and Madagascar east to Fiji, Tonga and Samoa, north to Sea of Japan (Korea, Japan), south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Invasive in eastern Mediterranean (Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey). Habitat: marine.

areolatum, Plectropoma Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:index p. 2, footnote [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Al Muwaylih, Tabuk Province, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 3013. Non-types: SMF 4503 (1). Lectotype (SMF 3013) designated by Randall & Hoese 1986:9 [ref. 6009] but evidently Rüppell had only one specimen and that is the holotype (pers. comm. Uwe Zajonz, SMF). •Valid as Plectropomus areolatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:534 [ref. 5667], Randall & Hoese 1986:9 [ref. 6009], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:499 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:26 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:116 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:291 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:289 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:116 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:116 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2531 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:708 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:708 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Hoese et al. 2006:1021 [ref. 28999], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:92 [ref. 30492], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:331 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:282 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:63 [ref. 33932], Golani & Fricke 2018:65 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:121 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:92 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:54 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:74 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:92 [ref. 40522]). Current status: Valid as Plectropomus areolatus (Rüppell 1830). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra (Yemen), Maldives and Chagos Archipelago east to Phoenix Islands (Kiribati) and Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands (Japan), south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

argus, Anthias Bloch [M. E.] 1792:111, Pl. 317 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 6; ref. 470] Not available, on Official Index (Opinion 1439). On p. 95 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 9 [ref. 21381]; unknown locality. Suppressed. Epinephelidae.

argus, Cephalopholis Schneider [J. G.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:311, Pl. 61 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] In India orientali [Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 220. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:134 [ref. 24282] with a holotype. Fricke 1999:175 [ref. 24106] indicates possible syntypes; if so then a lectotype was established by Dor 1984:95 [ref. 29757]. Author given as 'Schn.' for Schneider on p. 312. On the Official List (Opinion 1439). •Valid as Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 (authorship often given as Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:160 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:95 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:516 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:490 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:26 [ref. 19830], Winterbottom et al. 1989:23 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:100 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:34 [ref. 21042], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:24 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:126 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:226 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:41 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:104 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:175 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2476 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:710 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:177 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:76 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:710 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:47 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:162 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:148 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:344 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1004 [ref. 28999], Randall 2007:196 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:83 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:95 [ref. 31256], Caratini & Soriano 2011:50 [ref. 39915], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:14 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:260 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:25 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:317 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:144 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:61 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:28 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:106 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:111 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:382 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:49 [ref. 38701], Chérif et al. 2022:186 [ref. 39218], Farhana-Azmi et al. 2022:7 [ref. 40448], Fujiwara et al. 2022:90 [ref. 39094], Heemstra 2022:39 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:63 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:660 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra (Yemen), Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Wake Atoll, northern Line Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, and Lord Howe Island (Australia). Introduced to Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.) and Tunisia (Mediterranean Sea). Habitat: marine.

armatus, Serranus Osório [B.] 1893:174 [Jornal de Sciências Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa (Ser. 2) v. 3 (no. 11); ref. 20571] São Tomé Island, eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: MB (lost in fire in 1978). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Serranus armatus Castelnau 1875. •Questionably a synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:275 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith 1990:702 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793) -- (Craig et al. 2006:329 [ref. 29772], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2378 [ref. 34618], Parenti & Randall 2020:49 [ref. 37354]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

aspersus, Serranus Jenyns [L.] 1840:6 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Porto Praya, St. Jago, Cape Verde Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7.14.36. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1771) -- (Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601] with question, Heemstra & Randall 1993:186 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

assabensis, Serranus Giglioli [E. H.] 1889:68 [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 6; ref. 14492] Assab, Eritrea, Red Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:117 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:127 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Randall et al. 2013:527 [ref. 32685], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

atara, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1938:93 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Fowler 1949:85 [ref. 1462], Parenti & Randall 2020:75 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

atlanticus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:52, 156, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:86 [ref. 20898], Bauchot et al. 1984:48 [ref. 19232]. Replacement name for Perca maculata Bloch 1792, preoccupied in Epinephelus by Holocentrus maculatus Bloch 1790. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:37 [ref. 38901]). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

atomaria, Perca Günther [A.] 1859:120 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Not available, name on specimen from West Indies mentioned in passing under Serranus ouatalibi. •Incertae sedis, nomen nudum -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:130 [ref. 37354]). Nomen Nudum. Epinephelidae.

aurantius, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:305 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0765. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:24 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:164 [ref. 19754] as aurantius, Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441] as aurantius, Heemstra & Randall 1986:517 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:36 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:35 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:226 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:42 [ref. 26476] as aurantius, Fricke 1999:176 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2540 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:713 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:713 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:47 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:152 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:119 [ref. 28745], Randall & Justine 2008:157 [ref. 29942], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:17 [ref. 31786], Craig et al. 2011:17 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:261 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:145 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:112 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354], Tea et al. 2020:3 [ref. 37258], Akhilesh et al. 2021:49 [ref. 38701], Durville et al. 2021:311 [ref. 38802], Furuhashi & Motomura 2022:8 [ref. 39607], Heemstra 2022:40 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:64 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:660 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Aldabra (Seychelles), Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Marshall Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to Tokara Islands (southern Japan), south to New Caledonia and Rapa (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

auratus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:75, Pl. 236 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Martinique Island, West Indies [not East India]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 231. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:136 [ref. 24282]. On p. 57 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

australis, Serranus Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:7 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:45 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus polystigma (Bleeker 1853) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:234 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:216 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999], Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus polystigma (Bleeker 1853). Epinephelidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

awoara, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:9, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D78 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: ?BMNH (1); RMNH D77 (1, dry), D80 (1, dry), D110a-b (2); possible paralectotypes (dry): RMNH D18 (1, dry), D79 (1, dry), D81 (1, dry); ZMB 5217 [ex RMNH] (1, dry). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:331 [ref. 25566]. Original as awo-ara, correction mandatory. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:26 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Epinephelus awoara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Lee 1990:37 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:101 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:114 [ref. 21042], Chen et al. 1997:45 [ref. 26476], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2488 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:719 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:80 [ref. 25480], Nakabo 2002:719 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:309, 590 [ref. 26218], Craig et al. 2011:87 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Nakae in Kimura et al. 2018:100 [ref. 36460], Kim et al. 2020:115 [ref. 39118], Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354], Sonoyama et al. 2020:54 [ref. 37637], Kimura 2022:6 [ref. 39589]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus awoara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vietnam east to Philippines, north to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

balah, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:338 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Red Sea. No types known. A forgotten name, but treated as a nomen oblitum to permit continued use of argus as a nomen protectum (see Parenti 2003:493 [ref. 27322]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Parenti 2003:493 [ref. 27322], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Nomen Oblitum. Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

bataviensis, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1849:38 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:220 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bicolor, Holocentrus Shaw [G.] 1803:568 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] No locality. Apparently based on Holocentrus maculatus Bloch but Bloch citation not given. •Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

bilobatus, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Allen [G. R.] 1987:406, Fig. 4 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 13 (pt 3); ref. 6249] Rosemary Island, 20°28'S, 116°36'E, Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia, depth 4 meters. Holotype: WAM P.25119-008. Paratypes: BPBM 31041 (1); WAM P.14924-001 (1), P.14948-001 (1), P.24358-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:18 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Epinephelus bilobatus Randall & Allen 1987 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Randall & Heemstra 1991:103 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:115 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2542 [ref. 24815], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Hoese et al. 2006:1008 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:90 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:268 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32988], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus bilobatus Randall & Allen 1987. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific: Western Australia to eastern Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Serranus Vaillant [L. L.] in Vaillant & Bocourt 1878:47, 69 [Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale Part 4; ref. 4498] Jakarta (Java, Indonesia); Samarang (Semarang), Surabaya, Bezuki and Tjilatjap (Java, Indonesia); Ambon (Maluku, Indonesia); Singapore; Bangka (Bangka-Belitung, Indonesia); Makassar (Sulawesi, Indonesia); Goram (Pulau Gorom, Maluku, Indonesia). Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7401 (1), Jakarta; RMNH (ca. 10) (need to be located). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:24 [ref. 19232]. Based on Serranus variolosus (not of Valenciennes) of Bleeker 1849:35 [ref. 318] and Bleeker 1876:48 [ref. 4861]. •Valid as Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:204 [ref. 19756], Lee 1990:38 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:105 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:117 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:128 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:233 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:143 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:45 [ref. 26476] dated 1877, Heemstra & Randall 1999:2489 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:81 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] dated to 1849, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Hoese et al. 2006:1008 [ref. 28999], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:87 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:93 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:268 [ref. 31980], Almukhtar et al. 2012:174 [ref. 41009], Larson et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32988] dated 1877, Yoshida et al. 2013:99 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:196 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Jawad et al. 2018:103 [ref. 36262], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:101 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:107 [ref. 37020], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:387 [ref. 37272], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:110 [ref. 37300], Akhilesh et al. 2021:50 [ref. 38701], Wakimoto & Kunishima 2021:22 [ref. 38087], Taki et al. 2021:362 [ref. 39830], Heemstra 2022:51 [ref. 39742], Saha et al. 2022:[3] [ref. 39613], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:667 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to Wakayama Prefecture (Japan), south to northern Australia (York Sound, Western Australia east to Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory). Habitat: marine.

boelang, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:308 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] East Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7672 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:25 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenack (Bloch 1790) -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:39 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:37 [ref. 21042] with question, Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

boenak, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:43, Pl. 226 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Japan [erroneous, is Indonesia]. Lectotype: ZMB 5220 (right skin). Paralectotypes: ZMB (1, stuffed, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:133 [ref. 24282]. Spelled boenack on Plate and boenak in text; first reviser apparently by Bloch; see Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:ix [ref. 21953]. On p. 31 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381] as Bodianus boenac. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:133 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Cephalopholis boenack (Bloch 1790) -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:517 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:490 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:27 [ref. 19830], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:227 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:42 [ref. 26476], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830]). •Valid as Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall et al. 1990:101 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:39 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:37 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Larson & Williams 1997:354 [ref. 23967], Machida et al. 1997:47 [ref. 25135], Randall et al. 1997:101 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:176 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2540 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:729 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:711 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:178 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:77 [ref. 25480], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:711 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:48 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:163 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:149 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1004 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:83 [ref. 30492], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:18 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:261 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:97 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:145 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:99 [ref. 36460], Arndt & Fricke 2019:28 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:106 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:112 [ref. 36673], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:382 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:49 [ref. 38701], Nakamura in Motomura et al. 2021:18 [ref. 38121], Heemstra 2022:40 [ref. 39742], Hasan et al. 2023:2209 [ref. 40412], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:660 [ref. 40722], Vilasri et al. 2023:78 [ref. 40764]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique), Persian Gulf, Aldabra (Seychelles), Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Philippines, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, north to Shanghai (China) and Ryukyu Islands (Japan), south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

bonaci, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:129 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10000 (2), 10032-34 (3). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:191 [ref. 22926]. •Valid as Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:135 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:127 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:343 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:108 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:431 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:34 [ref. 25512], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:262 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:213 [ref. 25013], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Heemstra et al. 2003:1354 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:166 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:294 [ref. 31786], Cervigón 2011:5 [ref. 39393], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:171 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:41 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Costa et al. 2017:45 [ref. 35684], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:523 [ref. 38945], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:79 [ref. 38844], Carvalho-Filho 2023:120 [ref. 40480], Hoff et al. 2023:6 [ref. 40463]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Massachusetts (U.S.A.) south to Santa Catarina (Brazil), including offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

boninius, Cephalopholis Jordan [D. S.] & Thompson [W. F.] 1914:248, Pl. 29 (fig. 1 [not 7]) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 2543] Bonin Islands, Japan. Holotype: FMNH 57099 [ex CM 6038]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:91 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:21 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

bontoides, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1855:405 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 350] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5502. Bleeker specimens: RMNH 30548 [ex 5502] (6), BMNH 1880.4.21.7 (1) [Bleeker coll.]. Original as bontoïdes. •Valid as Epinephelus bontoides (Bleeker 1855) -- (Lee 1990:38 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:107 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:118 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2542 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:183 [ref. 27511], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Motomura et al. 2010:96 [ref. 31256], Craig et al. 2011:95 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:269 [ref. 31980], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:116 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:51 [ref. 38701]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus bontoides (Bleeker 1855). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, north to Philippines. Habitat: marine.

bontoo, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:334 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Vizagapatam and Madras, India. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:45 [ref. 19232]. Based on Russell 1803:22, Pl. 128. •Synonym of Epinephelus faveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:152 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:152 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:56 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus faveatus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

borbonicus, Serranus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:312, Pl. 57 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7407. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:155 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:154 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:56 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

boulengeri, Mycteroperca Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:445, Pl. 38 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Astillero at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: CAS-SU 1621. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.13 (1); CAS-SU 2924 (1), 11621 (1); ZMB 14090 [from Jordan] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:70 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 187, p. 3273 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Synonym of Mycteroperca xenarcha Jordan 1888 -- (Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1603 [ref. 22830], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca xenarcha Jordan 1888. Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bowersi, Mycteroperca Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1900:158, Fig. 45 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 20 (pt 1) [for 1900]; ref. 14876] Culebra Island, Puerto Rico. Holotype (unique): USNM 49530. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:215 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

brachysoma, Epinephelus Cope [E. D.] 1871:466 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 13372. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza [or gvaza] (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601] with question, Heemstra & Randall 1993:186 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

bruneus, Epinephelus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:15, Pl. 328 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] "Norway" [likely China]. Lectotype: ZMB 5221 (left skin). Paralectotypes: (2, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:135 [ref. 24282]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1991:109 [ref. 19601]. On p. 13 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. Often misspelled brunneus. •Valid as Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793 -- (Lee 1990:39 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:108 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:119 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2490 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:718 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:82 [ref. 25480], Nakabo 2002:718 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:309, 590 [ref. 26218], Motomura et al. 2010:96 [ref. 31256], Craig et al. 2011:97 [ref. 31786], Motomura et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35333], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Nakae in Kimura et al. 2018:101 [ref. 36460], Kim et al. 2020:115 [ref. 39118], Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354], Murase et al. 2023:39 [ref. 40935]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Vietnam east to Philippines, north to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

brunneus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:131 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 10184 (2); ?ZMB 5221 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:191 [ref. 22926] with largest in MCZ 10184 as holotype. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

burdi, Pomacentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:506, 511 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Unnecessary replacement name for Perca miniata Forsskål 1775. •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:42 [ref. 39742]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

caeruleoguttata, Perca miniata var. Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:42, xi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [Ad Promont. Djymûm ante Jamboam] Ra’s Barīdī, NNW Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea, 24°17'N 37°31'E. On p. xi appeared as variety "caeruleo-guttata" and without name on p. 42. Regarded as available by indication. •In the synonymy of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

caeruleoocellata, Perca miniata var. Forsskål [P. S.] in Niebuhr 1775:xi, 41 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] No locality stated [Red Sea]. No types known. Originally as caeruleo-ocellata, correction mandatory. Name appeared as cæruleo-ocellata on p. xi, as "Varietas" on p. 41; both linked together by the species code '41b', therefore name available by indication (see Fricke 2008:27 [ref. 30182]). Authorship according to Fricke 2008:27 [ref. 30182]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Fricke 2008:27 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

caerulescens, Asper Commerson [P.] in Lacepède 1802:367 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Appeared as "Asper caerulescens, pinnis omnibus ..." in the account of Holocentrus flavocaeruleus. Regarded as nonbinominal and not available. See ICZN Opinion 89. Epinephelidae.

caerulescens, Holocentrus Shaw [G.] 1803:559 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Indian Seas. Neotype: MNHN A-5747. Unneeded new name for Holocentrus flavocaeruleus Lacepède 1802, and taking the same type specimen. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

calliura, Mycteroperca Poey [F.] 1865:181 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 13954] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10011 (1), ?ZMB 6361 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:192 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:266 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

camelopardalis, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:132 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cienfuegos, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:276 [ref. 21042], •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19323] with question, Heemstra & Randall 1993:275 [ref. 21042] with question, Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354]). ). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

caninus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] 1843:10 [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:45 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Mycteroperca canina (Valenciennes 1843) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as caninus). •Valid as Epinephelus caninus (Valenciennes 1843) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:785 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1991:22 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:698 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:122 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:78 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:35 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:79 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:41 [ref. 36649], Craig et al. 2011:99 [ref. 31786], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2389 [ref. 34618], Carneiro et al. 2019:243 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:86 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519], Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354], Golani 2021:40 [ref. 38303], González-Lorenzo et al. 2021:146 [ref. 38374], Kovačić et al. 2021:77 [ref. 39014], Fermon et al. 2022:287 [ref. 39448]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus caninus (Valenciennes 1843). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Angola, including Madeira (Portugal) and Canary Islands (Spain). Habitat: marine.

capreolus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:145 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Valid as Serranus capreolus Poey 1860 -- (Herrera 1896:52 [ref. 39336]). •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:38 [ref. 38901]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

carauna, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:384 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:45 [ref. 19232]. New name for Gymnocephalus ruber Bloch & Schneider 1801, on Marcgrave, p. 147: Carauna. •Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

cardinalis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:378 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Havana, Cuba. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:45 [ref. 19232]. New name for Johnius guttatus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Based on the 'Bonací cardenal' of Parra 1787:29, Pl. 16 (fig. 1) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

carinatus, Serranus Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:265, Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Cape Grenville, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: MAMU (2). Appeared as a new species in Jouan 1878:333 [ref. 18364] but not new there. •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:240 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

castelnaui, Serranus Jordan [D. S.] & Eigenmann [C. H.] 1890:409 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 8 (art. 9) (for 1888); ref. 2440] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7821 (dry). Replacement name for Centropristis nebulosus Castelnau 1855, secondarily preoccupied in Serranus by Serranus nebulosus Valenciennes 1828. •Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith 1990:702 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:284 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:91 [ref. 37354]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

catalonica, Cerna Gibert [A. M.] 1913:38, 2 figs. [Fauna ictiológica de Catalunya; ref. 19362] Catalonia, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Record corrected in 2004. •Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Heemstra 1991:27 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:134 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

catus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:373 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7238 (1); ?ZMB 265 [ex MNHN] Martinique. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:25 [ref. 19232]. Unneeded replacement name for Perca maculata Bloch 1792, which is now considered as a synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:37 [ref. 38901], part). •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:43 [ref. 38901], part). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

celebicus, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1851:217 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 330] Bulucomba, southern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: NMV 46427 (1), RMNH 5492 (7). •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:112 [ref. 21042], Fricke et al. 2018:147 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

cernioides, Serranus de Brito Capello [F.] 1867:156 [Jornal do Sciências Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 14041] Portugal. MB (not found). Figured in Capello 1867, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [ref. 14042]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza [= gvaza] (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192], Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:186 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

cernipedis, Serranus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1913:Serranidae p. 31 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] No locality. No types known. On p. 261 when continuously paginated. •Questionably a synonym of Variola louti (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:305 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:304 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:94 [ref. 37354]). •Questionably a synonym of Variola louti (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Uncertain as Variola louti (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

chabaudi, Serranus Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:3 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Zwartkops River mouth, Algoa Bay, South Africa. Holotype (unique): MNHN (not found). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:46 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus chabaudi (Castelnau 1861) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:523 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:114 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:124 [ref. 21042], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:169 [ref. 28072], Craig et al. 2011:101 [ref. 31786], Jawad et al. 2013:3 [ref. 32489], Akhilesh et al. 2021:51 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:52 [ref. 39742]). •Valid as Hypoplectrus chabaudi (Castelnau 1861) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Hyporthodus chabaudi (Castelnau 1861) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:84 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus chabaudi (Castelnau 1861). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Western Cape, Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), Kenya, Oman, Seychelles, Walters Shoals and southwestern India. Habitat: marine.

chalinius, Epinephelus Cope [E. D.] 1871:465 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] St. Martin Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 12768. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:261 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

cherna, Anthias Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:310 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Based on the 'Cherna' of Parra 1787:50, Pl. 24 (fig. 1) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:236 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:2 [ref. 24110], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

chewa, Epinephelus Morgans [J. F. C.] 1966:267, Pl. 9 (fig. D) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 8 (no. 89) (for 1965); ref. 9045] Mafia Island, Tanzania. Holotype: EAMFRO S73. Paratypes: EAMFRO S82/1 (1), S82/2 (1), S87 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus chewa Morgans 1966 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:234 [ref. 19756]). •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål 1775) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:532 [ref. 5667], Randall et al. 1990:114 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:269 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:387 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:241 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2526 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:82 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775) -- (Heemstra 2022:71 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

chlorocephalus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:522 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Tongatapu, Tonga. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7543 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:25-26 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus chlorocephalus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:116 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:125 [ref. 21042], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Craig et al. 2011:103 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis, Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus chlorocephalus (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Tonga. Habitat: marine.

chloropterum, Plectropoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:398 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] San Domingo; Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7782 (1) and 0000-7783 (1) San Domingo, 0000-4907 (1) Martinique; ?ZMB 282 (1) San Domingo. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:20 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:20 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:203 [ref. 25013], Craig et al. 2006:329 [ref. 29772], Parenti & Randall 2020:49 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

chlorostigma, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:352 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Seychelles, Western Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7430. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-7429 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:25 [ref. 19232] as holotype. Lectotype established by Bauchot et al. 1984:26 [ref. 19232] (see Art. 74.6 of the Code). •Valid as Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:206 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:174 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:524 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:41 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:117 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:127 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:135 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:234 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:46 [ref. 26476], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:183 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2492 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:715 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:491 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:75 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:715 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:309, 590 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:154 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:119 [ref. 28745], Fricke et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:104 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:269 [ref. 31980], Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009], Larson et al. 2013:98 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:107 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:116 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871] as cf. chlorostigma, Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Kim et al. 2020:115 [ref. 39118], Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:388 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:54 [ref. 37637], Wu et al. 2020:135 [ref. 37525], Akhilesh et al. 2021:51 [ref. 38701], Nakamura & Motomura 2021:274 [ref. 38066], Heemstra 2022:52 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:72 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:668 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Gulf of Aden, Persian Gulf, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues). Habitat: marine.

chlorostomus, Trisotropis Poey [F.] 1867:231 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14078] Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ. •Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:266 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

chrysomelanus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:53, 160 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] "Amerique equinoxiale". No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:87 [ref. 20898], Bauchot et al. 1984:49 [ref. 19232] as chrysomelas. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:236 [ref. 21042] as chrysomelas, Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

chrysotaenia, Cerna Doderlein [P.] 1882:171, 208 [41], Pl. 2 (fig. 4) [Giornale di scienze naturali ed economiche, Società Naturali ed Economiche di Palermo v. 15; ref. 17414] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. On p. 41 of separate. •Synonym of Epinephelus alexandrinus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192]). •Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Heemstra 1991:27 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:134 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

cidi, Mycteroperca Cervigón [F.] 1966:654, Fig. 117 [Investigación Pesquera (Chile) v. 30; ref. 9019] Isla Cubagua, Venezuela. Holotype: MOBR-EDIMAR -P--1210. Paratypes: UF 219264 [ex UMML 19264] (1), MOBR-EDIMAR-P-1211 (3). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1999:112 [ref. 33859]. •Valid as Mycteroperca cidi Cervigón 1966 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:305 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1991:345 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:431 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:264 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:35 [ref. 25512], Heemstra et al. 2003:1355 [ref. 27060], Craig et al. 2011:297 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354], Carvalho-Filho 2023:119 [ref. 40480]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca cidi Cervigón 1966. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Jamaica and Venezuela south to northern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

cifuentesi, Epinephelus Lavenberg [R. J.] & Grove [J. S.] in Heemstra & Randall 1993:129, Fig. 277 [Catalog of groupers; ref. 21042] Off Punta Judas, Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica, depth 135 meters. Holotype: LACM 44418-1. Paratypes: AMNH 55725 (1); CAS 39423 (1); LACM 35469-25 (1); CAS-SU 37462 (1); UCR 720-5 (1), 1666-2 (1), 1819-1 (1), 1978-1 (1), 2017-1 (1). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:374 [ref. 35212]. Heemstra & Randall took the description from a manuscript by Lavenberg & Grove, and authorship apparently should be Lavenberg & Grove; Grove & Lavenberg 1997:318 [ref. 24023] credit authorship to Heemstra & Randall. •Valid as Epinephelus cifuentesi Lavenberg & Grove 1993 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:94 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1592 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:318 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:84 [ref. 25640], Béarez & Jiménez Prado 2003:108 [ref. 37318], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:106 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). •Valid as Hyporthodus cifuentesi (Lavenberg & Grove 1993) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:84 [ref. 37354], Love et al. 2021:146 [ref. 39279]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus cifuentesi (Lavenberg & Grove 1993). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico south to Ecuador, including Cocos Island, Gorgona Island and Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

clarkei, Epinephelus Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:123, Pl. 1 (fig. C) [South African Journal of Science v. 54 (no. 5); ref. 12116] Off Xora River mouth, Transkei, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 6 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 26. Additional material or paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] (not researched). •Synonym of Epinephelus chabaudi (Castelnau 1861) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:523 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:114 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:124 [ref. 21042], Heemstra 2022:52 [ref. 39742]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus chabaudi (Castelnau 1861) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:84 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus chabaudi (Castelnau 1861). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

clippertonensis, Epinephelus Allen [G. R.] & Robertson [D. R.] 1999:12, Figs. 1-3 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 26 (no. 1/2); ref. 24279] Clipperton Island, depth 0-20 meters. Holotype: USNM 347506. Paratypes: LACM W56-235 (35), W56-238 (44), W56-240 (68), W58-282 (2), W58-283 (54), W58-295 (64), W58-300 (17), W58-371 (2); USNM 332389 (26). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Epinephelus clippertonensis Allen & Robertson 1999 -- (Craig et al. 2006:92 [ref. 29771], Craig et al. 2006:969 [ref. 29775], Béarez & Séret 2009:147 [ref. 36646], Craig et al. 2011:103 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354], Love et al. 2021:146 [ref. 39279]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus clippertonensis Allen & Robertson 1999. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico), Clipperton Island (France) and Revillagigedo Islands (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

coatesi, Cephalopholis Whitley [G. P.] 1937:124, Pl. 12 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 11 (pt 2); ref. 4689] Slasher's Reef, off Townsville, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.5504. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:103 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:61 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:55 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2481 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1005 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

coeruleopunctatus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:94, Pl. 242 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Unknown locality [probably Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 232. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:136 [ref. 24282]. Originally coeruleo-punctatus with oe in text and plate; that spelling should be used. On p. 74 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:196 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:523 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:490 [ref. 25598], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:40 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:105 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:120 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:131 [ref. 23929], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:280 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:128 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:234 [ref. 27969] as caeruleopunctatus, Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:144 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:105 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:183 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2491 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:717 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:181 [ref. 25191], Shinohara et al. 2000:177 [ref. 25987], Sakai et al. 2001:94 [ref. 25693], Nakabo 2002:717 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] as caeruleopunctatus, Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:52 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624] as caeruleopunctatus, Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945] as caeruleopunctatus, Randall 2005:154 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1009 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:87 [ref. 30492] as caeruleopunctatus, Motomura et al. 2010:96 [ref. 31256] as caeruleopunctatus, Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:109 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:269 [ref. 31980], Almukhtar et al. 2012:174 [ref. 41009] as caeruleopunctatus, Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:107 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:116 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:388 [ref. 37272], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:111 [ref. 37300] as caeruleopunctatus, Akhilesh et al. 2021:51 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:53 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:73[ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:668 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa (Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya), Persian Gulf, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Marshall Islands, Fiji and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, northern New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

coioides, Bola Hamilton [F.] 1822:82, 369 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Large Gangetic estuaries, India. No types known. Originally as "Bola?". •Valid as Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:23 [ref. 19323], Randall et al. 1990:106 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:122 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:130 [ref. 21042], Kottelat et al. 1993:106 [ref. 23448], Heemstra & Golani 1993:383 [ref. 22373], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:x [ref. 21953], Randall 1995:129 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:144 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:108 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:106 [ref. 25919], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:184 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2493 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:721 [ref. 25086], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:181 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:82 [ref. 25480], Sakai et al. 2001:94 [ref. 25693], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:721 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] as coides, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:52 [ref. 27510], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:165 [ref. 28072], Golani 2005:36 [ref. 37112], Randall 2005:155 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1009 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:87 [ref. 30492], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:42 [ref. 36649], Motomura et al. 2010:96 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:112 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:270 [ref. 31980], Almukhtar et al. 2012:174 [ref. 41009], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:196 [ref. 34104], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Motomura et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:103 [ref. 36262], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:102 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:184 [ref. 36495], Eagderi et al. 2019:107 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871] as cf. coioides, Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:388 [ref. 37272], Yamakawa et al. 2020:73 [ref. 40470], Akhilesh et al. 2021:51 [ref. 38701], Golani 2021:40 [ref. 38303], Kawano et al. 2021:6 [ref. 38470], Kim et al. 2021:126 [ref. 39117], Kovačić et al. 2021:77 [ref. 39014], Taki et al. 2021:362 [ref. 39830], Heemstra 2022:53 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:74 [ref. 40522], Hasan et al. 2023:2209 [ref. 40412], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:668 [ref. 40722], Murase et al. 2023:39 [ref. 40935]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: Eastern Cape, Kwaulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Gulf of Adem, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Fiji, north to southern Sea of Japan and Sagami Bay (Japan), south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: brackish, marine.

colonus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] 1846:no page number, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde sur la frégate "la Vénus"; ref. 6165] Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): ?MNHN A-521. Non-types: MNHN 0000-7549 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:26 [ref. 19232] with a holotype and paratype; there can only be a holotype. Dates to publication in plate; corresponding text published as Valenciennes 1855:300 [ref. 4504]. •Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith 1990:702 [ref. 18227]). •Valid as Paranthias colonus (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:283 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:112 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1610 [ref. 22830], Allen & Robertson 1997:824 [ref. 41086], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:328 [ref. 24023], McCosker et al. 1997:24 [ref. 22816], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:350 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:97 [ref. 25640], Heemstra et al. 2003:1362 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:112 [ref. 37547], Béarez & Séret 2009:147 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:326 [ref. 31786] with date wrongly as 1855, Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:226 [ref. 35888], Cambra et al. 2018:2 [ref. 36349], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248], Parenti & Randall 2020:91 [ref. 37354], Siccha-Ramirez et al. 2023:325 [ref. 40816], Vela-Espinosa et al. 2023:9 [ref. 40981]). •Valid as Cephalopholis colonus (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Love et al. 2021:145 [ref. 39279]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis colonus (Valenciennes 1846). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico), Clipperton Island (France) and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

cometae, Epinephelus Tanaka [S.] 1927:704, Pls. 159 (fig. 445), 160 (447) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 37; ref. 14920] Tanabe and Hiro, Japan. Syntypes: ZUMT 7499 (1), 7509 (1), 7991 (described specimen). •Valid as Epinephelus cometae Tanaka 1927 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:198 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:178 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Epinephelus morrhua (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Lee 1990:50 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:211 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:196 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2513 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus morrhua (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

compressus, Epinephelus Postel [E.], Fourmanoir [P.] & Guézé [P.] 1963:364, Fig. 8 [Mémoires de l'Institut français d'Afrique Noire No. 68; ref. 5208] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: CNRO uncat. Paratypes: MNHN 1963-0127 (1), 1967-0543 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:14-15 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus compressus Postel, Fourmanoir & Guézé 1963 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:224 [ref. 19756]). •Synonym of Epinephelus septemfasciatus (Thunberg 1793) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:531 [ref. 5667]). •Synonym of Epinephelus octofasciatus Griffin 1926 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:217 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:206 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:196 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2018:154 [ref. 35805]). •Valid as Hyporthodus compressus (Postel, Fourmanoir & Guézé 1961) -- (Kumar et al. 2012:113 [ref. 32541]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus octofasciatus Griffin 1926 -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:86 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:73 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus octofasciatus (Griffin 1926). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

confertus, Serranus Anonymous [Bennett [E. T.]] 1830:686 [Memoir of the life and public services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles; ref. 259] Sumatra, Indonesia. No types known. On Code recommendation 51D, the anonymous author is listed in square brackets. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

conspersus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:139 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10161 (3). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:190 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Epinephelus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:204 [1ef. 21042]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:171 [ref. 32953], Parenti & Randall 2020:86 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

corallicola, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:336 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia. Holotype: RMNH D154 (dry). Possible types: SMF 3054 [ex RMNH in 1829] (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:46 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:42 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:106 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:125 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:132 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:130 [ref. 23929], Senou 1994:2 [ref. 24346], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:108 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:106 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2543 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268] as coralicola, Nakabo 2000:721 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:721 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Hoese et al. 2006:1009 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:115 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:270 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:51 [ref. 38701], Tachibana & Endo 2023:15 [ref. 40968]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Christmas Island and Indonesia east to Solomon and Mariana Islands, north Taiwan and to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

coromandelicus, Serranus Day [F.] 1878:746 [The fishes of India Part 4; ref. 4887] Madras, India. Holotype: ?BMNH 1889.2.1.4226 (skin). Syntypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.8272 (1, syntype); BMNH 1889.2.1.2791 (1); NMW 39248 (1); ZSI 1997 (1), 2920 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:296 [ref. 25110]. Replacement name for Epinephelus dayi Bleeker 1875, preoccupied by Bleeker 1874. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:117 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:81 [ref. 25480], Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

coronatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:371 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0890 (1), A-7713 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:26, 59 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:38 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:204 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:29 [ref. 38901]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

costae, Serranus Steindachner [F.] 1878:389 [11] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 77 (1. Abth.); ref. 18774] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): NMW 39250. •Synonym of Epinephelus alexandrinus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192]). •Valid as Mycteroperca costae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Heemstra 1991:26 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:134 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:78 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:36 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:79 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:42 [ref. 36649], Craig et al. 2011:118 [ref. 31786], Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2390 [ref. 34618], Bañón et al. 2018:400 [ref. 36404], Carneiro et al. 2019:243 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Reiner 2019:169 [ref. 38139], Bariche & Fricke 2020:87 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:41 [ref. 37519], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354], Bañón & Maño 2021:81 [ref. 38887], Golani 2021:40 [ref. 38303], González-Lorenzo et al. 2021:146 [ref. 38374], Kovačić et al. 2021:77 [ref. 39014], Fermon et al. 2022:287 [ref. 39448]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Galicia (Spain) and Portugal south to Angola, including Canary Islands (Spain), Cape Verde Islands, and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

courtadei, Serranus Bocourt [F.] 1868:222 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 10; ref. 14069] La Union, El Salvador. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5210 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:26 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus analogus Gill 1863 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:110 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1591 [ref. 22830], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus analogus Gill 1863. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

craigi, Epinephelus Frable [B. W.], Tucker [S. J.] & Walker [H. J., Jr.] 2018:[2] 216, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 66 (no. 2); ref. 36287] Hong Kong, Tuen Long, Tai Kui Market, from South China Sea. Holotype: SIO 17-31. Paratypes: (16) ANSP 77242 (1); BMNH 1939.1.17.10 (1); BPBM 30913 (1); CAS 17797 (1), 27664 (1), 62197 (1), 62198 (2), 62199 (1); KU 41383 (1); SWIMS-CHO 1958-001(1); ZMUA E002001017001 (1), E002001017002 (1), E002001017003 (1); ZUMT 10701 (1), 52224 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus craigi Frable, Tucker & Walker 2018 -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354], Suzuki et al. 2020:[2] [ref. 37360]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus craigi Frable, Tucker & Walker 2018. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Malaysia, northern Borneo, Vietnam, southern China and Taiwan (South China Sea) north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

crapao, Serranus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:494 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7332. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:27 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

craspedurus, Epinephelus Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1910:447, Fig. 7 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 37 (no. 1714); ref. 2494] Kagoshima, Japan. Holotype: USNM 64154. Paratypes: (5) CAS-SU 21180 (1 or 2), USNM 74585 (1). •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:112 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

creolus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:265 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Caribbean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4326 (1) Martinique, MNHN 0000-4327 (1) Santo Domingo. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:27 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith 1990:702 [ref. 18227], Heemstra 1991:57 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:284 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:91 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

cruentatus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:51, 156, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Brazil; Martinique Island, West Indies. Neotype: UF 222059. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:90 [ref. 20898], Bauchot et al. 1984:60 [ref. 19232]. Unneeded replacement name for Perca guttata Linnaeus 1758. Based on Perca guttata of Gmelin 1789:1315 [ref. 18139], which was based on Perca guttata Linnaeus 1758, the 'Gvarvgvarv' of Markgraf von Liebstadt 1648:169, fig. [ref. 30347], the 'Cugupuguacu cogener, corpore rotundiore' of Sloane 1725:280, pl. 247, fig. 2 [ref. 30230], the 'Cugupu-guacu brasiliensibus' of Willughby 1686:303 [ref. 30164], the 'Cugupu guacu' of Ray 1713:127 [ref. 30231], the 'Perche sanguinolente' of Daubenton 1787:346 [ref. 38024], the Perca guttata of Bonnaterre 1788:130 [ref. 4940], the 'Cugupuguacu' of Catesby 1771:14, Pl. 14 [ref. 774], and the Perca guttata of Bloch 1792:Pl. 312 [ref. 470]; also on a manuscript drawing by Plumier from Martinique. Neotype selected by Fricke et al. 2021:37 [ref. 38901]. •Valid as Epinephelus cruentatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:132 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:84 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:323 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:105 [ref. 23239]). •Valid as Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:304 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:426 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:38 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:12 [ref. 25512], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:204 [ref. 25013], Thomson et al. 2000:82 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:105 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1335 [ref. 27060], Smith et al. 2003:21 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:137 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:20 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:38 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354], Robertson et al. 2020:162 [ref. 38098], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:79 [ref. 38844], Fricke et al. 2021:29 [ref. 38901], Bennema & van Moorsel 2022:70 [ref. 39585], Carvalho-Filho 2023:114 [ref. 40480], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2024:3 [ref. 40769]). Replacement Name. Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Great Amazon Reef (Amapá, Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

cruentus, Serranus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:446 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 1089] New Britain Island, Bismarck Archipelago. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cubanus, Epinephelus Poey [F.] 1865:202 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 18562] Cuba. Holotype (?): MCZ 10058. Poey specimens: ZMB 5222 (1). •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:44 [ref. 38901]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

cuvieri, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1874:46 [Poissons de Madagascar et de l'Ile la Réunion Part 4; ref. 443] Unneeded replacement name for Serranus undulosus Valenciennes 1828, not preoccupied. For date of publication (as laterst in Dec. 1974), see Kottelat 2013 [ref. 32740]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:261 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

cyanopodus, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1846:233 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] China. Neotype: BMNH 1893.12.22.1. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:212, Pl. 3a [ref. 11606]). Neotype was established by Randall & Whitehead 1985 [ref. 9723] -- picking the holotype of a junior synonym (punctatissimus) as neotype of cyanopodus. •Valid as Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:42 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:107 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:128 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:136 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:129 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:108 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:107 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2494 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:715 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:182 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:715 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:155 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1010 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2010:97 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:120 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:271 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Fowler et al. 2017:[5] 2253 [ref. 36358], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:51 [ref. 38701], Wada et al. 2021:38 [ref. 38521]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to Philippines and Solomon Islands, north to Amami Islands (southern Japan) and Ogasawara Islands, south to southern New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

cyanostigma, Plectropoma Bleeker [P.] 1845:525 [Natuur-en Geneeskundig Archief voor Neȇrlandsch Indië v. 2 (3); ref. 312] Original spelling cijanostigma, with Dutch ij corresponding to y in Latin. Not available, no distinguishing features; from Batavia, Java. •In the synonymy of Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Hoese 1986:16 [ref. 6009], Randall & Heemstra 1991:294 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:292 [ref. 21042]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède 1802). Epinephelidae.

cyanostigma, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:359 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 103. •Valid as Cephalopholis cyanostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:101 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:41 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:40 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:227 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:104 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:101 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2477 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall & Satapoomin 2000:7 [ref. 25340], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:48 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Hoese et al. 2006:1004 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:23 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:262 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:98 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35490], Koeda & Ho 2018:75 [ref. 39515], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:112 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:49 [ref. 38701], Nakamura in Motomura et al. 2021:18 [ref. 38121]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis cyanostigma (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra (Indonesia) east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, north to Taiwan, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

cyanostigmatoides, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1849:31 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 31174 [ex RMNH 8134]. Bleeker specimens: RMNH 5478 (1), 8134 (6). •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

cyclopomatus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1861:353 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10180 (2). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:191 [ref. 22926] with a holotype and paratype. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

cyclostomus, Bodianus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:282, 293 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:38 [ref. 19232]. Based on Commerson manuscript. Figured on Pl. 20 (fig. 1) in Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710], but with vernacular name only, dates to 1802. •Synonym of Plectropomus laevis (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall & Hoese 1986:12 [ref. 6009], Randall & Heemstra 1991:292 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:290 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:204 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:92 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:75 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Plectropomus laevis (Lacepède 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

cylindricus, Epinephelus Postel [E.] 1965:124, Fig. 1 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 37 (no. 1); ref. 9244] Nouméa market, New Caledonia. Holotype (unique): not at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:40 [ref. 19232]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Epinephelus by Serranus cylindricus Günther 1859 when in Epinephelus. •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cylindricus, Serranus Günther [A.] 1859:151 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Madagascar. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1981.12.23.1. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805]. Also listed was Plate XI. fig. A, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Synonym of Epinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker 1855) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:186 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:179 [ref. 21042], Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:61 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker 1855). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

daba, Perca Fabricius [J. C.] in Niebuhr (ex Forsskål) 1775:44 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P.43570. Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. Appeared as Perca dentibus daba, i.e. “teeth of Perca daba”. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354] as not binominal). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

daemelii, Serranus Günther [A.] 1876:391 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 17 (no. 101) (art. 43); ref. 2007] Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1876.5.1.8. Originally as Dämelii. •Valid as Epinephelus daemelii (Günther 1876) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:175 [ref. 24556], Randall & Heemstra 1991:130 [ref. 19601], Paulin & Roberts 1992:140 [ref. 24625], Heemstra & Randall 1993:138 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:133 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Gomon et al. 1994:534 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:108 [ref. 25488], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2495 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Hoese et al. 2006:1010 [ref. 28999], Roberts & Gomon 2008:541 [ref. 30641], Craig et al. 2011:122 [ref. 31786], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:113 [ref. 36167], Roberts 2015:1185 [ref. 34193], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus daemelii (Günther 1876). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southeastern coast of Australia, Lord Howe and Norfolk islands, northern New Zealand, east to Kermadec islands. Habitat: marine.

darwinensis, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1991:133, Pl. 11B, Fig. 66 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 20; ref. 19601] North of Bathurst Island, 10°11'S, 129°48'E, Timor Sea, depth 107 meters. Holotype (unique): NTM S.12346-001. •Valid as Epinephelus darwinensis Randall & Heemstra 1991 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:139 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2543 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1010 [ref. 28999]). •Incertae sedis in Hyporthodus -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Larson et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Hyporthodus darwinensis (Randall & Heemstra 1991) -- (Craig et al. 2011:264 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis, Parenti & Randall 2020:84 [ref. 37354], Moore et al. 2022:14 [ref. 39791]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus darwinensis (Randall & Heemstra 1991). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Northern Territory (Australia). Habitat: marine.

dayi, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1874:105 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Amsterdam) v. 14 (art. 2); ref. 5110] Cochin, India. No types known. Based on Serranus sexfasciatus of Day 1865:2 (not Valenciennes). Not Epinephelus dayi Bleeker 1875. •Synonym of Epinephelus diacanthus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:136 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:140 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:54 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus diacanthus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

dayi, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1875:47 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 7; ref. 4861] Madras, India. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1889.2.1.4226 (skin, not seen). Based on Serranus waandersi of Day 1875:12, Pl. 8 (fig. 1). See Ferraris et al. 2000:296 [ref. 25110] for remarks on type specimens. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Epinephelus dayi Bleeker 1874, replaced by Serranus coromandelicus Day 1878. •Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:117 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

decimalis, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:138 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

dermatolepis, Epinephelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:256 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum 2nd edition v. 1; ref. 537] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. No types known. Replacement name for Dermatolepis punctatus Gill 1861, preoccupied in Epinephelus by Holocentrus punctatus Bloch 1790. •Valid as Dermatolepis dermatolepis (Boulenger 1895) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:65 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:107 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1581 [ref. 22830], Allen & Robertson 1997:823 [ref. 41086], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:315 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:350 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:270 [ref. 24550], Thomson et al. 2000:80 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:110 [ref. 37547], Béarez & Séret 2009:147 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:224 [ref. 35888], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248], Parenti & Randall 2020:58 [ref. 37354], Love et al. 2021:146 [ref. 39279], Vela-Espinosa et al. 2023:9 [ref. 40981]). Replacement Name. Current status: Valid as Dermatolepis dermatolepis (Boulenger 1895). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to northern Peru, including Clipperton Island (France) and Galapagos IsIands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

dermochirus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:513 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Coromandel coast, India. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7650. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:27 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601] as caeruleopunctatus, Heemstra & Randall 1993:120 [ref. 21042] as caeruleopunctatus, Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:53 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

dermopterus, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:10 [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D51 (dry). Paralectotypes: RMNH 149 (2). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:28 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Trisotropis dermopterus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:132 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Chen et al. 1997:44 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Hyporthodus dermopterus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Triso dermopterus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall et al. 1989:415 [ref. 12737], Lee 1990:61 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:301 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:300 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2547 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:713 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:611 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:89 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:713 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:310, 594 [ref. 26218], Hoese et al. 2006:1023 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2010:101 [ref. 31256], Craig et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31786], Yoshida et al. 2013:101 [ref. 34464], Kim et al. 2020:115 [ref. 39118], Parenti & Randall 2020:93 [ref. 37354], Sonoyama et al. 2020:57 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Triso dermopterus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific, anti-tropical: southern China and Taiwan to Korea and Japan; Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

diacanthus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:319 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Coast of Malabar, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7157. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-7158 (3), 1989-1018 [ex 7157] (2), A-5727 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:27 [ref. 19232]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1991:137 [ref. 19601]. •Valid as Epinephelus diacanthus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1991:136 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:140 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:129 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:234 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:46 [ref. 26476] dated 1829, Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:242 [ref. 24754], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Craig et al. 2011:124 [ref. 31786], Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009], Psomadakis et al. 2015:197 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:389 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:51 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:54 [ref. 39742], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:669 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus diacanthus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden and Persian Gulf east to Sri Lanka, southeastern India and Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

diacopaeformis, Serranus Anonymous [Bennett [E. T.]] 1830:686 [Memoir of the life and public services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles; ref. 259] Sumatra, Indonesia. On Code recommendation 51D, the anonymous author is listed in square brackets. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

dichropterus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:293 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Japan? [probably Indonesia]. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7403 (2) Brazil; ZMB 5533 [not 365] (dry, lectotype of ongus), ?5214 (1, dry) Japan. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:27, 60 [ref. 19232], Paepke 1999:137 [ref. 24282]. Based on Holocentrus ongus Bloch 1790 and authors, plus specimens; not regarded as a replacment name. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:219 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

diktiophorus, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1856:38 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 5158 (1). Later spelled dictiophorus in Bleeker publications. •Valid as Epinephelus dictyophorus (Bleeker 1856) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Ben-Tuvia 1983:407 [ref. 8284], Randall & Heemstra 1991:209 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:193 [ref. 21042], Randall 2005:160 [ref. 28239], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:64 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

dimidiatus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:129 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 26953. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:192 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:266 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:214 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

dispar, Serranus Playfair [R. L.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:6, Pl. 1 (figs. 2-3) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Seychelles; Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1867.3.9.22 ["var. b"] (1, stuffed). •Serranus dispar var. B. is a synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2516 [ref. 24815]). •Synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:67 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

ditobo, Promicrops Roux [C.] & Collignon [J.] 1954:473 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 26 (no. 4); ref. 12470] Kouilou Estuary, Congo, western Africa. Syntypes: (2) MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:44 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus esonue (Ehrenbaum 1915) -- (Smith 1990:698 [ref. 18227]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:3 [ref. 24110], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708]). •Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2392 [ref. 34618], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

doederleinii, Epinephelus Franz [V.] 1910:35 [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Yokohama and Dzushi, Japan. Syntypes: ZSM [old collection] (8) destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:281 [ref. 28925]. Originally as döderleinii. •Synonym of Epinephelus radiatus (Day 1868) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:243 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:222 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2519 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus radiatus (Day 1868). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

drummondhayi, Epinephelus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1878:173 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 1 (no. 23); ref. 18129] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A.; Bermuda. Syntypes: USNM 16795 (1), 21255 (1, missing in 1980). Originally as drummond-hayi, correction mandatory. •Valid as Epinephelus drummondhayi Goode & Bean 1878 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:133 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:87 [ref. 36591], Heemstra & Randall 1993:142 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:19 [ref. 25512], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:206 [ref. 25013], Musick et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24959], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Heemstra et al. 2003:1340 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:143 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:127 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Hyporthodus drummondhayi (Goode & Bean 1878) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis, Parenti & Randall 2020:84 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus drummondhayi (Goode & Bean 1878). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and North Carolina, Florida, and northern Gulf of Mexico to Texas U.S.A. Habitat: marine.

dubius, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:142 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Probably near Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 10019. See Smith 1966:2 [ref. 29777] for remarks on type. •Based on a hybrid of Paranthias furcifer and Cephalopholis fulva -- (see Smith 1966:1 [ref. 29777] and Heemstra & Randall 1993:26 [ref. 21042]). Parenti & Randall 2020:130 [ref. 37354] Hybrid. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:345, Pl. 25 (fig. c); Fig. 53 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Ocean reef off Giriinien Island, Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: USNM 141844. Paratypes: FMNH 62611-12 (2, 1); USNM 115371 (1), 115384 (1), 139694 (2), 141836-42 (1, 2, 1, 2, 5, 1, 2), 141845-48 (1, 1, 2, 1), 141850-56 (6, 2, 1, 1, 1, 7, 2), 141930-32 (3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:34 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall et al. 1990:114 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:269 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:387 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:241 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2526 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:163 [ref. 28239], Parenti & Randall 2020:82 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775) Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

emarginatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] 1843:10 [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7437 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:27 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227]). •Questionably a synonym of Mycteroperca fusca (Lowe 1838) -- (Heemstra 1991:48 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:265 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Mycterperca fusca (Lowe 1838) -- (Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2399 [ref. 34618], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca fusca (Lowe 1838). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

emoryi, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:340, Fig. 52 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon coral head at Bikini Atoll, 11°33'13"N, 165°28'39"E, Marshall Islands, western Pacific, depth 30-45 feet. Holotype: USNM 141929. Paratypes: FMNH 62613 [ex USNM 139695] (1); USNM 139695 (orig. 6, now 5). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:34 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Randall & Heemstra 1991:147 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2499 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:156 [ref. 28239], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

epistictus, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:8 [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH D88 (stuffed). Type information: Boeseman 1947:24 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Mycteroperca episticta (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as epistictus). •Valid as Epinephelus epistictus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:43 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:137 [ref. 19601], Baranes & Golani 1993:306 [ref. 22372], Heemstra & Randall 1993:143 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:130 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:144 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:46 [ref. 26476] dated 1843, Heemstra & Randall 1999:2496 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:720 [ref. 25086], Krupp et al. 2000:328 [ref. 25117], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:75 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:720 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:309, 591 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Hoese et al. 2006:1010 [ref. 28999], Al-Mukhtar et al. 2011:136 [ref. 31710], Craig et al. 2011:129 [ref. 31786], Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009], Larson et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:197 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020], Johnson & Wilmer 2019:342 [ref. 36985], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Kim et al. 2020:115 [ref. 39118], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:389 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:54 [ref. 37637], Akhilesh et al. 2021:51 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:54 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:75 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:670 [ref. 40722], Ray et al. 2023:4 [ref. 39988]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus epistictus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra (Yemen), Comoros and Madagascar east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to Korea, southern Sea of Japan (Japan) and Ogasawara Islands (Japan), south to northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

ergastularius, Epinephelus (Schistorus) Whitley [G. P.] 1930:119, Pl. 14 (fig. 1) [Australian Zoologist v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 4669] Off Long Bay, near Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.2482. Paratypes: AMS I.4039 (1), I.11252 (1), I.13809 (1), IA 3992 (1). •Synonym of Epinephelus septemfasciata (Thunberg 1793) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Epinephelus ergastularius Whitley 1930 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:140 [ref. 19601], Randall et al. 1993:26 [ref. 21004], Heemstra & Randall 1993:145 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2497 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1011 [ref. 28999]). •Valid as Hyporthodus ergastularius (Whitley 1930) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:266 [ref. 31786], Kumar et al. 2012:115 [ref. 32541], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:84 [ref. 37354], Moore et al. 2022:10 [ref. 39791]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus ergastularius (Whitley 1930). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Queensland and New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

erythraeus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:320 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Ras Muhammad, southern Sinai, Egypt, Red Sea, 27°44'N 34°15'E. No types known. •Unneeded replacement name for, and objective synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:55 [ref. 39742]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

erythraeus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:516 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7346. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:28 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:69 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:61 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:182 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2019:115 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis nigripinnis (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra 2022:43 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis nigripinnis (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

erythrogaster, Serranus DeKay [J. E.] 1842:21, Pl. 19 (fig. 52) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Florida, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:195 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

erythrurus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:320 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Malabar region, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7545. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:28 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus erythrurus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:142 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:146 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2543 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] as erythrourus, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:88 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:271 [ref. 31980], Psomadakis et al. 2015:197 [ref. 34104], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:389 [ref. 37272], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:112 [ref. 37300], Akhilesh et al. 2021:51 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:55 [ref. 39742], Saha et al. 2022:[4] [ref. 39613], Hasan et al. 2023:2210 [ref. 40412], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:671 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus erythrurus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Socotra (Yemen), Lakshadweep Islands (India) and Pakistan east to Gulf of Thailand and Indonesia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

esonue, Promicrops Ehrenbaum [E.] 1914:v. 6 (no. 7), 293, Fig. [Der Fischerbote v. 5-6; ref. 17457] Cameroon, West Africa. No types known. Also appeared as new in Ehrenbaum 1915:54, Fig. [ref. 15784]. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:3 [ref. 24110]). •Valid as Epinephelus esonue (Ehrenbaum 1915) -- (Smith 1990:698 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Thomson et al. 2000:89 [ref. 25640], Heemstra et al. 2003:1343 [ref. 27060], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2392 [ref. 34618], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354], Barreiros & Coleman 2023:2 [ref. 40312]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

estuarius, Serranus Macleay [W.] 1883:200 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 14342] Mary River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): MAMU (missing). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Hoese et al. 2006:1014 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

exsul, Serrihastaperca Fowler [H. W.] 1944:385, 396, Figs. 182-183 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] About 20 miles south of Mazatlán, Mexico (stomach content). Holotype: ANSP 70060. Paratypes: ANSP 70061-62 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621]. •Young of ?Epinephelus -- (Heemstra 1974:25 [ref. 7125]). •Valid as Epinephelus exsul (Fowler 1944) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:146 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1593 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545], Thomson et al. 2000:84 [ref. 25640], Heemstra et al. 2003:1341 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807]). •Valid as Hyporthodus exsul (Fowler 1944) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:269 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:237 [ref. 36362], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544], Parenti & Randall 2020:84 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus exsul (Fowler 1944). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Panama. Habitat: marine.

falcatus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:138 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Marianao, near Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: ?MCZ (1, dismembered skeleton), MCZ 10014 (1), 10183 (1), 10188 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:192 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:266 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:214 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

fario, Perca Thunberg [C. P.] 1793:296, Pl. 9 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 14 (for 1793); ref. 26702] Japan. No types known. •Valid as Epinephelus fario (Thunberg 1793) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Yu & Zhou in Kuang et al. 1986:222 [ref. 26639] dated 1792, Chen et al. 1997:47 [ref. 26476] dated 1792). •Regarded as unidentifiable; see Randall & Heemstra 1991:276 [ref. 19601]. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Thunberg 1793) -- (Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus fario Thunberg 1793. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

faroa, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1944:8 [Further notes on the zoology of Tahiti.; ref. 12574] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Fowler 1949:85 [ref. 1462], Parenti & Randall 2020:75 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Perca Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xi, 40 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Ras Muhammad, southern Sinai, Egypt, Red Sea, 27°44'N, 34°15'E. No types known. Authorship and type locality according to Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Gill & Kemp 2002:165 [ref. 30496] suggest splitting into several species; Epinephelus fasciatus would be restricted to Red Sea and Indian Ocean (or possibly to northern Red Sea only). Others (some unnamed): Western Australia; Western Pacific; Japan; Pacific Plate islands; Marquesas. •Valid as Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:218 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:180 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:524 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Lee 1990:45 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:107 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Baranes & Golani 1993:307 [ref. 22372], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:134 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:130 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:235 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:47 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:110 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:107 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:184 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2499 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:717 [ref. 25086], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:182 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:84 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:717 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:309, 591 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:52 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:156 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:346 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1011 [ref. 28999], Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:88 [ref. 30492], Caratini & Soriano 2011:54 [ref. 39915], Craig et al. 2011:134 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:272 [ref. 31980], Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009], Larson et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34709], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Koeda et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:86 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626], Yoshigou 2019:199 [ref. 36714], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Bariche & Fricke 2020:137 [ref. 37515], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:390 [ref. 37272], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:113 [ref. 37300], Sonoyama et al. 2020:54 [ref. 37637], Akhilesh et al. 2021:51 [ref. 38701], Durville et al. 2021:311 [ref. 38802], González-Lorenzo et al. 2021:147 [ref. 38374], Jawad & Al Jufaili 2021:[4] [ref. 38563], Kovačić et al. 2021:77 [ref. 39014], Gökoğlu & Biçer 2022:101 [ref. 39554], Heemstra 2022:55 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:76 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:672 [ref. 40722], Murase et al. 2023:39 [ref. 40935]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Aldabra (Seychelles), Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Pérouse Seamount, La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Wake Atoll, Marshall Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Sea of Japan and Ogasawara Islands (Japan), south to Western Australia, Lord Howe Island (Australia), Norfolk Island (Australia), New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa (French Polynesia); eastern Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea migrant). Introduced at Canary Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fasciatomaculosus, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1865:111 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1865; ref. 13951] Nagasaki, Japan. Syntypes: ZMB 5552 (2). Misspelled fasciatomaculatus in early literature. •Valid as Epinephelus fasciatomaculatus (Peters 1865) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Lee 1990:44 [ref. 19830]). •Valid as Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus (Peters 1865) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:143 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:148 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2498 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:722 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:83 [ref. 25480], Nakabo 2002:722 [ref. 26001], Craig et al. 2011:133 [ref. 31786] dated 1866, Allen & Erdmann 2012:271 [ref. 31980], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:51 [ref. 38701], Tachibana & Endo 2023:19 [ref. 40968]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus (Peters 1865). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Japan and Taiwan, Philippines, along coast to Vietnam, China and to Sarawak (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Alphestes Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:163, Fig. 36 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Afuera Bay, Peru. Holotype: USNM 127950. Paratypes: (10 + 1) USNM 127951-54 (1, now 4, 1, 2); Gov't Peru [ex USNM 127952] (1). Two additional specimens (USNM 107069, USNM 119771) not regarded as types -- questionably referred to species. •Synonym of Alphestes immaculatus Breder 1936 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:21 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1578 [ref. 22830], Parenti & Randall 2020:50 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Alphestes immaculatus Breder 1936. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Plectropoma Costa [O. G.] 1844:Plectropoma p. 1, Pl. 6 [Fauna del regno di Napoli Part 1; ref. 976] [Napoli] Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Perca fasciata Forsskål 1775 in Epinephelus. •Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Heemstra 1991:26 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:134 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

faveatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:329 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean; Sri Lanka. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1714 (1) Sri Lanka. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:28 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym in part of Epinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker 1858) -- (Fricke 1999:191 [ref. 24106] for Mauritius record, Craig et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31786]). •Valid as Epinephelus faveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:524 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Randall & Heemstra 1991:152 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:152 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2500 [ref. 24815], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945], Allen & Erdmann 2012:272 [ref. 31980], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:390 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:51 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:56 [ref. 39742], Hasan et al. 2023:2210 [ref. 40412], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:673 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus faveatus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: southern India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Cocos-Keeling Islands (Australia) and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

felinus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:134 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 9994-95 (2), 10004 (1), 10071 (1), 10073 (1), 10192 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:192 [ref. 22926] with a holotype. •Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:276 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

fimbriatus, Serranus Lowe [R. T.] 1838:195, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society v. 6 (pts 1); ref. 2828] Off Madeira. Neotype: MMF 3388. Possible syntype: BMNH 1858.4.2.81 (1). Unneeded replacement name for Serranus marginatus Lowe 1834, not preoccupied by Serranus marginalis Valenciennes 1828. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget & Smith 1986:302 [ref. 6204], Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:186 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:62 [ref. 39742]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

flavicauda, Hyporthodus Gill [T. N.] 1861:98 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 13; ref. 1772] Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.A. Syntypes: (2). •Synonym of Epinephelus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:204 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:86 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

flavimarginatus, Serranus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:109 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Al Muwaylih, Tabuk Province, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF (lost). Non-type: SMF 544 (1). •Synonym of Variola louti (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:103 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:305 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:304 [ref. 21042], Fricke et al. 2018:158 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:94 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Variola louti (Fabricius 1775) -- (Heemstra 2022:78 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Variola louti (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

flavocaeruleus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:331, 367 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Neotype: MNHN A-5747 (dry skin). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:41 [ref. 19232]. Originally flavo-cæruleus. Based on description in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Neotype designated by Randall & Whitehead 1985:37 [ref. 9723]. •Valid as Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:194 [ref. 19756], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:525 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:107 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:155 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:154 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:130 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:166 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Caratini & Soriano 2011:52 [ref. 39915], Craig et al. 2011:140 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:273 [ref. 31980], Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:51 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:56 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:77 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:673 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar, Saint Brandon's Shoals (Cargados Carajos) and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Andaman Islands, western Thailand, western Malaya (Malaysia) and Sumatra (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

flavoguttatus, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:429 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Mozambique. Holotype (unique): ZMB 257. Also described as new in Peters 1855:235 [ref. 13448]. •Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601] as caeruleopunctatus, Heemstra & Randall 1993:120 [ref. 21042] as caeruleopunctatus, Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

flavolimbatus, Epinephelus Poey [F.] 1865:183 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 13954] Matanzas, Cuba. No types known. •Valid as Epinephelus flavolimbatus Poey 1865 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:300 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:133 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:91 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:330 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:105 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:427 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:155 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:20 [ref. 25512], Musick et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24959], Heemstra et al. 2003:1341 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:144 [ref. 28815]). •Valid as Hyporthodus flavolimbatus (Poey 1865) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:270 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:85 [ref. 37354], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:520 [ref. 38945], Carvalho-Filho 2023:118 [ref. 40480]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus flavolimbatus (Poey 1865). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

flavopurpurea, Perca Bennett [J. W.] 1830:unnum. p., Pl. 19 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon First Edition; ref. 16785] South coast of Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Originally as flavo-purpurea, correction mandatory. As Cynichthys flavopurpuratus in Swainson 1838:202. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:155 [ref. 19601], Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:43 [ref. 21456], Heemstra & Randall 1993:154 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:56 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

formosa, Sciaena Shaw [G.] in Shaw & Nodder 1812:no page number, Pl. 1007 [The Naturalist's Miscellany; ref. 4013] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Based on "Rahtee bontoo" of Russell 1803:22, Pl. 29 [ref. 13862]. We treat authorship as Shaw in Shaw & Nodder. •Valid as Cephalopholis formosa (Shaw 1812) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:517 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:28 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:102 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:43 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:42 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:228 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:102 [ref. 25919], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2478 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:711 [ref. 25086] with authors as Shaw & Nodder, Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:711 [ref. 26001] with authors as Shaw & Nodder, Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] with authors as Shaw & Nodder, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Hoese et al. 2006:1004 [ref. 28999], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:84 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:25 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:262 [ref. 31980], Yoshida et al. 2013:98 [ref. 34464], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:383 [ref. 37272], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:108 [ref. 37300], Akhilesh et al. 2021:49 [ref. 38701], Nakamura in Motomura et al. 2021:19 [ref. 38121], Heemstra 2022:41 [ref. 39742], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:661 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis formosa (Shaw 1812). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Lakshadweep Islands, Pakistan, India and Myanmar east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to northern Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

formosanus, Cephalopholis Tanaka [S.] 1911:24, Pl. 7 (fig. 22) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 2; ref. 14881] Keelung, Taihoku, Taiwan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 2975 (poor condition). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:42 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Ho & Shao 2011:42 [ref. 31432], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

forskael, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:337, 377 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Ras Muhammad, southern Sinai, Egypt, Red Sea, 27°44'N 34°15'E. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:49, 58 [ref. 20740]. Unnecessary replacement name for Perca fasciata Forsskål 1775. •Objective synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757] as forsskael, Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

forsythi, Epinephelus Whitley [G. P.] 1937:222, Pl. 13 (fig. 4) [Australian Zoologist v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 4690] Lord Howe Island. Holotype: AMS I.1793. Paratypes: (2) not saved. •Synonym of Epinephelus daemelii (Günther 1876) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:130 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:138 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1010 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus daemelii (Günther 1876). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

fulvus, Labrus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:287 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America [Bahamas]. No types known. •Valid as Epinephelus fulvus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Cordova 1986:161 [ref. 39776], Robins & Ray 1986:132 [ref. 23100], Dennis & Bright 1988:5 [ref. 39782], Bullock & Smith 1991:97 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:324 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:106 [ref. 23239], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221]). •Valid as Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:303 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:426 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:205 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Bostrom et al. 2002:655 [ref. 26722], Collette et al. 2003:105 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Heemstra et al. 2003:1336 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:21 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:138 [ref. 28815], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Craig et al. 2011:27 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:38 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:13 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961], Nión et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35565], Garcia et al. 2018:962 [ref. 36271], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354], Robertson et al. 2020:162 [ref. 38098], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:512 [ref. 38945], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:79 [ref. 38844], Bennema & van Moorsel 2022:71 [ref. 39585], Carvalho-Filho 2023:113 [ref. 40480]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, South Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Santa Catarina (Brazil) and ?Uruguay, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

furcifer, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:264 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0131. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:28 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Cephalopholis furcifer (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Carvalho-Filho 2023:114 [ref. 40480]). •Valid as Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:136 [ref. 23100], Smith 1990:702 [ref. 18227], Bullock & Smith 1991:152 [ref. 36591], Heemstra 1991:57 [ref. 19323], Cervigón 1991:354 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:109 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:433 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:284 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:44 [ref. 25512], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666] as fuscifer, Grove & Lavenberg 1997:329 [ref. 24023], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:216 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:72 [ref. 25466], Thomson et al. 2000:97 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Bostrom et al. 2002:655 [ref. 26722], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1362 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:172 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:30 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:328 [ref. 31786], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:171 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:42 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:6 [ref. 33516], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:149 [ref. 37485], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Triay-Portella et al. 2015:165 [ref. 36561], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2401 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37509], Reiner 2019:174 [ref. 38139], Bariche & Fricke 2020:137 [ref. 37515], Evans et al. 2020:490 [ref. 37995] as Paranthias cf. furcifer, Kovačić et al. 2020:41 [ref. 37519], Parenti & Randall 2020:91 [ref. 37354], Robertson et al. 2020:162 [ref. 38098], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:529 [ref. 38945], González-Lorenzo et al. 2021:148 [ref. 38374], Kovačić et al. 2021:78 [ref. 39014], Bennema & van Moorsel 2022:71 [ref. 39585], Fermon et al. 2022:288 [ref. 39448], Hoff et al. 2023:6 [ref. 40463]). Current status: Valid as Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Florida (U.S.A.) south to Santa Catarina (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and eastern and southern Caribbean Sea; southern-central Atlantic: Ascension Island; eastern Atlantic: Gabon, Annobón (Equatorial Guinea), and São Tomé and Principe. Invasive at Canary Islands (Spain), Croatia and in Lebanon. Habitat: marine.

fusca, Perca Thunberg [C. P.] 1793:297, Pl. 9 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 14 (for 1793); ref. 26702] Japan [Nagasaki, Kyushu, Japan]. No types known. •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus boenak (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

fuscoguttata, Perca summana var. Forsskål [P. S.] in Niebuhr 1775:xi, 42 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Sams Pier, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Neotype: USNM 147594. Originally as fusco-guttata, correction mandatory. Neotype designated by Randall 1964: 291 [ref. 3600]. Original type localities 'Sues' (As-Suways, Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Red Sea) and 'Djiddæ' (Jeddah/Juddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea). Authorship according to Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:230 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:525 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:108 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:157 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:156 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:131 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:235 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:108 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:188 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2501 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:724 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:183 [ref. 25191], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:724 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:168 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:156 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:346 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182], Hobbs et al. 2008:7 [ref. 39350], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:142 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:273 [ref. 31980], Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:198 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:149 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:102 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:390 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:51 [ref. 38701], Kim et al. 2021:128 [ref. 39117], Nakamura et al. 2021:1 [ref. 38703], Heemstra 2022:56 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:78 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:673 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa (Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya), Persian Gulf, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Phoenix Islands and Samoa, north to Kagoshima (southern Japan), south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

fuscomarginatus, Epinephelus Johnson [J. W.] & Worthington Wilmer [J.] 2019:332, Figs. 2-4A [Zootaxa 4674 (no. 3); ref. 36985] Capricorn Channel, south of Swain Reefs, Queensland, Australia, 22°52.8'S, 152°40.8'E, depth 230 meters. Holotype: QM I.40945. Paratypes: CSIRO, QM. •Valid as Epinephelus fuscomarginatus Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2019 -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus fuscomarginatus Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2019. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southern Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia). Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Epinephelus Fourmanoir [P.] 1961:92 [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série F. Océanographie v. 4; ref. 9346] West coast of Madagascar. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1963-0603. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:15 [ref. 19232], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805]. Also appeared as new in Fourmanoir 1963:140, fig. [ref. 4824]. •Valid as Epinephelus fuscus Fourmanoir 1961 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:216 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:173 [ref. 19754]). •Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:528 [ref. 5667], Heemstra & Randall 1993:193 [ref. 21042], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:64 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:342, 384 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] "Norway" [likely China]. Lectotype: ZMB 5221 (left half skin). Unneeded new name for Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793 -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Serranus Lowe [R. T.] 1838:196 [Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society v. 6 (pts 1); ref. 2828] Off Madeira. Neotype: MMF 24928. Neotype designated by Heemstra 1991:48-49 [ref. 19323]. See Heemstra et al. 2003:1353 [ref. 27060]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227]). •Valid as Mycteroperca fusca (Lowe 1838) -- (Heemstra 1991:48 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:265 [ref. 21042], Santos et al. 1997:81 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:80 [ref. 24952], Craig et al. 2011:299 [ref. 31786], dated 1836, Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2399 [ref. 34618], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Carneiro et al. 2019:244 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:172 [ref. 38139], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354], Golani 2021:41 [ref. 38303], González-Lorenzo et al. 2021:148 [ref. 38374], Kovačić et al. 2021:77 [ref. 39014], Carvalho-Filho 2023:119 [ref. 40480]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca fusca (Lowe 1838). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands, and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

gabriellae, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1991:159, Pl. 14A, Pl. 36A,B; Fig. 78 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 20; ref. 19601] Eagles' Retreat, 16°58'00"N, 54°42'50"E, Oman, Arabian Sea, depth 6-8 meters. Holotype: BPBM 33947. Paratypes: ANSP 161089 (1), BPBM 33948 (1), FMNH 4005 (1), NSMT-P 29536 (1), SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 34268 [not 33620] (1). •Valid as Epinephelus gabriellae Randall & Heemstra 1991 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:158 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:131 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Craig et al. 2011:145 [ref. 31786], Randall et al. 2013:524 [ref. 32685], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354], Wu et al. 2020:134 [ref. 37525], Heemstra 2022:57 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:79 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:674 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus gabriellae Randall & Heemstra 1991. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: East Africa (Somalia), Gulf of Aden (Somalia, Yemen), Socotra (Yemen) and southern Oman east to Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

gaimardi, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:520 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7547. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-7420 (2), 0000-7641 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:28 [ref. 19232]. Lectotype designation not researched, not designated here. •Valid as Epinephelus gaimardi (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:210 [ref. 19756]). •Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:209 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:193 [ref. 21042], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:160 [ref. 28239], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

galapagensis, Alphestes Fowler [H. W.] 1944:342, Fig. 186 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype: ANSP 70138. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Alphestes immaculatus Breder 1936 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:21 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1578 [ref. 22830], Parenti & Randall 2020:50 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Alphestes immaculatus Breder 1936. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

galeus, Serranus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:621 [Reisen in Britisch-Guiana; ref. 3072] Guyana. Syntypes: ?ZMB 254 (1) Rio de Janeiro, 255 (1) Guyana. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:3 [ref. 24110], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

geoffroyi, Serranus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1870:675, footnote [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 20; ref. 2621] Port Safaga, Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype: SMNS 233. Syntypes: Not NMW 39276 (1) see Randall et. al. 2013:527 [ref. 32685]. •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:117 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:127 [ref. 21042]). •Valid as Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Randall et al. 2013:524 [ref. 32685], DiBattista et al. 2015:21 [ref. 35706], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[16] 254 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354], Wu et al. 2020:135 [ref. 37525], Golani 2021:41 [ref. 38303] as geofrroyi, Kovačić et al. 2021:77 [ref. 39014], Heemstra 2022:57 [ref. 39742], Nakamura & Motomura 2021:275 [ref. 38066]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

geographicus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:322 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH D132 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:46 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

geometricus, Serranus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:144 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 17384] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: QM I.10140-41 (1, 1). •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1011 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gibbosus, Serranus Boulenger [G. A.] 1888:654 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1887 (pt 4); ref. 14479] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1888.12.29.36. •Synonym of Dermatolepis striolata (Playfair 1867) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:76 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:68 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:59 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:46 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Dermatolepis striolata (Playfair 1867). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

gibbus, Cephalopholis Fourmanoir [P.] 1955:215, Pl. 8 B [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série A, Biologie Animale v. 9; ref. 12271] Mutsamudu, Anjouan Island, Comoro Islands, depth 30-80 meters. Holotype (unique): IRSMNB (lost). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:39-40 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:61 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:55 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:179 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2481 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:44 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

gigas, Batrachus Günther [A.] 1869:131 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 3 (no. 14); ref. 18192] Seychelles. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2007.8.13.1 (dry head). •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:59 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gigas, Cernua Costa [O. G.] 1849:Cernua p. 1, Pl. 7, bis [Fauna del regno di Napoli Part 1; ref. 976] Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. •Uncertain in Epinephelidae. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

gigas, Perca Brünnich [M. T.] 1768:65 [Ichthyologia Massiliensis, sistens piscium descriptiones eorumque apud incolas nomina; ref. 17290] Marseille, France, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Unused senior synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790); name should be suppressed by ICZN (Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:785 [ref. 13676], Daget & Smith 1986:302 [ref. 6204], Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:666 [ref. 21590]). •Regarded as a nomen dubium -- (Heemstra 1991:33, 38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:199 [ref. 19601]). •Possibly the same as Epinephelus haifensis Ben-Tuvia 1953 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:162 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus haifensis (Ben-Tuvia 1953) -- (Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2396 [ref. 34618]). •Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Nomen Oblitum. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

gilberti, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1842:19 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 55); ref. 21245] Port Essington, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype: BMNH 1968.3.11.3 (skin). Type information: Whitehead 1970:212 [ref. 11606]. •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:240 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999], Larson et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32988], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

glaucus, Serranus Day [F.] 1871:678 [2] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1870 (pt 3); ref. 1078] Andaman Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1870.5.18.76. Day specimens: ZSI ?1678 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. On p. 2 of separate. •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:51 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

goldiei, Serranus Macleay [W.] 1882:226 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 2); ref. 17584] Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16322-001 [ex MAMU F477]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:269 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:387 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:241 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:82 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

goldmanni, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1855:434 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 16850] Obi Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5483. •Synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849) -- (Randall et al. 1990:112 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:231 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:214 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

goliath, Oligorus De Vis [C. W.] 1882:318 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 17382] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM (mounted, not found in 1997). Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Serranus goliath Peters 1855 when both are in Epinephelus. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1013 [ref. 28999], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

goliath, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:430 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Mossimboa, Mozambique, 11°S. Holotype (unique): ZMB 32500 (skeleton). Also described as new in Peters 1855:237 [ref. 13448]. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

goreensis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:511 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7323 (2), 0000-7324 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:29 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Mycteroperca goreensis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Epinephelus goreensis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra 1991:30 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:159 [ref. 21042], Afonso et al. 1999:72 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:30 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:146 [ref. 31786], Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2391 [ref. 34618], Carneiro et al. 2019:243 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:170 [ref. 38139], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354], Fermon et al. 2022:288 [ref. 39448]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus goreensis (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola, including Cape Verde Islands, and São Tomé and Principe; possibly regionally extinct in Portugal. Habitat: marine.

grammatophorus, Epinephelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1903:64, Pl. 3 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 15011] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.2.6.2 (1), 1905.6.6.94 (1). •Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:531 [ref. 5667], Randall et al. 1990:113 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:136 [ref. 22896], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2521 [ref. 24815], Fricke et al. 2018:153 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:69 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

grammicus, Serranus Day [F.] 1868:700 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 3); ref. 14045] Madras, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI 2952. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. •Valid as Epinephelus grammicus (Day 1868) -- (Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009]). •Synonym of Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:179 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:176 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2506 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:60 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

grandinatus, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1938:93 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Fowler 1949:84 [ref. 1462], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

griseofasciatus, Hyporthodus Moore [G. I.], Wakefield [C. B.], DiBattista [J. D.] & Newman [S. J.] 2022:6, Fig. 1 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 101 (no. 6); ref. 39791] Two Peoples Bay canyon, Western Australia, 35°17'S, 118°05'E, depth 76 meters. Holotype: WAM P.34886-001. Paratypes: (13) CSIRO, WAM. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Hyporthodus griseofasciatus Moore, Wakefield, DiBattista & Newman 2022. Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus griseofasciatus Moore, Wakefield, DiBattista & Newman 2022. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: continental shelf of Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

guasa, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:141, 354, Pl. 13 (fig. 8) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 34157 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:190-191 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:3 [ref. 24110], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guativere, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:336 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Based on the 'Guativere' of Parra 1787:7, Pl. 5 (figs. 1-2) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

guaza, Epinephelus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1896:372 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 21 (for 1895) Appendix 5; ref. 2442] See Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). New spelling for Labrus gvaza Linnaeus 1758. See Labrus gvaza Linnaeus 1758. Misspelling. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Epinephelidae.

guntheri, Homalogrystes Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:269, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] About 12 miles south of Papua New Guinea coast at Katow [Mawatta, Western Province], depth 6-7 fathoms. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Acanthochromis polyacanthus (Bleeker 1855) in Pomacentridae -- (Allen 1991:235 [ref. 19344]). •Synonym of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:25 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:122 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:130 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Golani 1993:383 [ref. 22373], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

guttata, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:292 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America [Brazil]. Neotype: UF 139198. Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:203 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1985:49 [ref. 20705]. Based on the 'Gvarvgvarv' of Markgraf von Liebstadt 1648:169, fig. [ref. 30347], the 'Cugupuguacu cogener, corpore rotundiore' of Sloane 1725:280, pl. 247, fig. 2 [ref. 30320], the 'Cugupu-guacu brasiliensibus' of Willughby 1686:303 [ref. 30164], the 'Cugupu guacu' of Ray 1713:127 [ref. 30231], and the 'Cugupuguacu' of Catesby 1771:14, Pl. 14 [ref. 774]. Current usage here maintained, although E. guttatus does not occur in Brazil, and Markgraf von Liebstadt's description was apparently based on E. adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Neotype selected by Fricke et al. 2021:49 [ref. 38901]. •Valid as Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:132 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:99 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:331 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:106 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:428 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:21 [ref. 25512], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:266 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:207 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1342 [ref. 27060], Smith et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:145 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:149 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:999 [ref. 33194], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:172 [ref. 32953], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354], Robertson et al. 2020:162 [ref. 38098], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:79 [ref. 38844], Fricke et al. 2021:43 [ref. 38901]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Trinidad and Tobago, including eastern and southern Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:36, Pl. 224 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Indian Ocean and Japan. Syntypes: ZMB 5213 (1, right skin) Japan, 33016 (1, stuffed). Spelled gutatus in text, guttatus on plate; first reviser perhaps Paepke 1999:134 [ref. 24282]. On p. 26 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. On Official Index of rejected names (Opinion 1439). •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Dor 1984:96 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:34 [ref. 21042], Mundy 2005:344 [ref. 28379], Golani & Fricke 2018:61 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Suppressed. Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Johnius Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:77 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Based on the 'Bonací cardenal' of Parra 1787:29, Pl. 16 [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:215 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Paralabrax Bleeker [P.] 1872:150 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 431] China. No types known. Original as Paralabrax? guttatus. Based on a painting, •Incertae sedis -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:129 [ref. 37354]). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

guttulatus, Serranus Macleay [W.] 1878:33, Pl. 2 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 3 (pt 1); ref. 2868] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16324-001 [ex MAMU F1166]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Valid as Epinephelus guttatus (Macleay 1878) -- (Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666]). •Synonym of Epinephelus undulatostriatus (Peters 1866) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442] as undulostriatus, Randall & Heemstra 1991:283 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:249 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2528 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1020 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:83 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus undulatostriatus (Peters 1866). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

gvaza, Labrus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:285 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] "Pelago" [Cumana, Caribbean coast of Venezuela]. No types known. Spelled guaza by authors; "u" mistypset "v" in original; spelling guaza regarded as in prevailing usage. Based on a specimen from Venezuela mentioned in a letter by Pehr Löfling (1729-1756), one of the 'Linnaeus apostles'. Subsequently confused by authors with a Mediterranean serranid, which is now classified as Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). •Valid as Epinephelus guaza (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:785 [ref. 13676], Daget & Smith 1986:302 [ref. 6204], Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:666 [ref. 21590], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666] as quaza). •In genus Mycteroperca, as güaza, regarded as a nomen dubium with discussion of locality -- (Heemstra 1991:38, 41 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601] as gvasa, Heemstra & Randall 1993:188 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:207 [ref. 25013], Carneiro et al. 2019:243 [ref. 37250]). •Possibly the same as Mycteroperca cidi Cervigón 1966, Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860), or Mycteroperca phenax Jordan & Swain 1884 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:188, 264, 266 [ref. 21042]). •Nomen dubium in Mycteroperca -- (Smith Vaniz et al. 1999:207 [ref. 25013]). •Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:79 [ref. 26753] as guaza). •Regarded as of uncertain status in Mycteroperca. •Questionably in synonymy of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Nomen Dubium. Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

gymnopareius, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:248 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] No locality. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7071. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:29 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:236 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:2 [ref. 24110], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

gymnosus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:335, 372 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] [No locality stated] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Possible types: MNHN A-5747 (1) coll. Commerson. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:48 [ref. 20740], Bauchot et al. 1984:41 [ref. 19232]. Figured on Pl. 27 (fig. 2) of Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710], but with vernacular name. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:155 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:154 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:56 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

haifensis, Epinephelus Ben-Tuvia [A.] 1953:21, Fig. 14 [Bulletin, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries, Sea Fisheries Research Station Haifa No. 8; ref. 257] Off Caesarea, Israel, Mediterranean Sea, depth 120 fathoms. Holotype: HUJ 8604 [ex SFRS M411]. Paratypes: ANSP 128518 (1), BMNH 1955.9.25.5 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621], Golani 2006:25 [ref. 28840]. Declared a nomen protectum by Parenti & Randall 2020:85 [ref. 37354]. •Valid as Epinephelus haifensis Ben-Tuvia 1953 -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:786 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:162 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:79 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:36 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:80 [ref. 29533], Reiner 2019:171 [ref. 38139]). •Incertae sedis in Hyporthodus -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046]). ▐ Valid as Hyporthodus haifensis (Ben Tuvia 1953) -- (Craig et al. 2011:273 [ref. 31786], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2396 [ref. 34618], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Carneiro et al. 2019:244 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:86 [ref. 37515], Parenti & Randall 2020:85 [ref. 37354], Golani 2021:41 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:77 [ref. 39014], Fermon et al. 2022:288 [ref. 39448]). Nomen Protectum. Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus haifensis (Ben-Tuvia 1953). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Angola, including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

hata, Epinephelus Katayama [M.] 1953:52, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of the Faculty of Education Yamaguchi University v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 19758] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 41376 [ex Katayama coll. 1541]. Paratypes: (4) Katayama coll. 1537-40 (now should be 3), ZUMT 41376 (1, not seen in 1997). •Synonym of Epinephelus heniochus Fowler 1904 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:163 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:164 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2502 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus heniochus Fowler 1904. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

hemistiktos, Serranus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:109, Pl. 27 (fig. 3) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 314. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1860.11.9.96 (1); SMF 2999 (1), 3007 (1), 4895-96 (1, 1). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:96 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. Misspelled hemistictus by authors. •Valid as Cephalopholis hemistiktos (Rüppell 1830) -- (Dor 1984:96 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:46 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:44 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:24 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:126 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:143 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Craig et al. 2011:30 [ref. 31786], Psomadakis et al. 2015:195 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:61 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:106 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:41 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:65 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:662 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis hemistiktos (Rüppell 1830). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Socotra (Yemen), Oman and Persian Gulf east to Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

heniochus, Epinephelus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:522, Pl. 18 (upper fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: ANSP 27557. Paratypes: ANSP 27558 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Mycteroperca heniochus (Fowler 1904) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Epinephelus heniochus Fowler 1904 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:169 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:163 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:164 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:236 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:47 [ref. 26476], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2502 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:717 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:717 [ref. 26001], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:151 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:99 [ref. 34464], Motomura et al. 2017:86 [ref. 35490], Johnson & Wilmer 2019:342 [ref. 36985], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:391 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:52 [ref. 38701]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus heniochus Fowler 1904. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar and Sumatra (Indonesia) east to New Britain, north to Japan and Korea, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

hexagonatus, Holocentrus Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:323 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] [Otaheitee] Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific. No types known. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:189 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). •Valid as Holocentrus hexagonatus Forster 1801 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356] with authorship as Bloch & Schneider). •Valid as Serranus hexagonatus (Forster 1901) -- (Dor 1984:102 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster 1801) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:526 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:46 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:108 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:166 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:165 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:48 [ref. 26476] with authors as Bloch & Schneider, Randall et al. 1997:108 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:189-190 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2503 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:723 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:183 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:84 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:723 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Ikeda 2004:2 [ref. 27940], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:157 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:346 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:67 [ref. 35264], Motomura et al. 2010:97 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:153 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:273 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706] as Bloch & Schneider ex Forster, Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932] as Bloch & Schneider ex Forster, Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988] with authors as Bloch & Schneider, Koeda et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:149 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:52 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:58 [ref. 39742], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:675 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster 1801). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique), Aldabra (Seychelles), Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Wake Atoll, northern Line Islands (Kiribati) and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Rapa (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

hispanum, Plectropoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:396 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7679. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:21 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Gonioplectrus hispanus (Cuvier 1828) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:143 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:122 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:338 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:107 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:430 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:252 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:32 [ref. 25512], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Betancur-R. et al. 2001:26 [ref. 26211], Heemstra et al. 2003:1349 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:152 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:259 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:39 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:83 [ref. 37354], Robertson et al. 2020:162 [ref. 38098], Moral-Flores et al. 2021:1300 [ref. 38649], Carvalho-Filho 2023:122 [ref. 40480]). Current status: Valid as Gonioplectrus hispanus (Cuvier 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Espirito Santo (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and Trinidade Island (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

hoedtii, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1855:406 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 350] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 5494. Paralectotypes: RMNH 30345 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus hoedtii (Bleeker 1855) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:177 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:236 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:48 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:42 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:107 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:128 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:136 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2494 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:155 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Hoese et al. 2006:1010 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

hoevenii, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1849:36 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes and/or Bleeker specimens: AMS B.8158 [from Day] (1), RMNH 6164 (some syntypes out of 23), SMNS 10635 (1 syntype). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:19 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:58 [ref. 29864] •Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) [sometimes as caeruleopunctatus] -- (Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:120 [ref. 21042], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Hoese et al. 2006:1009 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

homfrayi, Serranus Day [F.] 1871:678 [2] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1870 (pt 3); ref. 1078] Port Blair, Andaman Islands. Holotype (unique): ZSI 1680. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. On p. 2 of separate. •Synonym of Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:49 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:47 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:42 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

homosinensis, Epinephelus Whitley [G. P.] 1944:267 [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 3); ref. 4705] Broom, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.2413-001. Paratypes: WAM P.2412-001 (1), P.2430-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:18 [ref. 19335] altered the type locality to Broome, Western Australia, Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117]. •Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:113 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2521 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1018 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

hopkinsi, Mycteroperca Jordan [D. S.] & Rutter [C. L.] 1897:105 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 49; ref. 10644] Region of Kingston, Jamaica. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 5073. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:70 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:276 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

horridus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:321 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH D19 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D2160 (1, stuffed); ?SMF 2986 [ex RMNH in 1829] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:46 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:157 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:156 [ref. 21042], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

hostiaretis, Epinephelus summana Whitley [G. P.] 1954:25 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1952-53; ref. 4721] Queensland, Australia. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:220 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1016 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

howlandi, Serranus Günther [A.] 1873:8, Pl. 9 (fig. B) [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 14186] Howland Island, 0°48'N, 176°38'W, central Pacific. Holotype: BMNH 1873.4.3.237. Paratypes: ?NMV 8239 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus howlandi (Günther 1873) -- (Randall et al. 1990:109 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:169 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:167 [ref. 21042], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Randall et al. 1997:109 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2544 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:721 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:183 [ref. 25191], Nakabo 2002:721 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:157 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2010:97 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:156 [ref. 31786], Ho et al. 2013:77 [ref. 33261], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354], Tachibana & Endo 2023:20 [ref. 40968]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus howlandi (Günther 1873). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western and South Pacific: China Sea and southern Japan throughout the west-central Pacific east to the Line Islands, south to Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

igarashiensis, Cephalopholis Katayama [M.] 1957:156, Fig. 3 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 6 (nos 4-6); ref. 12079] Sumisu-tu, Izu Islands, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 18655 [ex Katayama Coll. 1930]. Paratypes: ZUMT 39466 (1). •Valid as Cephalopholis igarashiensis Katayama 1957 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:162 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441], Lee 1990:28 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:48 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:46 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2478 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:711 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:490 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:711 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2005:119 [ref. 28745], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Ho & Shao 2011: 42 [ref. 31432], Craig et al. 2011:32 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:98 [ref. 32988], Motomura et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:113 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis igarashiensis Katayama 1957. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Christmas Island and Indonesia east to French Polynesia, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

immaculatus, Alphestes Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1936:22, Fig. 9 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 2 (art. 3); ref. 634] No locality stated (eastern Pacific). Holotype (unique): YPM 596. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:25 [ref. 16741]. •Valid as Alphestes immaculatus Breder 1936 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:21 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:107 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1578 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:275 [ref. 24545] as inmaculatus, Grove & Lavenberg 1997:312 [ref. 24023], De la Cruz-Agüero & Cota-Gómez 1998:357 [ref. 23520], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:349 [ref. 24555], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:204 [ref. 25013], Thomson et al. 2000:79 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:126 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:109 [ref. 37547], Craig et al. 2006:327 [ref. 29772], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:6 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:397 [ref. 34894], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:49 [ref. 37354], Love et al. 2021:145 [ref. 39279], Siccha-Ramirez et al. 2023:305 [ref. 40816], Vela-Espinosa et al. 2023:9 [ref. 40981]). Current status: Valid as Alphestes immaculatus Breder 1936. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico) to southern Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico) and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

immunerur, Serranus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:422 [144] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 144 of reprint. •Questionably a synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:34 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

impetiginosus, Serranus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] in Schomburgk 1848:665 [13] [The history of Barbados; comprising a geographical description of the island and an account of its geology and natural productions.; ref. 17812] Barbados, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ZMB 237. Appeared first as above; reprinted in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1848:13. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:38 [ref. 38901]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

indelebilis, Bodianus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:521, Pl. 17 (lower fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27553. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantius (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:36 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:35 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

indistinctus, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1991:171, Fig. 84 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 20; ref. 19601] Indian Ocean off east coast of Somalia, 9°03'N, 50°59'E, depth 70-80 meters. Holotype (unique): ANSP 148119. •Valid as Epinephelus indistinctus Randall & Heemstra 1991 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:168 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:131 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Craig et al. 2011:158 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis, Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871] as cf. indistinctus, Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:58 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus indistinctus Randall & Heemstra 1991. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Somalia, southern Oman. Habitat: marine.

inermis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:436 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Antilles. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5633 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:29 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus inermis (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Bullock & Godcharles 1982:53 [ref. 39762], Robins & Ray 1986:132 [ref. 23100], Dennis & Bright 1988:5 [ref. 39782], Bullock & Smith 1991:103 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:326 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:106 [ref. 23239], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221]). •Valid as Dermatolepis inermis (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:307 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:426 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:66 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:16 [ref. 25512], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:205 [ref. 25013], Musick et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24959], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Heemstra et al. 2003:1337 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:139 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:38 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:13 [ref. 34324], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:59 [ref. 37354], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:513 [ref. 38945], Carvalho-Filho 2023:115 [ref. 40480]). Current status: Valid as Dermatolepis inermis (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to São Paulo (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

insularis, Epinephelus Nakamura [J.] & Motomura [H.] 2021:264 [2], Figs. 1, 4a, 5a [Ichthyological Research v. 68 (no. 2); ref. 38066] Vicinity of Tanega-shima Island [obtained from local supermarket], Osumi Islands, Kagoshima, Japan. Holotype: KAUM-I 110147. Paratypes: (11) CAS, KAUM-I, KPM, NSMT, USNM. •Valid as Epinephelus insularis Nakamura & Motomura 2021 -- (Nakamura et al. 2023:11 [ref. 40125]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus insularis Nakamura & Motomura 2021. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and Timor Sea: southern Japan, South China Sea, Indonesia to Micronesia. Habitat: marine.

intermedius, Trisotropis Poey [F.] 1955:122 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 22481] whereabouts unknown. Trisotropis no. 181 of Poey 1875 [ref. 3509]. Posthumous publication. Also appeared in Poey 1962:29 [ref. 26395] and 2000:49 [ref. 26366] with figures in atlas. •Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Poey 2000:902 [ref. 26366], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

interstitialis, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:127, Pl. 12 (fig. 6) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Valid as Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:135 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:131 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:346 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:108 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:431 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:266 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:36 [ref. 25512], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:214 [ref. 25013], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Heemstra et al. 2003:1356 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:167 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:301 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:41 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354], Robertson et al. 2020:162 [ref. 38098], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:524 [ref. 38945], Bennema & van Moorsel 2022:71 [ref. 39585], Carvalho-Filho 2023:121 [ref. 40480], Hoff et al. 2023:6 [ref. 40463] as interstitilais). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Florida (U.S.A.) south to Santa Catarina (Brazil), including Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

ionthas, Epinephelus Jordan [D. S.] & Metz [C. W.] 1913:32, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 2490] Pusan, South Korea. Holotype (unique): FMNH 55797 [ex CM 4559]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:91 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:34 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:91 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:106 [ref. 21042], Choi et al. 2003:590 [ref. 26218], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

irrorata, Perca var. Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:333, xlv [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] St. Christian Island [=Tahuata], Marquesas Islands. Holotype (?): MNHN 0000-7438. As Percam irroratam in text, name Latinized in index (p. xlv). Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Described as probably a variety of Bodianus miniatus. See Randall & Wheeler 1991:761 [ref. 15994]. •Valid as Epinephelus irroratus (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Wheeler 1991:761 [ref. 15994], Randall & Heemstra 1991:174 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:169 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2504 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:714 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:714 [ref. 26001], Randall 2005:157 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:346 [ref. 28379], Craig et al. 2011:160 [ref. 31786], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:52 [ref. 38701]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus irroratus (Forster 1801). Epinephelidae. Distribution: South Pacific: Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) endemic. Habitat: marine.

itajara, Serranus Lichtenstein [M. H. C.] 1822:278 [Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1820-1821; ref. 17529] Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMB 238. Spelled itaiara by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:376 [ref. 997]. •Valid as Promicrops itaiara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666]). •Valid as Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:133 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:104 [ref. 36591], Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19323], Cervigón 1991:337 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:106 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:428 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:109 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:94 [ref. 23101], Grace et al. 1994:22 [ref. 25512], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1594 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:147 [ref. 22947], Murdy et al. 1997:257 [ref. 23144], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:355 [ref. 24555], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:2 [ref. 24110], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:264 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:208 [ref. 25013], Keith et al. 2000:84 [ref. 24547], Musick et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24959], Thomson et al. 2000:89 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1341 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:111 [ref. 37547], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:146 [ref. 28815], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Craig et al. 2009:167 [ref. 29773] with eastern Pacific population a different species, Epinephalus quinquefasciatus (Bocourt 1868), Craig et al. 2011:162 [ref. 31786], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:237 [ref. 36362], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:39 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:397 [ref. 34894], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2392 [ref. 34618], Reis et al. 2016:6 [ref. 34496], Marceniuk et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35324], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717], Reiner 2019:170 [ref. 38139], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:52 [ref. 38701], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:518 [ref. 38945], González-Lorenzo et al. 2021:147 [ref. 38374], Fermon et al. 2022:288 [ref. 39448], Barreiros & Coleman 2023:2 [ref. 40312], Carvalho-Filho 2023:116 [ref. 40480], Ceríaco et al. 2023:52 [ref. 40710]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Florida (U. S. A.) south to Santa Catarina (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (Brazil); southern-central Atlantic: Ascension Island; eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Cabinda (Angola), including Canary Islands (Spain), São Tomé and Principe. Eastern Pacific population based a different species, Epinephalus quinquefasciatus (Bocourt 1868). Habitat: brackish, marine.

jacobevertsen, Bodianus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:283, 296 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] St. Helena Island, South Atlantic [erroneous, should be Indo-West Pacific]. Originally jacob-evertsen, correction mandatory. •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:34 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

jansenii, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1857:376 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 358] Sangi [Sangihe] Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:269 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:387 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:241 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:82 [ref. 37354]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

janthinopterus, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1873:45 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 7; ref. 433] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype: RMNH 5507. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:63 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:57 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Epinephelus Tilesius [W. G. von] 1814:no page number, Pl. 64 (fig. 2) [Atlas zur Reis; ref. 19304] Japan. Scientific name not on plate so not available; served as basis for Serranus trimaculatus Valenciennes 1828; see Randall & Heemstra 1991:276 [ref. 19601]. •In the synonymy of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae.

japonicus, Holocentrus Shaw [G.] 1803:565 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Japan. Unneeded new name for Epinephelus ruber Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Serranus areolatus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:8 [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Japan. Holotype: RMNH.PISC D76 (stuffed). Type information: Boeseman 1947:25 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:117 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:127 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354]). •Valid as Epinephelus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Nakamura & Motomura 2021:271 [ref. 38066]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Japan, South China Sea and Taiwan Strait, southern Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

jayakari, Serranus Boulenger [G. A.] 1889:237 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1889 (pt 2); ref. 14491] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1888.12.29.32 (1, skin), 1888.12.29.33 (1, skin), 1888.12.29.34 (1, skin). •Synonym of Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:213 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:198 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:134 [ref. 22896], Hoese et al. 2006:1015 [ref. 28999]). •Valid as Epinephelus jayakari (Boulenger 1889) -- (Psomadakis et al. 2015:199 [ref. 34104], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:59 [ref. 39742], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:675 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus jayakari (Boulenger 1889). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

jordani, Epinephelus Jenkins [O. P.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1889:140 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 698); ref. 2342] Guaymas, Sonora, western Mexico. Holotype: USNM 39628. Paratypes: CAS 61868 [ex IU 4031] (1), CAS-SU 416 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:69 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Mycteroperca jordani (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Hiyama in Kumada 1937:38 [ref. 39147] as jordanai, Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:199 [ref. 9277], Heemstra & Randall 1993:268 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:110 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1599 [ref. 22830], De la Cruz-Agüero & Cota-Gómez 1998:357 [ref. 23520], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Thomson et al. 2000:91 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], Craig et al. 2011:304 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:226 [ref. 35888], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354], Love et al. 2005:111 [ref. 37547], Love et al. 2021:147 [ref. 39279]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca jordani (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of Baja California Sur (Mexico), including Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

kendalli, Cephalopholis Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1907:76, Fig. 11 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 607) (for 1906); ref. 1285] Bacon, Sorsogon, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 55911. •Synonym of Cephalopholis cyanostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:41 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:40 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2477 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis cyanostigma (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

kohleri, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:336, Fig. 51 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Bock Passage, Rongerik Atoll, western Pacific, depth 60 feet. Holotype: USNM 141922. Paratypes: UW (1). •Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846) -- (Randall et al. 1990:107 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:128 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:136 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2494 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:155 [ref. 28239], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

koschar, Perca summana var. Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:345 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Red Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskal 1775) -- (Parenti 2003:499 [ref. 27322], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]) Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

kulas, Plectropoma Thiollière [V. J. de l'I.] in Montrouzier 1857:423 [145] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 145 of reprint. •Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:189 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:181 [ref. 21042] with question, Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

kunhardtii, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1851:169 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 16895] Padang, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 32444 [ex RMNH 6164]. •Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

kupangensis, Epinephelus Tucker [S. J.], Kurniasih [E. M.] & Craig [M. T.] 2016:658, Fig. 1 [Copeia v. 104 (no. 3); ref. 34684] Timor Sea, Sahul Banks (approx. 12°01'S, 124°8'E), depth 50-300 meters. Holotype: MZB 23005. Paratypes: BBPM, MZB, SIO, UF, USNM. •Valid as Epinephelus kupangensis Tucker, Kurniasih & Craig 2016 -- (Frable et al. 2018:[9] [ref. 36287], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Inoue et al. 2020:39 [ref. 37284], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354], Obaru et al. 2022:121 [ref. 39969]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus kupangensis Tucker, Kurniasih & Craig 2016. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: eastern Indonesia east to Philippines and Fiji, north to Kochi Prefecture (Japan). Habitat: marine.

labriformis, Serranus Jenyns [L.] 1840:8, Pl. 3 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Off San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7.25.5 (right half skin on wood). •Valid as Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns 1840) -- (Hiyama in Kumada 1937:38 [ref. 39147], Heemstra & Randall 1993:173 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:109 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:92 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1595 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:284 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:319 [ref. 24023], McCosker et al. 1997:24 [ref. 22816], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:355 [ref. 24555], Allen & Robertson 1999:13 [ref. 24279], Thomson et al. 2000:86 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:111 [ref. 37547], Craig et al. 2006:91 [ref. 29771], Craig et al. 2006:969 [ref. 29775], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:165 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:224 [ref. 35888], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35859], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354], Love et al. 2021:146 [ref. 39279], Siccha-Ramirez et al. 2023:315 [ref. 40816], Vela-Espinosa et al. 2023:9 [ref. 40981]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns 1840). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Chile, including Gulf of California (Mexico) and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

laevis, Labrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:431, 477, Pl. 23 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Grand golfe de l'lnde [Indian Ocean]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:98 [ref. 19171], Bauchot et al. 1984:42 [ref. 19232]. Original spelling lævis. Based on a description and illustration in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Plectropomus laevis (Lacepède 1801) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:535 [ref. 5667], Randall & Hoese 1986:12 [ref. 6009], Paxton et al. 1989:499 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:26 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:59 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:117 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:292 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:290 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:244 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Machida et al. 1997:53 [ref. 25135], Kuiter 1997:106 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:117 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:116 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:204 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2532 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:12 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:709 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:190 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:75 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:709 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:165 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1021 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:48 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:99 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:333 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:282 [ref. 31980], Nair et al. 2013:3 [ref. 32542], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:64 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:20 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:156 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:121 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:92 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:55 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:75 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Plectropomus laevis (Lacepède 1801). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa (Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya), Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Oeno (Pitcairn Group), north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Rapa (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

lanceolatus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:92, Pl. 242 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Ostindien [East Indies], Indonesia. Syntypes: ZMB 169 (1), ZMB (1, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:136 [ref. 24282]. On p. 72 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Promicrops lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:132 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:27 [ref. 13251], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:808 [ref. 20764], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:246 [ref. 27969]). •Valid as Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:526 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:109 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Kottelat et al. 1993:106 [ref. 23448], Kuiter 1993:132 [ref. 23929], Randall 1994:261 [ref. 21644], Gomon et al. 1994:535 [ref. 22532], Randall 1995:132 [ref. 22896], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:109 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:190 [ref. 24106] with a holotype, Kuo & Shao 1999:401 [ref. 24297], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2505 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:714 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:184 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:85 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:714 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] with author as Bleeker, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:167 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:158 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:346 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Randall 2007:196 [ref. 30952], Roberts & Gomon 2008:542 [ref. 30641], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:168 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:274 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Gill 2014:599 [ref. 33481], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:198 [ref. 34104], Roberts 2015:1186 [ref. 34193], Koeda et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:149 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:103 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:185 [ref. 36495], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626], Jawad et al. 2019:186 [ref. 36777], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:391 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:52 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:59 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:80 [ref. 40522], Hasan et al. 2023:2210 [ref. 40412], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:676 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.) and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), northern New Zealand and Tonga. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lata, Cerna acutirostris var. Doderlein [P.] 1882:243 [76], Pl. 3 (fig. 6) [Giornale di scienze naturali ed economiche, Società Naturali ed Economiche di Palermo v. 15; ref. 17414] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. On p. 76 of separate. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

latepictus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1861:353 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

latifasciatus, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:6 [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D21 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D22 (1, stuffed). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:22 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:46 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:179 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:176 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:132 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:237 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:145 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:48 [ref. 26476] dated 1843, Heemstra & Randall 1999:2506 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:718 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:75 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:321 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:718 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:310, 591 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Hoese et al. 2006:1013 [ref. 28999], Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:88 [ref. 30492], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:88 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:170 [ref. 31786], Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:198 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:86 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:391 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:54 [ref. 37637], Akhilesh et al. 2021:52 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:60 [ref. 39742], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:677 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman east to South China Sea, north to Japan, south to northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

lebretonianus, Serranus Hombron [J. B.] & Jacquinot [H.] in Jacquinot & Guichenot 1853:33, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Voyage au Pôle Sud et dans l'Oceanie v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 18307] No locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7548. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:29-30 [ref. 19232] also type described. •Valid as Epinephelus lebretonianus (Hombron & Jacquinot 1853) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:181 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:177 [ref. 21042], Craig et al. 2011:172 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis, Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:52 [ref. 38701]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus lebretonianus (Hombron & Jacquinot 1853). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Locality unknown, probably Indo-Pacific but no specific information (known from one specimen). Habitat: marine.

leopardinus, Plectropoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:392, Pl. 36 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Indian seas. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:21 [ref. 19232]. Unjustified emendation of Holocentrus leopardus Lacepède 1802. Name spelled leopardinum on p. xvj and leopardinus on p. 392 and Pl. 36. •In the synonymy of Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Hoese 1986:16 [ref. 6009], Randall & Heemstra 1991:294 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:292 [ref. 21042], Randall et al. 1997:118 [ref. 25919], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2533 [ref. 24815], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Parenti & Randall 2020:92 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède 1802). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

leopardus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:332, 367 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7673 (dry skin, right side). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:16 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:158 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:102 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:126 [ref. 6441], Randall & Hoese 1986:16 [ref. 6009], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:500 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:60 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:118 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:294 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:292 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:244 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:40 [ref. 26476], Myers 1999:116 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2533 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:708 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:191 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:88 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:708 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:310, 593 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:54 [ref. 27510], Randall 2005:166 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:120 [ref. 28745], Hoese et al. 2006:1022 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2010:99 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:336 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:283 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:103 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:64 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:20 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:105 [ref. 36460], Fricke et al. 2019:122 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 22 [ref. 38321] misidentified, Parenti & Randall 2020:92 [ref. 37354], Sonoyama et al. 2020:56 [ref. 37637], Akhilesh et al. 2021:55 [ref. 38701], Nakamura in Motomura et al. 2021:20 [ref. 38121], Dewa et al. 2022:17 [ref. 40001], Murase et al. 2023:39 [ref. 40935]). Current status: Valid as Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède 1802). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to Marshall Islands, Fiji and Tonga, north to central Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

leopardus, Labrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:450, 518, Pl. 30 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Grand Océan équatorial, ou les mers qui en sont voisines [Indo-West Pacific]. Syntypes: MNHN A-5725 (3, dry) Indian Ocean. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:98 [ref. 19171], Bauchot et al. 1984:17 [ref. 19232]. Based on drawing in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:518 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:23 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:102 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:49 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:47 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:42 [ref. 26476] dated 1802, Kuiter 1997:104 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:102 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:177 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2541 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:712 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:712 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:48 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:149 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1005 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:84 [ref. 30492], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:34 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:262 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:145 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:113 [ref. 36673], Fujiwara et al. 2020:33 [ref. 38631], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:49 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:42 [ref. 39742], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:663 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique), Seychelles, Aldabra (Seychelles), Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to northern Mariana Islands, Line Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to Kagoshima Prefecture (southern Japan), south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

leprosus, Epinephelus Smith [J. L. B.] 1955:310, Pl. 1 (fig. A) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 8 (no. 88) (art. 38); ref. 4096] Aldabra Island, Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 434. Paratypes: (many) not researched. •Valid as Epinephelus leprosus Smith 1955 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:226 [ref. 19756]). •Synonym of Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:529 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:213 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:198 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:134 [ref. 22896], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:65 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

leucogrammicus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:347 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Molucca Islands, Indonesia; Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7166. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-7165 (1), RMNH D117 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:30 [ref. 19232]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Ben-Tuvia 1983:381 [ref. 8284]. Based on specimens and additional literature sources (Renard, Vlaming, Valentyn). •Valid as Anyperodon leucogrammicus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:192 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:95 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:516 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:490 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:22 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:24 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:100 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:23 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:23 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:24 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:125 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:226 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:44 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:106 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:174 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2475 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:713 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:177 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:713 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:30 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:46 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:148 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1003 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:83 [ref. 30492], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:10 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:260 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:58 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:144 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:60 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:106 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:110 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:382 [ref. 37272], Parenti & Randall 2020:50 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:49 [ref. 38701], Farhana-Azmi et al. 2022:7 [ref. 40448], Heemstra 2022:38 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Anyperodon leucogrammicus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Marshall Islands, Phoenix Islands (Kiribati) and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

leucostigma, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:346 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:46 [ref. 19232]. Based on a drawing. •Synonym of Epinephelus caeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:267 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:239 [ref. 21042], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Fabricius 1775) -- (Heemstra 2022:71 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lightfooti, Epinephelus Fowler [H. W.] 1907:258, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 59; ref. 1376] Dominican Republic, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 16514. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:20 [ref. 21042], Craig et al. 2006:329 [ref. 29772], Parenti & Randall 2020:49 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

lilia minor, Perca selebardo var. Fabricius [J. C.] in Niebuhr (ex Forsskål) 1775:xv [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] No locality stated (İstanbul or İzmir, Turkey, eastern Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Unavailable, not accompanied by a diagnosis, species name not in Latin letters (Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]). Authorship and locality according to Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. •Uncertain in genus Epinephelus -- (Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]). Nomen Nudum. Epinephelidae.

lineatum, Plectropoma Bliss [R.] (ex Steindachner) 1883:45 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 5712. •Synonym of Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1988:18 [ref. 9299], Randall & Heemstra 1991:58 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:54 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:178 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:43 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:312 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7544 (dry), A-7681 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:30 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:284 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:250 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2529 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:83 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:72 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

lineoocellatus, Serranus Guichenot [A.] in Duméril 1861:244 [Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10 [for 1858]; ref. 1149] Gabon; Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7370-to 0000-7371 (1, 1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:30 [ref. 19232]. Originally as lineo-ocellatus, correction mandatory. •Synonym of Cephalopholis nigri (Günther 1859) -- (Daget & Smith 1986:299 [ref. 6204], Heemstra 1991:11 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:695 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:51 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis nigri (Günther 1859). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lobotoides, Epinephelus Nichols [J. T.] 1913:179, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 32 (art. 7); ref. 14964] Shimonoseki Market, Honshu, Japan. Holotype (unique): AMNH 3957. •Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:91 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:106 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

longipinna, Serranus (Variola) Swainson [W.] 1839:202 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Red Sea. No types known. Based on Serranus louti of Rüppell 1830: Pl. 26 (fig. 2) [ref. 3843], but see Serranus phaenistomus Swainson 1839. •Synonym of Variola louti (Forsskål 1775) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:304 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1024 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:94 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Variola louti (Fabricius 1775) -- (Heemstra 2022:78 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Variola louti (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

longispinis, Serranus Kner [R.] 1864:483 [3] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 49; ref. 4927] Madras, India. No types known. On p. 3 of separate. Also appeared in Kner 1865: 275, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [ref. 2638]. •Valid as Epinephelus longispinis (Kner 1864) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:526 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Randall & Heemstra 1991:182 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:178 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:190 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2507 [ref. 24815], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:164 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Craig et al. 2011:173 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:274 [ref. 31980], Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:113 [ref. 37300], Akhilesh et al. 2021:52 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:60 [ref. 39742], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:678 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus longispinis (Kner 1864). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa (Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya), Seychelles, Aldabra (Seychelles), Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to eastern Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

louti, Perca Fabricius [J. C.] in Niebuhr (ex Forsskål) 1775:40, xi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMUC P43566 (1, dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:61 [ref. 9588]; Fricke 2008:30 [ref. 30182]. Spelled luti by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828 [ref. 997]. Surviving syntype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965: Pl. 9 [ref. 20847]. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:30 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Variola louti (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:178 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:156 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:103 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:126 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:536 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:501 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:27 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:63 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:120 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:119 [ref. 20996], Heemstra & Randall 1993:304 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:134 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:138 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:247 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:41 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:102 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:120 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:117 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:209 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2539 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:12 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:87 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:709 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:611 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:193 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:12 [ref. 25806], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:709 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:33 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S105 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:622 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:56 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:173 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:167 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1024 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:49 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:95 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:101 [ref. 31256], Caratini & Soriano 2011:51 [ref. 39915], Fricke et al. 2011:387 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:354 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:285 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:66 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:158 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:67 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:126 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:94 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:56 [ref. 38701], Durville et al. 2021:311 [ref. 38802], Kim et al. 2021:132 [ref. 39117], Zajonz et al. 2022:94 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:690 [ref. 40722], Murase et al. 2023:39 [ref. 40935]). •Valid as Variola louti (Fabricius 1775) -- (Fricke 2008:29 [ref. 30182], Kovačić et al. 2021:78 [ref. 39014], Heemstra 2022:78 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Variola louti (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands (Japan), south to Western Australia, Lord Howe Island (Australia) and Rapa (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

luctuosus, Homalogrystes De Vis [C. W.] 1882:369 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 1087] Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.179 (dry mount). •Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:128 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:136 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

lunaria, Perca Fabricius [J. C.] in Niebuhr (ex Forsskål) 1775:39, xi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. No types known. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:27 [ref. 30182]. •Synonym of Aethaloperca rogaa (Fabricius 1775) (author often seen as Forsskål) -- (Dor 1984:95 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:20 [ref. 19601] as lunaris, as lunaria on p. 329, Heemstra & Randall 1993:16 [ref. 21042] as lunaris, Golani & Fricke 2018:60 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:49 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:37 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Aethaloperca rogaa (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

lunulatus, Bodianus Shaw [G.] 1803:575 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. No types known. Unneeded new name for Perca lunaria Forsskål 1775. •Synonym of Aethaloperca rogaa (Fabricius 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:49 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Aethaloperca rogaa (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

lunulatus, Lutianus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:329 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Not same as lunulatus Park. Based on 'Cabrilla' Parra 1787:93, Pl. 36 (fig. 1) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042] with author as Parra, Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:43 [ref. 38901]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

luridus, Serranus Ranzani [C.] 1842:356, Pl. 36 (fig. 1) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 5; ref. 9017] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUB 977. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:195 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Fricke et al. 2021:38 [ref. 38901]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

lutra, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:474 [Histoire naturelle des poissons; ref. 1000] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7278. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:30 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:157 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:156 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:188 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2018:149 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:56 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

macrocephalus, Bodianus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:281, 293 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] [No locality] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Possible types: MNHN A-5747 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:39 [ref. 19232]. Based on Commerson drawing. Figured on Pl. 20 (fig. 2) of Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710]. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:155 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:154 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:56 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

macrogenis, Cerna Sassi [A.] 1846:139 [Descrizione di Genova del Genovesato; ref. 18659] Italy, Ligurian Sea, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MSNG 43110 (= oMSNG 38933) not found in 1995. Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:335 [ref. 10350]. Original not seen. Also appeared with description in Sassi 1846:390 [ref. 22007]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:275 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

macrospilos, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1855:499 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 16851] Batjan, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5503. Later spelled macrospilus. •Valid as Epinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker 1855) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:110 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:186 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:179 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:x [ref. 21953], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:237 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:110 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:191 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2508 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:723 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:723 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:158 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1013 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:175 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:275 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Hata et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35065], Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Sakamoto et al. 2018:216 [ref. 36508], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:52 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:61 [ref. 39742], Tachibana & Endo 2023:21 [ref. 40968]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker 1855). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa (Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya), Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Marshall Islands and Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia), north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands (Japan), south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Perca Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:333, xlv [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] St. Christine Island or Waitako. No types known. Name Latinized in index on p. xlv. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Perca maculata Bloch 1792 (and, if in Epinephelus, also secondarily preoccupied by Holocentrus maculatus Bloch 1790). 1°Homonym. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Perca Bloch [M. E.] 1792:92, Pl. 313 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 6; ref. 470] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Epinephelus by Holocentrus maculatus Bloch 1790. On p. 81 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 9 [ref. 21381]. Replaced by Sparus atlanticus Lacepède 1802. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:37 [ref. 38901]). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Perca Forster [J. R.] in Lichtenstein 1844:220 [Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis; ref. 17531] St. Christian Island, Waitako [= Vaitahu, Tahuata Island, Marquesas Islands]. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Perca maculata Bloch 1792 (and also secondarily preoccupied in Epinephelus by Holocentrus maculatus Bloch 1790). Lichtenstein (editor, p. 220, footnote) treats as a synonym of "Perca miniata Forsk. Faun. orient. p. 41", "Bodianus miniatus Bl. Sch. p. 332", and "Serranus variolosus Cuv. Val. II. p. 265." •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculatus, Bodianus Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:236, Fig. 39 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] Boa Vista, Cape Verde Islands. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Bodianus maculatus Bloch 1790. •Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Parenti 2019:7 [ref. 36934], Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:48, Pl. 228 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] "Japan" [probably in error for Java, Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8599 (right skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:134 [ref. 24282]. On p. 35 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Plectropomus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:184 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:159 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:102 [ref. 29757], Randall & Hoese 1986:16 [ref. 6009], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:500 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:118 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:295 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:293 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:245 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:106 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:118 [ref. 25919], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2534 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Hoese et al. 2006:1022 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:339 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:283 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:103 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:100 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2015:7 [ref. 33930], Motomura et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:122 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:92 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:55 [ref. 38701], Vilasri et al. 2023:78 [ref. 40764]). Current status: Valid as Plectropomus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia and Gulf of Thailand east to Solomon Islands, north to Philippines, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Cephalopholis Seale [A.] & Bean [B. A.] 1907:235, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1568); ref. 4002] Zamboanga, Mindanao, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 57843. Paratypes: USNM 61153 (1). •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:96, Pl. 242 (fig. 3) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] East Indies. Holotype (unique): ZMB (not found). On p. 76 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:176 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:47 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:110 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:189 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:181 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:131 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:49 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:110 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:110 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2509 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:724 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:184 [ref. 25191], Johnson 2001:730 [ref. 25471], Sakai et al. 2001:94 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:724 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:53 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:159 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1013 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2010:97 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:178 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:275 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35333], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:52 [ref. 38701], Wada et al. 2021:39 [ref. 38521]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Cocos-Keeling Island east to the Line Islands, north to Amami Islands (southern Japan), south to southeastern Australia and Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

maculosa, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:350 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality given. No types known. A forgotten name, but treated as a nomen oblitum to permit continued use of taeniops as a nomen protectum (see Parenti 2003:495 [ref. 27322]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Parenti 2003:495 [ref. 27322], Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

maculosa, Perca punctata Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:350 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. Described as a "varietas" of Perca punctata, species no. 55 on p. 349. Based on Seba and Pennant. •Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Nomen Oblitum. Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

maculosus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:332 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] No locality [? Martinique]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7360. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:31 [ref. 19232], Bauchot & Daget 1996:241 [ref. 22899]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:266 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:207 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:43 [ref. 38901]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

maderaspatensis, Priacanthichthys Day [F.] 1868:193 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868 (pt 1); ref. 1076] Madras [= Chennai], India. Syntypes: BMNH 1868.10.27.38 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762] as madraspatensis. •Synonym of Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:179 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:176 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:60 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

magnificus, Serranus Macleay [W.] 1882:229 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 2); ref. 17584] Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.9460. The type has been found, Feb. 2013. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Gill 2014:599 [ref. 33487], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

magniscuttis, Epinephelus Postel [E.], Fourmanoir [P.] & Guézé [P.] 1963:365, Fig. 9 [Mémoires de l'Institut français d'Afrique Noire No. 68; ref. 5208] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 1962-1296. Paratypes: MNHN 1963-0037 (1) [not listed in original description]. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:15 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus magniscuttis Postel, Fourmanoir & Guézé 1963 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:527 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:192 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:182 [ref. 21042], Kramer et al. 1994:71 [ref. 21258], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:505 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:192 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2510 [ref. 24815], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:491 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:164 [ref. 28072], Hoese et al. 2006:1013 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:180 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Nakamura et al. 2018:226 [ref. 36354], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673], Johnson & Wilmer 2019:345 [ref. 36985], Bogorodsky et al. 2020:514 [ref. 38001], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:113 [ref. 37300], Akhilesh et al. 2021:52 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:61 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:81 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:679 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus magniscuttis Postel, Fourmanoir & Guézé 1963. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), southern Mozambique, Socotra (Yemen), Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Fiji and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to eastern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

magnus, Mugil chanos var. Forsskål [P. S.] in Niebuhr 1775:xiv, 74 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] No locality stated (İstanbul or İzmir, Turkey, eastern Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Name unavailable, as it is neither accompanied by an indication, a diagnosis or a description. Appeared as Mugil chanos magnus on p. xiv, and as Mugil chanos var. b on p. 74; both linked together by the species code '110b' (see Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]). Authorship according to Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. •Uncertain in genus Epinephelus -- (Fricke 2008:27 [ref. 30182]). Nomen Nudum. Epinephelidae.

malabaricus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:319, Pl. 63 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 190. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:137 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:236 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:182 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:786 [ref. 13676], Heemstra & Randall 1986:527 [ref. 5667], Daget & Smith 1986:303 [ref. 6204], Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:48 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:111 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601] with remarks on type, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:807 [ref. 20764], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Kuiter 1993:132 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:133 [ref. 22896], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:49 [ref. 26476], Machida et al. 1997:50 [ref. 25135], Randall et al. 1997:111 [ref. 25919], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:192 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2511 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:721 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:185 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:86 [ref. 25480], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:185 [ref. 25703], Sakai et al. 2001:94 [ref. 25693], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:721 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra 2004:3338 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:168 [ref. 28072], Larson & Pidgeon 2004:196 [ref. 28107], Golani 2005:36 [ref. 37112], Randall 2005:155 [ref. 28239], Randall 2005:159 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1014 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:89 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:182 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:276 [ref. 31980], Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:199 [ref. 34104], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Ali et al. 2018:319 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:103 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:187 [ref. 36495], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871] as cf. malabaricus, Bogorodsky et al. 2020:515 [ref. 38001], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:392 [ref. 37272], Golani 2021:41 [ref. 38303], Akhilesh et al. 2021:52 [ref. 38701], Kawano et al. 2021:5 [ref. 38470], Kovačić et al. 2021:77 [ref. 39014], Ogata et al. 2021:1 [ref. 38490], Heemstra 2022:62 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:82 [ref. 40522], Hasan et al. 2023:2209 [ref. 40412], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:680 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Tonga, north to southern Sea of Japan and Miyazaki Prefecture (southern Japan), south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia); Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: brackish, marine.

manca, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Klein) 1792:349 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated (probably Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia), No types known. Based on Percis pinnis quatuor ... of Klein 1749:43, pl. 8, fig. 3 [ref. 30141], a pre-Linnaean name. A forgotten name, but treated as a nomen oblitum to permit continued use of guoyanus as a nomen protectum (see Parenti 2003:496 [ref. 27322]). •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Parenti 2003:496 [ref. 27322], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]) Nomen Oblitum. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

margaritifer, Serranus Günther [A.] 1859:131 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] South America [probably Guyana]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2015.12.15.1. Also listed was Plate IX. fig. B, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." The figure apparently is Pl. 3B in Boulenger 1895 [ref. 537]. •Synonym of Epinephelus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:204 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:86 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

marginalis, Epinephelus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:14, Pl. 328 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] East India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5224 (right skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:135 [ref. 24282]. On p. 12 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. Holocentrus marginatus Lacepède 1802:384 [ref. 4929] is an incorrect subsequent spelling. Lacepède 1802:384 refers only to "Bloch, pl. 328, fig. 1." See Holocentrus marginatus Shaw 1803:566 [ref. 4014], an unjustified emendation and objective synonym of Epinephelus marginalis Bloch 1793. •Valid as Epinephelus marginalis Bloch 1793 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242]). •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227] as marginatus, Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:130 [ref. 22896], Randall 2005:156 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1011 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marginatus, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:331 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Brazil. No types known. Based on Pirati apua of Marcgrave 1648:158 and Bodianus apua Bloch. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

marginatus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:384 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Not available; an incorrect subsequent spelling of Epinephelus marginalis Bloch 1793 (see Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042]). Lacepède 1802 refers only to "Bloch, pl. 328, fig. 1." Bauchot et al. 1984:48 [ref. 19232] considered the name an unneeded replacement for Epinephelus marginalis Bloch 1793. Also see Holocentrus marginatus Shaw 1803. Misspelling. Epinephelidae.

marginatus, Holocentrus Shaw [G.] 1803:566 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] East India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5224 (right skin). An unjustified emendation and objective synonym of Epinephelus marginalis Bloch 1793. Shaw 1803 referred to "Epinephelus marginalis Bloch" but intentionally changed name to Holocentrus marginatus. Also see Holocentrus marginatus Lacepède 1802. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). Unjustified Emend.. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marginatus, Serranus Lowe [R. T.] 1834:142 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1833 (pt 1) (for 24 Dec.); ref. 2826] Off Madeira. Neotype: MMF 3388. Possible syntype: BMNH 1858.4.2.81 (1) [from Lowe]. Neotype designated by Heemstra 1991:39 [ref. 19323]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza [or gvaza] (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Valid as Mycteroperca marginata (Lowe 1834) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as marginatus). •Valid as Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:186 [ref. 21042], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:155 [ref. 25472], Grace et al. 1994:23 [ref. 25512], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:x [ref. 21953], Randall 1995:133 [ref. 22896], Louisy 1996:21 [ref. 22516], Santos et al. 1997:80 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:79 [ref. 24952], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:207 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:79 [ref. 26753], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808], Machado et al. 2003:133 [ref. 26945], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Luiz et al. 2004:1176 [ref. 27860], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:169 [ref. 28072], Golani 2005:36 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:80 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:30 [ref. 30263], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:42 [ref. 36649], Craig et al. 2011:185 [ref. 31786], Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2393 [ref. 34618], Nión et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35565], Reid et al. 2016:100 [ref. 36644], Martins & Carneiro 2018:124 [ref. 36550], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37509], Carneiro et al. 2019:244 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Reiner 2019:171 [ref. 38139], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717], Bariche & Fricke 2020:85 [ref. 37515], Béarez et al. 2020:252 [ref. 37874], Bogorodsky et al. 2020:515 [ref. 38001], Kovačić et al. 2020:41 [ref. 37519], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:52 [ref. 38701], Bañón & Maño 2021:81 [ref. 38887], Golani 2021:41 [ref. 38303], González-Lorenzo et al. 2021:148 [ref. 38374], Kovačić et al. 2021:77 [ref. 39014], Yağlıoğlu & Turan 2021:134 [ref. 38884], Fermon et al. 2022:288 [ref. 39448], Heemstra 2022:62 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:83 [ref. 40522], Carvalho-Filho 2023:117 [ref. 40480], Ceríaco et al. 2023:55 [ref. 40710], Hoff et al. 2023:6 [ref. 40463], He et al. 2024:3 [ref. 40897]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Espiritu Santo (Brazil) south to Argentina; Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; southern Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Angola, including Azores (Portugal), Madeira (Portugal), Canary Islands (Spain) and São Tomé and Principe; western Indian Ocean: Western Cape, Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) north to southern Mozambique, east to Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion); Socotra (Yemen); southern Oman; southern India. Hybridizes with Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Habitat: marine.

marisrubri, Plectropomus pessuliferus Randall [J. E.] & Hoese [D. F.] 1986:23, Pl. 3 (figs. b-c), 5 (figs. f-g) [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 13; ref. 6009] Dahab, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Holotype: BPBM 18146. Additional material examined (not labeled as paratypes): BPBM 18146 (1), 20817 (1); HUJ 4614 (1), 5061 (1), 9068 (1); LACM 33776-3 (1); NMW 42528 (1), 42574 (1); SMF 4503 (1), 8629 (1); USNM 13146 (1) •Synonym of Plectropomus pessuliferus Fowler 1904, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356], Randall 2005:166 [ref. 28239]). •Valid as Plectropomus marisrubri Randall & Hoese 1986 -- (DiBattista et al. 2015:19 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:65 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:92 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:75 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Plectropomus marisrubri Randall & Hoese 1986. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

marmoratus, Dermatolepis Osburn [R. C.] & Mowbray [L. L.] 1915:1, Fig. [New York Zoological Society Unnumbered publ.; ref. 12100] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): AMNH 4775. Was to have appeared also in Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society but did not appear there. •Synonym of Dermatolepis inermis (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:66 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:59 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Dermatolepis inermis (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

marmoratus, Plectropomus Talbot [F. H.] 1959:751, Pl. 21 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 1 (no. 11) [1958]; ref. 12033] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: BMNH 1959.7.16.1 [ex SAM 21533]. Paratypes: EAMFRO uncat. (1); SAM 21534-36 (1, 1, 1). •Synonym of Plectropomus punctatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:535 [ref. 5667], Randall & Hoese 1986:26 [ref. 6009], Randall & Heemstra 1991:297 [ref. 19601], Randall 1995:138 [ref. 22896], Fricke et al. 2018:156 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:93 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:76 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Plectropomus punctatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

marmoratus, Serranus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1884:5, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Die Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 2625] Red Sea. Holotype: ZMB 208 (not found). Randall & Heemstra 1991:201 [ref. 19601] treat as a nomen dubium, possibly with incorrect type locality, type not found. Nomen Dubium. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

mars, Serranus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:390 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 2); ref. 1090] Cardwell, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: not at QM. •Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:492 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:69 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:61 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1006 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

matterni, Epinephelus Fowler [H. W.] 1918:31, Fig. 13 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 70; ref. 1396] Philippines. Holotype: ANSP 47506. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

mauritianus, Epinephelus Baissac [J. de B.] 1962:188 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Arts and Science Mauritius v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 5776] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): NHMI uncat. •Synonym of Epinephelus retouti Bleeker 1868 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1986:51 [ref. 9721], Heemstra & Randall 1986:531 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:245 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:224 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:198 [ref. 24106], Randall 2005:162 [ref. 28239], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:69 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus retouti Bleeker 1868. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

mauritiiae, Serranus Gudger [E. W.] 1929:527 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 58 (art. 10); ref. 11184] Name on a drawing by Pike from Mauritius, not available, no description. •In the synonymy of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Fricke 1999:182 [ref. 24106] as mauritiae). •In the synonymy of Cephalopholis nigripinnis (Valenciennes 1828). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801). Epinephelidae.

medurensis, Serranus Günther [A.] 1873:8, Pl. 9 (fig. A) [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 14186] Maduro [Majuro], Marshall Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1873.4.3.243. •Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:189 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:181 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2509 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

megachir, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1846:230 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Coasts of China. Holotype: BMNH 1968.3.11.2 (skin). Type information: Whitehead 1970:212 [ref. 11606]. •Valid as Epinephelus megachir (Richardson 1846) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:49 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:51 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:113 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:240 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2518 [ref. 24815], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:87 [ref. 25480], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

melanocelidota, Perca Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:110 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique) (?): BMNH 1853.11.12.57 (skin). •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

melanoleucus, Bodianus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:283, 296 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7677 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:12 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Plectropomus melanoleucus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:190 [ref. 19756], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Plectropomus laevis (Lacepède 1801) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:535 [ref. 5667], Randall & Hoese 1986:12 [ref. 6009], Paxton et al. 1989:499 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:59 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:117 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:292 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:290 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:204 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2532 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:165 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Hoese et al. 2006:1021 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Parenti & Randall 2020:92 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:75 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Plectropomus laevis (Lacepède 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

melanometopon, Epinephelus flavocoeruleus var. Bleeker [P.] 1871:96 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 17077] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean; Mozambique. Description somewhat confused as to allocation to varieties melanometopon and xanthometopon. Based on specimens and literature sources. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

melanostigma, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:348, Fig. 54 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Reef off Swains Island, American Samoa. Holotype: USNM 115375. Paratypes: BMNH 1962.12.12.52 [ex USNM 115385] (1); FMNH 62614 [ex USNM 148966] (2); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 18870 [ex USNM 148966] (2); USNM 115374 (4), 115376 (18, ? now 17), 115385 (6, now 5), 148965 (5), 148966 (18, now 14), 148967-68 (2, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:35 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Epinephelus melanostigma Schultz 1953 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:528 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:49 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:202 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:189 [ref. 21042], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:193 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2544 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:725 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:725 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:160 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1014 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Craig et al. 2011:188 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:276 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:75 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:52 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:63 [ref. 39742], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:682 [ref. 40722], Tachibana & Endo 2023:22 [ref. 40968]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus melanostigma Schultz 1953. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa (Mozambique), Comoros, Madagascar, western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) and Chagos Archipelago east to Line Islands (Kiribati) and Cook Islands, north to Taiwan and southern Japan, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

melanotaenia, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1857:33 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Variola louti (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:305 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:304 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:94 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Variola louti (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Variola louti (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

melanurus, Bodianus Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1817:no page number, Pl. 21 (figs. 1-2) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4184] Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7409 (2), 0000-7410 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:12 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:112 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:51 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

melas, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:429 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] "Querimba-Inseln (Ibo)", Mozambique. Also described as new in Peters 1855:236 [ref. 13448]. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]) Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

meleagris, Sebastes Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1864:392 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1864; ref. 3437] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMB 198 (4). •Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:101 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:268 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:239 [ref. 21042], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Fabricius 1775) -- (Heemstra 2022:71 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mentzelii, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:291 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Coast of Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0137 (1), 7368 (1), A-5777 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:31 [ref. 19232]. For remarks on type see Heemstra 1991:37 [ref. 19323]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:2 [ref. 24110], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

merou, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:337, 377 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality. No types known. New name for Perca gigas Brünnich 1768. Unused senior synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834); name should be suppressed by ICZN (Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). •Status uncertain -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323]). •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza [or gvaza] (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget & Smith 1986:302 [ref. 6204], Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •In synonymy of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Nomen Oblitum. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

merra, Epinephelus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:17, Pl. 329 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Japan Sea [probably Indian Ocean]; Ostindien [Indonesia]. Lectotype: ZMB 8716 (right skin). Paralectotypes: ZMB (3, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:135 [ref. 24282]. On p. 15 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:214 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:528 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:49 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:111 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:205 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:191 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:130 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:238 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:50 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:110 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:111 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:193 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2512 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:725 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:186 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:87 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:725 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:53 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576] as Bloch 1790, Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:160 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:347 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1014 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Caratini & Soriano 2011:53 [ref. 39915], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:191 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:277 [ref. 31980], Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Koeda et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:319 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Parenti & Randall 2020:75 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:392 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:52 [ref. 38701], Kovačić et al. 2021:77 [ref. 39014], Mochizuki et al. 2021:48 [ref. 38974], Dewa et al. 2022:17 [ref. 40001], Farhana-Azmi et al. 2022:7 [ref. 40448], Heemstra 2022:63 [ref. 39742], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:682 [ref. 40722], Murase et al. 2023:39 [ref. 40935], Noushad K. et al. 2024:45 [ref. 40947]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Persian Gulf, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Wake Atoll and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island (Australia), New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

merus, Centropristis Poey [F.] 1868:288 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Matanzas, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus nigritus (Holbrook 1855) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:201 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus nigritus (Holbrook 1855) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:85 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus nigritus (Holbrook 1855). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

merus, Perca Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:7 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly an unpublished work. See also Perca merus Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Machado 1857 [ref. 17320]. •In genus Epinephelus Bloch 1793. •Incertae sedis, nomen nudum -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:130 [ref. 37354]). Nomen Nudum. Epinephelidae.

merus, Perca Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Machado 1857:24 [Catálogo de los peces que habitán ó frecuentan las costas de Cadiz y Huelva con inclusion de los del Rio Guadalquivir.; ref. 17320] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only; not available. Name from Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:7 [ref. 17319], possibly an unpublished work. Also appeared as name only in Graells 1887:181 [ref. 30438]. •In genus Epinephelus Bloch 1793. Nomen Nudum. Epinephelidae.

microdon, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1856:86 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 16856] Ora Malang, southeastern Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 5510 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus microdon (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:528 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Chen et al. 1997:50 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849) -- (Randall et al. 1990:112 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:231 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:214 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2516 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:161 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Hoese et al. 2006:1016 [ref. 28999], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Trisotropis Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1879:141 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 74); ref. 18134] Western Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 5137 (2). •Valid as Mycteroperca microlepis (Goode & Bean 1879) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:135 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:134 [ref. 36591], Boschung 1992:108 [ref. 23239], Heemstra & Randall 1993:269 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:38 [ref. 25512], Murdy et al. 1997:258 [ref. 23144], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:214 [ref. 25013], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Heemstra et al. 2003:1357 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192] dated 1880, Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:168 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:92 [ref. 37265], Craig et al. 2011:306 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354], Carvalho-Filho 2023:120 [ref. 40480]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca microlepis (Goode & Bean 1879). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Massachusetts (U.S.A.) south to Yucatan (Mexico), including Gulf of Mexico;Santa Catarina (Brazil). Habitat: brackish, marine.

microleptes, Eteles (Uriphaeton) Swainson [W.] 1839:202 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7173 (dry). Based on Cuv. Pl. 34, which is Serranus phaeton. Unneeded new name for and objective synonym of Serranus phaeton Valenciennes 1828. •A hoax; body is a Serranus, with tail of Fistularia artificially attached! •See Heemstra & Randall 1993:26 [ref. 21042]. Epinephelidae.

micronotatus, Serranus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:90 [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype: SMF 2001. •Synonym of Anyperodon leucogrammicus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Dor 1984:95 [ref. 29757] as micronottatus, Randall & Heemstra 1991:23 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:23 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2475 [ref. 24815], Golani & Fricke 2018:60 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:50 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Anyperodon leucogrammicus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

microprion, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1852:552 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 16834] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 5476 or 5467. Paralectotypes: RMNH 31257 [ex RMNH 5476 or 5467] (2). Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19601]. •Valid as Cephalopholis microprion (Bleeker 1852) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:102 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:52 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:48 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Machida et al. 1997:48 [ref. 25135], Randall et al. 1997:102 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2541 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall & Satapoomin 2000:7 [ref. 25340], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:49 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:149 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1005 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:36 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:263 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:113 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:383 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:49 [ref. 38701], Nakamura in Motomura et al. 2021:19 [ref. 38121]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis microprion (Bleeker 1852). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar, Andaman Sea and Indonesia east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to Philippines, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

microps, Trisotropis Poey [F.] 1955:115 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 22481] No types known. Trisotropis no. 171 of Poey 1875 [ref. 3509]. Posthumous publication. Also appeared in Poey 1962:25 [ref. 26395] and 2000:43 [ref. 26366] with figures in atlas. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Poey 2000:902 [ref. 26366], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

miliaris, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:520 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7547. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-7641 (1), 0000-7642 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:31 [ref. 19232]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Ben-Tuvia 1983:407 [ref. 8284]. Based on a specimen collected by Commerson, and a description and specimen provided by Quoy & Gaimard from New Guinea. •Valid as Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:528 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Randall & Heemstra 1991:209 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:193 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Adam et al. 1998:12 [ref. 23610], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:194 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2544 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:724 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:724 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:160 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:347 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:119 [ref. 28745], Hoese et al. 2006:1014 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:194 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:277 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354], Wu et al. 2020:134 [ref. 37525], Akhilesh et al. 2021:52 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:64 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa (Mozambique, Tanzania), Seychelles, Aldabra (Seychelles), Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (Mauritius) east to Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands (Japan), south to northern Australia and Fiji. Habitat: marine.

miltostigma, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1873:45 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 7; ref. 433] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5508. •Questionably a synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:36 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:35 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

miniata, Perca Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xi, 41 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; [Lohajæ] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMUC P43567 (1, dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:61 [ref. 9588]. Surviving syntype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965: Pl. 9 [ref. 20847] as holotype. Cephalopholis is feminine, so miniata is correct. Lecteotype designated by Fricke 2008:27. •Valid as Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:168 [ref. 19754] as miniatus, Kyushin et al. 1977:182 [ref. 19756] as miniatus, Dor 1984:96 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441] as miniatus, Heemstra & Randall 1986:518 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:23 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:29 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:103 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:24 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:126 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:228 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:104 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:103 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:178 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:729 [ref. 25471] as miniatus, Heemstra & Randall 1999:2480 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268] as miniatus, Nakabo 2000:712 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:178 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:712 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003: [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:163 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:150 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1005 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:84 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:95 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Ho & Shao 2011: 42 [ref. 31432], Craig et al. 2011:37 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:263 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:98 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:145 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:61 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:106 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:113 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:383 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:49 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:42 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:66 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:663 [ref. 40722], Murase et al. 2023:39 [ref. 40935]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Aldabra (Seychelles), Comoros, Madagascar, Agalega Islands (Mauritius) and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Line Islands, Fiji and Tonga, north to Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

miniatus, Lutjanus Suckow [G. A.] 1799:539 [Naturgeschichte der Thiere v. 4, pt. 1; ref. 18858] New combination for Perca miniata Forsskål 1775; not an original description. •In the synonymy of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae.

moara, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:10, Pl. 4 (fig. 2 [not 1]) [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D72 (dry). Paralectotypes: RMNH D70 and D71 (2, dry), 181 (1, dry?); ZMB 5215 [ex RMNH] (1, dry). Originally as mo-ara, correction mandatory. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:28 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793 -- (Lee 1990:39 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:108 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:119 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2490 [ref. 24815], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:82 [ref. 25480] as mo-ara). •Valid as Epinephelus moara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura et al. 1985:475, 671 [ref. 8056], Liu et al. 2013:1684 [ref. 32705], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354], Sonoyama et al. 2020:54 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus moara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: South China Sea to Japan. Habitat: marine.

modestus, Epinephelus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1909:218 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 3, no. 5); ref. 1650] Durban market, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 10446. •Synonym of Epinephelus chabaudi (Castelnau 1861) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:523 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:114 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:124 [ref. 21042], Heemstra 2022:52 [ref. 39742]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus chabaudi (Castelnau 1861) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:84 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus chabaudi (Castelnau 1861). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

monacanthus, Plectropoma Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] in Schomburgk 1848:665 [13] [The history of Barbados; comprising a geographical description of the island and an account of its geology and natural productions.; ref. 17812] Barbados, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ZMB 292. Appeared first as above; reprinted in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1848:13. •Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:20 [ref. 21042], Craig et al. 2006:329 [ref. 29772], Parenti & Randall 2020:49 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

morio, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:285 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] New York; Santo Domingo [= Dominican Republic]. Syntypes: MNHN (1, not found) New York, MNHN A-7675 (1, dry) Santo Domingo. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:31 [ref. 19232] with A.7675 as paratype. •Valid as Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:301 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:133 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:109 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:332 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:106 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:428 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:195 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:24 [ref. 25512], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:265 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:208 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466] with question, Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Heemstra et al. 2003:1344 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:147 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:30 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:196 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:39 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:519 [ref. 38945], Carvalho-Filho 2023:117 [ref. 40480], Ceríaco et al. 2023:54 [ref. 40710], Hoff et al. 2023:6 [ref. 40463]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) (strays) and Bermuda south to Santa Catarina (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; possibly eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

morrhua, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:434 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7431. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:31 [ref. 19232]. Based on specimen and manuscript description sent by Desjardins (Julien Desjardins, 1799-1840, French zoologist). •Valid as Mycteroperca morrhua (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Epinephelus morrhua (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:200 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:529 [ref. 5667], Randall & Klausewitz 1986:234 [ref. 11513], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:50 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:211 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:196 [ref. 21042], Kramer et al. 1994:71 [ref. 21258], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:238 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:505 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:195 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2513 [ref. 24815], Mishra et al. 1999:85 [ref. 25315], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:716 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:491 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:716 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Shinohara et al. 2005:430 [ref. 28370], Hoese et al. 2006:1015 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:198 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:199 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36673], Bogorodsky et al. 2020:517 [ref. 38001], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:53 [ref. 38701], Kawano et al. 2021:11 [ref. 38469], Heemstra 2022:65 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:84 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:682 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus morrhua (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: Kwa Zulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Socotra (Yemen), Aldabra (Seychelles), Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Cook Islands, north to Sea of Japan (Japan), south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia, Tonga and Tuamotu Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

multiguttatum, Plectropoma Günther [A.] 1867:600 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866 (pt 3); ref. 1984] Panama. Holotype: BMNH 1866.1.14.3. •Valid as Alphestes multiguttatus (Günther 1867) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:22 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:107 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:92 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1579 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:275 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:314 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:349 [ref. 24555], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:204 [ref. 25013], Thomson et al. 2000:79 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:126 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:109 [ref. 37547], Craig et al. 2006:327 [ref. 29772], Craig et al. 2011:8 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:397 [ref. 34894], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544], Parenti & Randall 2020:50 [ref. 37354], Love et al. 2021:145 [ref. 39279], Siccha-Ramirez et al. 2023:306 [ref. 40816], Vela-Espinosa et al. 2023:9 [ref. 40981]). Current status: Valid as Alphestes multiguttatus (Günther 1867). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico) south to northern Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico), Cocos Island (Costa Rica) and Malpelo Island (Colombia). Habitat: marine.

multinotatus, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1876:435 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 18495] Mauritius [Île aux Fouquets, 8 kilometers east of Mahébourg] Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ZMB 9452. Type information: Cao et al. 2022:5 [ref. 39784]. Type locality see Möbius 1880 [ref. 30489]. Several SAIAB and ZMUA specimens erroneously listed as paratypes by Cao et al. 2022:10 [ref. 39784]. •Valid as Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:529 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Randall & Heemstra 1991:213 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:198 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:134 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:145 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:195 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2545 [ref. 24815], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:166 [ref. 28072], Hoese et al. 2006:1015 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Craig et al. 2011:200 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:277 [ref. 31980], Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:199 [ref. 34104] as cf. multinotatus, Ali et al. 2018:319 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:109 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:392 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:53 [ref. 38701], Cao et al. 2022:10 [ref. 39784], Heemstra 2022:65 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:85 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:683 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa (Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya), Persian Gulf, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Aldabra (Seychelles), Comoros, Madagascar, Saint Brandon's Shoals (Cargados Carajos) and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to India and Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

multipunctatus, Serranus celebicus var. Kossmann [R.] & Räuber [H.] 1877:382 [Verhandlungen des Naturhistorisch-Medizinischen Vereins zu Heidelberg. v. 1; ref. 18432] Red Sea. Syntypes: (7) SMF 14349 (1). Also appeared in Kossmann & Räuber 1877:6 [ref. 14246]. •Synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:117 [ref. 19601] with comments on a syntype, Heemstra & Randall 1993:127 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Randall et al. 2013:527 [ref. 32685], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:57 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

myriaster, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:365 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Bora Bora, Society Islands; Hawaiian Islands. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7218 (1) Bora Bora, 0000-7219 (1) Hawaiian Is. [probably in error]. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:32 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Dor 1984:96 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:34 [ref. 21042], Mundy 2005:344 [ref. 28379], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

mystacinus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1852:52, 59, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 3497] Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 9991. Paratypes: MCZ 10009 (1) Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:190 [ref. 22926] with a holotype. Published April 1852. Records from Japan are based on E. octofasciatus -- (Heemstra et al. 2003:1345 [ref. 27060]). •Valid as Epinephelus mystacinus (Poey 1852) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:172 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:132 [ref. 6441], Robins & Ray 1986:134 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:114 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:333 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:429 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:200 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:27 [ref. 25512], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:321 [ref. 24023], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:209 [ref. 25013], Lopes et al. 2000:87 [ref. 40244], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1345 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:148 [ref. 28815], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957] as mysticinus). •Valid as Hyporthodus mystacinus (Poey 1852) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:274 [ref. 31786], Kumar et al. 2012:115 [ref. 32541], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:40 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248], Parenti & Randall 2020:85 [ref. 37354], Carvalho-Filho 2023:119 [ref. 40480]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus mystacinus (Poey 1852). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Espirito Santo (Brazil); eastern Pacific: Cocos Island, Paramount Seamount, Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) and coastal Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

nadjil, Perca miniata var. Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:339 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Red Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti 2003:499 [ref. 27322], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

nebulosa, Cerna Cocco [A.] 1884:gen. 45, sp. 2 [Naturalista Siciliano [Il Naturalista Siciliano, Giornale di scienze naturali] v. 4; ref. 4874] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

nebulosus, Centropristis Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:5, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7821 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:13 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith 1990:702 [ref. 18227], Heemstra 1991:57 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:284 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:91 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

nebulosus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:313 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] No locality. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7421 (dry skin). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:32 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:25 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:122 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:130 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Golani 1993:383 [ref. 22373], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:53 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nebulosus, Terranus Cocco [A.] 1833:20 [Giornale di Scienze Lettere e Arti per La Sicilia v. 42 (no. 124); ref. 859] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. The original genus is correctly Serranus. Attributed by Cocco to Cuvier and perhaps not intended as a new species; preoccupied by Serranus nebulosus Valenciennes 1828. •Questionably a synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:275 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Uncertain as Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

nigri, Serranus Günther [A.] 1859:112 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Niger River mouth. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1847.4.4.5. Also listed was Plate IX. fig. A, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." The figure apparently is Pl. 3A in Boulenger 1895 [ref. 537]. •Valid as Cephalopholis nigri (Günther 1859) -- (Daget & Smith 1986:299 [ref. 6204], Heemstra 1991:11 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:695 [ref. 18227], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:665 [ref. 21590], Heemstra & Randall 1993:51 [ref. 21042], Poll & Gosse 1995:123 [ref. 24781], Afonso et al. 1999:72 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:40 [ref. 31786], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2384 [ref. 34618], Vella et al. 2016:1 [ref. 35106], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37509], Carneiro et al. 2019:242 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:167 [ref. 38139], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354], González-Lorenzo et al. 2021:145 [ref. 38374], Fermon et al. 2022:287 [ref. 39448]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis nigri (Günther 1859). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea: Malta; eastern Atlantic: Canary Islands; Senegal south to Angola, including Madeira (Portugal), Canary Islands (Spain), and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nigriceps, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:517 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] No locality. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7393. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:32 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354], •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:37 [ref. 38901]).). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

nigriculus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:375 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Martinique; Antilles; Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic; Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7275 (1) Martinique, 0000-7276 (1) Santo Domingo [=Dominican Republic]; ZMB 241 [ex MNHN] (1) Santo Domingo. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:32 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354], •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:37 [ref. 38901]).). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

nigripinnis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:339 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] No locality [probably Indian Ocean]. Syntypes: MNHN A-5733 (2, dry skins, left side). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:32 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Randall et al. 1990:104 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:69 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:61 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:181 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2483 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:152 [ref. 28239]). •Valid as Cephalopholis nigripinnis (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:518 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:23 [ref. 13251], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Allen & Erdmann 2012:264 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:49 [ref. 38701], Durville et al. 2021:311 [ref. 38802], Heemstra 2022:43 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis nigripinnis (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Aliwal Shoal and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Andaman Sea and Christmas Island (eastern Indian Ocean). Habitat: marine.

nigritus, Serranus Holbrook [J. E.] 1855:177, Pl. 25 (fig. 2) [Ichthyology of South Carolina; ref. 2184] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 13468. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621]. Also appeared in second edition, 1860:173, Pl. 25 (fig. 2). •Valid as Epinephelus nigritus (Holbrook 1855) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:299 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:134 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:116 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:333 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:106 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:429 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:201 [ref. 21042], Bussing & López S. 1994:92 [ref. 23101], Grace et al. 1994:28 [ref. 25512], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:264 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:210 [ref. 25013], Musick et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24959], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Heemstra et al. 2003:1346 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:149 [ref. 28815]). •Valid as Hyporthodus nigritus (Holbrook 1855) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:276 [ref. 32786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36103], Parenti & Randall 2020:85 [ref. 37354], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:521 [ref. 38945], Carvalho-Filho 2023:118 [ref. 40480], Martínez-Servín et al. 2023:117 [ref. 40726]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus nigritus (Holbrook 1855). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) south to São Paulo (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

nigrofasciatus, Serranus Hombron [J. B.] & Jacquinot [H.] in Jacquinot & Guichenot 1853:36, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Voyage au Pôle Sud et dans l'Oceanie v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 18307] No locality. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:47 [ref. 19232]. Originally nigro-fasciatus. •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:39 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:37 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

niphobles, Epinephelus Gilbert [C. H.] & Starks [E. C.] in Gilbert 1897:442 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 19 (no. 1115); ref. 1629] Magdalena Bay, Baja California, Mexico, 24°35'30"N, 112°05'W, Albatross station 3041. Holotype (unique): USNM 47582. •Valid as Epinephelus niphobles Gilbert & Starks 1897 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:203 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:109 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:92 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1596 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:323 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:354 [ref. 24555], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:211 [ref. 25013], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:121 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:83 [ref. 25640], Heemstra et al. 2003:1347 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:111 [ref. 37547], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:397 [ref. 34894]). •Valid as Hyporthodus niphobles (Gilbert & Starks 1897) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:278 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Kells et al. 2016:226 [ref. 35888], Robertson et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35676], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248], Burton & Lea 2019:73 [ref. 37205], Parenti & Randall 2020:85 [ref. 37354], Walker et al. 2020:4 [ref. 37499], Love et al. 2021:146 [ref. 39279], Siccha-Ramirez et al. 2023:321 [ref. 40816], Vela-Espinosa et al. 2023:9 [ref. 40981]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus niphobles (Gilbert & Starks 1897). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: central California (U.S.A.) south to Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico) and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

niveatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:380 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7318 to 0000-7319 (2, 2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:32 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:197 [ref. 9277], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:302 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:134 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:364 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:138 [ref. 14674], Bullock & Smith 1991:118 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:334 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:107 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:429 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:204 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:29 [ref. 25512], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:210 [ref. 25013], Musick et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24959], Thomson et al. 2000:84 [ref. 25640], Heemstra et al. 2003:1347 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], Dennis et al. 2004:74 [ref. 31601], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:150 [ref. 28815]). •Valid as Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:280 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:171 [ref. 32953], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Nión et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35565] as Hyportodus, Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717], Klautau et al. 2020:9 [ref. 37903], Parenti & Randall 2020:86 [ref. 37354], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:522 [ref. 38945], Carvalho-Filho 2023:118 [ref. 40480], Ceríaco et al. 2023:56 [ref. 40710], Hoff et al. 2023:6 [ref. 40463]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) south to Uruguay, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

obtusauris, Cephalopholis Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1907:77, Fig. 12 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 607) (for 1906); ref. 1285] Bacon, Sorsogon, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 55910. •Valid as Cephalopholis obtusauris Evermann & Seale 1907 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:165 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441] as obtusaurus). •Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantius (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:36 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:35 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

oceanicus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:345, 389, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] [Grand Océan] Indo-West Pacific, Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Commerson specimens: MNHN A-5734 (2) Mauritius, 7295 (1) Mauritius. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:49 [ref. 20740], Bauchot et al. 1984:16 [ref. 19232]. Based on description and illustration in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Epinephelus oceanicus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:152 [ref. 35805]). •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:184 [ref. 24106], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:55 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Mozambique channel, Mascarenes, etc. [if valid]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

octocinctus, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:7, Pl. 4A (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 123. Paralectotypes: RMNH 124 (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:23 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Epinephelus septemfasciatus (Thunberg 1793) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:250 [ref. 19601]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus septemfasciatus (Thunberg 1793) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:86 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus septemfasciatus (Thunberg 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

octofasciatus, Epinephelus Griffin [L. T.] 1926:540, Pl. 95 [Transactions of the New Zealand Institute v. 56; ref. 15589] Arid Island, off the northeastern coast of Great Barrier Island, Auckland District, New Zealand. Holotype (unique): AIM MA 259. Trnski personal communication (12/1/2017) on type status. •Valid as Epinephelus octofasciatus Griffin 1926 -- (Paulin et al. 1989:175 [ref. 24556], Randall & Heemstra 1991:217 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:206 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:x [ref. 21953], Kuiter 1993:133 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Carpenter et al. 1997:145 [ref. 23922], Adam et al. 1998:12 [ref. 23610], Fricke 1999:196 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2545 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:714 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:714 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Hoese et al. 2006:1015 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:113 [ref. 36167], Roberts 2015:1187 [ref. 34193], Koeda et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35333], Sonoyama et al. 2020:55 [ref. 37637]). •Valid as Hyporthodus octofasciatus (Griffin 1926) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:282 [ref. 31786], Kumar et al. 2012:113 [ref. 32541], Psomadakis et al. 2015:201 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:154 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:109 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:121 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:86 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:54 [ref. 38701], Koeda et al. 2021:6 [ref. 38857], Heemstra 2022:73 [ref. 39742], Moore et al. 2022:11 [ref. 39791], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:689 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus octofasciatus (Griffin 1926). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Gulf of Aden, Persian Gulf, Socotra (Yemen), Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia), north to Japan, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), New Caledonia, northern New Zealand, Kermadec Islands and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

okinawae, Gracila Katayama [M.] 1974:102, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the Faculty of Education Yamaguchi University v. 24 (pt 2); ref. 7257] Naha, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: Katayama Fish Coll. 5180 (apparently lost). •Synonym of Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1988:18 [ref. 9299], Randall & Heemstra 1991:58 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:54 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

olfax, Serranus Jenyns [L.] 1840:9, Pl. 4 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7..25.7 (left half skin). •Valid as Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns 1840) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:270 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:110 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1600 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:324 [ref. 24023], Béarez & Jiménez Prado 2003:108 [ref. 37318], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:309 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns 1840). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: continental Ecuador, and Cocos Island, Malpelo Island and Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

oligacanthus, Plectropoma Bleeker [P.] 1855:422 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 3); ref. 16941] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 5513. Paralectotypes: ?BMNH 1880.4.21.45 (1). Lectotype selected by Randall & Hoese 1986:21 [ref. 6009]. •Valid as Plectropomus oligacanthus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Randall & Hoese 1986:20 [ref. 6009], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477] as oligocanthus, Paxton et al. 1989:500 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:119 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:296 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:295 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:245 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977] as oligocanthus, Chen et al. 1997:40 [ref. 26476] dated 1845, Randall et al. 1997:119 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:116 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2535 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Hoese et al. 2006:1022 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:342 [ref. 31786], dated 1854, Allen & Erdmann 2012:284 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:64 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:122 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:92 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Plectropomus oligacanthus (Bleeker 1855). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to Marshall and Solomon islands, north to Sabah (Malaysia) and Philippines, south to Western Australia and Cape York (Queensland, Australia). Habitat: marine.

oligosticta, Cephalopholis Randall [J. E.] & Ben-Tuvia [A.] 1983:386, Pl. 1 (fig. D) [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 33 (no. 2); ref. 8284] South side of entrance to Port Sudan about 100 meters from end of jetty, Sudan, Red Sea, depth 40 meters. Holotype: BPBM 19709. Paratypes: BMNH 1981.4.6.1 (1); BPBM 20401 (1), 20837 (1); CAS 47921 (1); HUJ 10440 (1), 10543 (1); MNHN 1981-0720 (1); NMW 39259 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 513 (1); SMF 8618 (1); USNM 226618 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:14 [ref. 19232], Golani 2006:25 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Cephalopholis oligosticta Randall & Ben-Tuvia 1983 -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:56 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:52 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Craig et al. 2011:43 [ref. 31786], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[16] 254 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:61 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:49 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:43 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis oligosticta Randall & Ben-Tuvia 1983. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

ongus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:69, Pl. 234 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Japan [erroneous, is Java, Indonesia]. Lectotype: ZMB 5533 (right skin). Paralectotypes: ZMB 5214 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:137 [ref. 24282]. Genus spelled Holoncentrus in text. On p. 52 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. See Randall & Heemstra 1991:199-200 [ref. 19601] but with a holotype and wrong number. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:137 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:529 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:490 [ref. 25598], Randall et al. 1990:112 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:219 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:239 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Machida et al. 1997:52 [ref. 25135], Kuiter 1997:110 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:112 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2514 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:716 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:186 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Sakai et al. 2001:94 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:716 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:53 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:161 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1016 [ref. 28999], Craig 2007:81 [ref. 29774], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:89 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:202 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:278 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:62 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:152 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:393 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:53 [ref. 38701], Farhana-Azmi et al. 2022:7 [ref. 40448], Heemstra 2022:66 [ref. 39742], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:683 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa (Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya), Seychelles, Comoros and Madagascar east to Marshall Islands, Fiji and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ordinatus, Epinephelus Cope [E. D.] 1871:466 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): ANSP 13457. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:156 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns 1840) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:173 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns 1840). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

osbeck, Trachinus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1800:353, 364 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 2; ref. 2709] Ascension Island. No types known. Unecessary replacement name for Trachinus adscensionis Osbeck 1765. Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:247, 262 [ref. 30473]. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:37 [ref. 38901]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

ouatalibi, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:381 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7257 (1) and 0000-7258 (1) Martinique, A-5746 (1, dry) and A-5778 (1, dry) Martinique, A-7677 (1, dry) and A-7717 (1, dry) St. Thomas. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:33 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

oxyptera, Corvina DeKay [J. E.] 1842:77, Pl. 30 (fig. 96) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York coast, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): Cabinet of Lyceum of N.Y. (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith 1990:702 [ref. 18227], Heemstra 1991:57 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:284 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:91 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

pachycentron, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:295 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] No locality [= East Indies]. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7432 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:33 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Cephalopholis pachycentron (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:161 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Chen et al. 1997:43 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenack (Bloch 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:490 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:39 [ref. 19601], Randall et al. 1990:101 [ref. 15987], Heemstra & Randall 1993:37 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:77 [ref. 25480], Hoese et al. 2006:1004 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2018:145 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:40 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

panamensis, Serranus Steindachner [F.] 1876:551 [1], Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 18772] (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: (several) NMW 40730 (1). On p. 1 of separate. •Valid as Epinephelus panamensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:53 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:109 [ref. 22193], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545]). •Valid as Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1580 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:334 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:82 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:110 [ref. 37547], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:45 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354], Love et al. 2021:145 [ref. 39279], Siccha-Ramirez et al. 2023:308 [ref. 40816], Vela-Espinosa et al. 2023:9 [ref. 40981]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner 1876). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern tip of Baja California Sur (Mexico) south to northern Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico) and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

pantherinus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:345, 389 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality stated [Fort Dauphin, Madagascar] No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:49 [ref. 20740], Bauchot et al. 1984:41-42 [ref. 19232]. Figured in Lacepède 1801:Pl. 27 (fig. 3) [ref. 2710] but with vernacular name. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:200 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:269 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:387 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:241 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:199 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2018:153 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775) -- (Heemstra 2022:71 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

pardalis, Mycteroperca Gilbert [C. H.] 1892:551 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 880); ref. 1626] La Paz Bay, Baja California, Mexico, Gulf of California. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rosacea (Streets 1877) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:274 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1602 [ref. 22830], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca rosacea (Streets 1877). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

pardalis, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1848:635 [Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (Singapore) v. 2 (no. 9); ref. 315] Bima, Sumbawa Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia.; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes and/or Bleeker specimens: AMS B.8324 (1), SMNS 10636 (3 syntypes) Java. Type catalog: Fricke 1991:19 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:59 [ref. 29864] dated 1849. •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:240 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

parkinsonii, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:329 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:47 [ref. 19232]. Based on a Parkinson drawing. •Synonym of Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:166 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:165 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

percacaroli, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1938:88 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. See also Curtiss 1844:8 [ref. 12574] where this species is replaced by Anthias faroa and A. tearlachi. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830) -- (Fowler 1949:85 [ref. 1462], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

perguttatus, Serranus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:445 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 1089] New Hebrides [Vanuatu]. Holotype (?): QM I.497. The alleged holotype is a specimen of Cephalopholis urodeta and differs form the description of De Vis which is of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) suggesting a specimen switch (Randall & Heemstra 1991:55 [ref. 19601]). •Questionably a synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

perplexus, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.], Hoese [D. F.] & Last [P. R.] in Randall & Heemstra 1991:222, Fig. 116 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 20; ref. 19601] 36.5 miles northeast of Cape Moreton, Queensland, Australia, depth 70-75 fathoms. Holotype (unique): AMS E.2116. Replacement name for Epinephelus thompsoni Whitley 1948, secondarily preoccupied by Stereolepoides thompsoni Fowler 1923 when both are in Epinephelus. •Valid as Epinephelus perplexus Randall, Hoese & Last 1991 -- (Randall et al. 1993:30 [ref. 21004], Heemstra & Randall 1993:210 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2545 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1016 [ref. 28999]). •Incertae sedis in Hyporthodus -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046]). •Valid as Hyporthodus perplexus (Randall, Hoese & Last 1991) -- (Craig et al. 2011:285 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis, Parenti & Randall 2020:86 [ref. 37354], Moore et al. 2022:14 [ref. 39791]). Replacement Name. Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus perplexus (Randall, Hoese & Last 1991). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southern Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

peruanus, Epinephelus Chirichigno F. [N.] 1963:44, Fig. 37 B [Serie de Divulgación Cientifica, Servicio de Pesquería, Ministerio de Agricultura, Lima, No. 22; ref. 4500] Puerto Pizarro, Peru. Holotype: MHNJP [= MUSM] P 1173. Paratypes: ?MHNJP [SP 537] (1). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus niphobles Gilbert & Starks 1897 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:203 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Epinephelus niphobles Gilbert & Starks 1897 -- (Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1596 [ref. 22830]). •Valid as Epinephelus peruanus Chirichigno F. 1963 -- (Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:359 [ref. 24555]). •Valid as Hyporthodus peruanus (Chirichigno F. 1963) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:86 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus peruanus (Chirichigno F. 1963). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Peru. Habitat: marine.

pessuliferum, Plectropoma Fowler [H. W.] 1904:520, Pl. 17 (upper fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia [eastern Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27546. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:156 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Plectropomus pessuliferus (Fowler 1904) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:535 [ref. 5667], Randall & Hoese 1986:22 [ref. 6009], Winterbottom et al. 1989:27 [ref. 13251], Randall & Heemstra 1991:296 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:296 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2536 [ref. 24815], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:166 [ref. 28239], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:92 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:344 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:284 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:156 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 22 [ref. 38321], Parenti & Randall 2020:93 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:396 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:55 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:76 [ref. 39742], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:690 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Plectropomus pessuliferus (Fowler 1904). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Mozambique Channel, Madagascar and Saint Brandon's Shoals (Cargados Carajos) east to Fiji and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

petrosus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:136 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

phaenistomus, Serranus Swainson [W.] 1839:201 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] No types known. Based on Rüppell 1830:Pl. 26 (fig. 2) [ref. 3843], but perhaps an error because Variola longipinns Swainson on the next page is based on the same figure. •Synonym of Variola louti (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:305 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:304 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:94 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Variola louti (Fabricius 1775) -- (Heemstra 2022:78 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Variola louti (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

phaeostigmaeus, Serranus Fowler [H. W.] 1907:255, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 59; ref. 1376] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: ANSP 13463. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:156 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Mundy 2005:347 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

phenax, Mycteroperca falcata var. Jordan [D. S.] & Swain [J.] 1884:363 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 447); ref. 9337] Key West and Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: BMNH 1884.7.7.187 (1), USNM 34992 (1). •Valid as Mycteroperca phenax Jordan & Swain 1884 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:135 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:141 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:348 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:108 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:432 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:271 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:39 [ref. 25512], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Heemstra et al. 2003:1358 [ref. 27060], Morato et al. 2004:281 [ref. 27533], Smith et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:169 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:311 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Carneiro et al. 2019:245 [ref. 37250], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:525 [ref. 38945], Carvalho-Filho 2023:121 [ref. 40480]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca phenax Jordan & Swain 1884. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to northern Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Azores. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pinguis, Paranthias Walford [L. A.] 1936:2 [Occasional Papers of the Santa Barbara Museum v. 4; ref. 13272] Guaymas, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 100980. Paratypes: USNM 10167 (1). •Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith 1990:702 [ref. 18227]). •Valid as Paranthias pinguis Walford 1936 -- (Grove & Lavenberg 1997:329 [ref. 24023]). •Synonym of Paranthias colonus (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:283 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1610 [ref. 22830], Thomson et al. 2000:97 [ref. 25640], Parenti & Randall 2020:91 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis colonus (Valenciennes 1846). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis colonus (Valenciennes 1846). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

pirapixanga, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:339, 380 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Brazil. As pira-pixangua on p. 380. Unneeded replacement name for Holocentrus punctatus Bloch 1790. •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Fricke et al. 2021:37 [ref. 38901]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

piscis, Chrysomelanus Plumier [C.] in Lacepède 1802:160 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Not available, name only. Nomen Nudum. Epinephelidae.

pixanga, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:383 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:47 [ref. 19232]. New name for Holocentrus punctatus Bloch 1790:88, pl. 241. On Pira pixanga of Markgraf von Liebstadt 1648: 152, fig. on p. 153 [ref. 30347]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:38 [ref. 38901]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

playfairi, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1879:2 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Amsterdam) v. 18; ref. 17121] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Spelled playfairi on p. 1, playfayri in main heading on p. 2 and on p. 11; apparently named for Playfair; eariest first reviser apparently Fricke 1999:183 [ref. 24106]. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:183 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:69 [ref. 19601] as playfayri, Fricke 1999:182 [ref. 24106] as playfayri and playfairi, Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis nigripinnis (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra 2022:43 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis nigripinnis (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

plumierii, Lutjanus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:192, 235 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Antilles, western Atlantic. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1981:38 [ref. 21549]. Unneeded new name for Anthias striatus Bloch 1792:Pl. 324. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

poecilonotus, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:6, Pl. 4A (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D75 (dry). Paralectotypes: RMNH 176 (2). Original as poëcilonotus. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:22 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Mycteroperca poecilonota (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as poecilonotus). •Valid as Epinephelus poecilonotus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:202 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:179 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:530 [ref. 5667], Randall & Klausewitz 1986:234 [ref. 11513], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:51 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:223 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:211 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:134 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:197 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2515 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:716 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:716 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:310, 592 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Craig et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31786], Fricke et al. 2018:152 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Johnson & Wilmer 2019:346 [ref. 36985], Kim et al. 2020:115 [ref. 39118], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354], Sonoyama et al. 2020:55 [ref. 37637], Akhilesh et al. 2021:53 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:66 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:86 [ref. 40522]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus poecilonotus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa (Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia), Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar, western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Fiji and Western Australia, north to southern Korea, central Japan and Ogasawara Islands (Japan). Habitat: brackish, marine.

polleni, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1868:336 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 2; ref. 17062] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5511. •Valid as Gracila polleni (Bleeker 1868) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:534 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:26 [ref. 13251], Allen 2000:87 [ref. 37268]). •Valid as Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1988:17 [ref. 9299], Randall & Heemstra 1991:58 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:54 [ref. 21042], Anderson et al. 1998:23 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:112 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:178 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2541 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:710 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:710 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495] dated 1874, Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:49 [ref. 27510], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:150 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:119 [ref. 28745], Fricke et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30213], Craig et al. 2011:47 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:264 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:113 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354], Tea et al. 2020:3 [ref. 37258], Akhilesh et al. 2021:49 [ref. 38701], Durville et al. 2021:311 [ref. 38802], Heemstra 2022:43 [ref. 39742], Galbraith et al. 2024:6 [ref. 40930]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Line Islands and French Polynesia, north to Guam, south to Coral Sea (Australia). Habitat: marine.

polylepis, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1991:226, Pl. 19C; Fig. 118 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 20; ref. 19601] Off Bahrain, 26°55'30"N, 50°58'18"E, Persian Gulf, depth 53-55 meters. Holotype: BPBM 30580. Paratypes: BMNH 1891.2.1.2 (1), 1899.1.24.1 (1), 1945.12.31.19 (1); BPBM 27480 (1); FMNH 98283 (1); ONHM 1606 (1); RMNH 12345 (1); ZMUC P43670 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus polylepis Randall & Heemstra 1991 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:213 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:135 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:146 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Craig et al. 2011:208 [ref. 31786], Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009], Randall et al. 2013:524 [ref. 32685], Psomadakis et al. 2015:200 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:319 [ref. 36183], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:109 [ref. 37020], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354], Wu et al. 2020:134 [ref. 37525], Akhilesh et al. 2021:53 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:67 [ref. 39742], Nakamura & Motomura 2021:275 [ref. 38066], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:684 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus polylepis Randall & Heemstra 1991. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf east to west coast of India. Habitat: marine.

polyphekadion, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1849:39 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype: RMNH (not found). •Valid as Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849) -- (Randall et al. 1990:112 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:231 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:214 [ref. 21042], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:x [ref. 21953], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:108 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:112 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2516 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:724 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:187 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:724 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:161 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1016 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:278 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:62 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:152 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36673], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:53 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:67 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Gulf of Aden, Seychelles, Madagascar and Saint Brandon's Shoals (Cargados Carajos) east to Wake Atoll and Marquesas Islands (French Poynesia), north to southern Japan, south to Queensland (Australia), Lord Howe Island (Australia), New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

polypodophilus, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1849:37 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: BMNH 1880.4.21.1-3 (3), 1840.4.21.13 (1); ?RMNH 5486 (7), SMNS 10637 (2 syntypes). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:19-20 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:59 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

polyspila, Cephalopholis Randall [J. E.] & Satapoomin [U.] 2000:2, Figs. 1-2 [Phuket Marine Biological Center Research Bulletin No. 63; ref. 25340] Pulau Ular, 1°7.2'S, 100°21.35'E, southern side, Sumatra, Indonesia [eastern Indian Ocean], depth 4 meters. Holotype: BPBM 37636. Paratypes: AMS I.39056-001 (1); BMNH 1999.2.18.1 (1); BPBM 38552-53 (1, 1); CAS 205887 (1); NSMT-P 50628 (1); PMBC 9832 (1), 14099-100 (1, 1), 11566 (1); ROM 69424-37 (15, 15, 3, 1, 2, 20, 14, 8, 2, 10, 6, 11, 14, 3), 69438-39 (3); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 27659 (1), 59838 (1); USNM 353870 (1). •Valid as Cephalopholis polyspila Randall & Satapoomin 2000 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:149 [ref. 28239], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:85 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:49 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:265 [ref. 31980], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Psomadakis et al. 2020:384 [ref. 37272], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:50 [ref. 38701]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis polyspila Randall & Satapoomin 2000. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Myanmar and Andaman Sea to western Sumatra (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

polystigma, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1853:244 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 12580] Benculen [Bengkulu], Sumatra, Indonesia; Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 5491 (1), 29577 [ex RMNH 5491] (1). •Valid as Epinephelus polystigma (Bleeker 1853) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:234 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:216 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2517 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:212 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:279 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:53 [ref. 38701], Jamandre 2023:173 [ref. 40455]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus polystigma (Bleeker 1853). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Sumatra (Indonesia) east to Philippines, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, south to northern Queensland (Australia). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

popino, Cephalopholis Walford [L. A.] 1936:3 [Occasional Papers of the Santa Barbara Museum v. 4; ref. 13272] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype: USNM 100979. Paratypes: USNM 80257 (1). •Valid as Cephalopholis popino Walford 1936 -- (Hiyama in Kumada 1937:38 [ref. 39147]). •Synonym of Epinephelus acanthistius (Gilbert 1892) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:102 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1590 [ref. 22830]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus acanthistius (Gilbert 1892) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:84 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus acanthistius (Gilbert 1892). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

posteli, Epinephelus Fourmanoir [P.] & Crosnier [A.] 1964:18, Pl. 16 (fig. C) [Cahiers O. R. S. T. O. M. (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer) Série Océanographie No. 6 (1963); ref. 5568] Fort Dauphin, Madagascar. Syntypes: IRSMNB (3) probably lost. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:40 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Mycteroperca posteli (Fourmanoir & Crosnier 1964) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Epinephelus posteli Fourmanoir & Crosnier 1964 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:530 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:237 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:217 [ref. 21042], Craig et al. 2011:214 [ref. 31786], Fricke et al. 2018:153 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:68 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus posteli Fourmanoir & Crosnier 1964. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) north to southern Mozambique, east to southern Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

powelli, Saloptia Smith [J. L. B.] 1964:719, Fig. 1; Pl. 21 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 6 (no. 72) (for 1963); ref. 4131] Cook Islands, Pacific, depth 200 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 19. •Valid as Plectropomus powelli (Smith 1964) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Saloptia powelli Smith 1964 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:157 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441], Lee 1990:61 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:299 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:299 [ref. 21042], Kramer et al. 1994:73 [ref. 21258], Randall et al. 1997:506 [ref. 25919], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2537 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:87 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:708 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:611 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:708 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:622 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall et al. 2005:120 [ref. 28745], Hoese et al. 2006:1023 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2011:387 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:349 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:103 [ref. 32988], Hata & Motomura 2016:4 [ref. 35078], Parenti & Randall 2020:93 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Saloptia powelli Smith 1964. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) east to French Polynesia, north to South China Sea, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

praeopercularis, Serranus Boulenger [G. A.] 1888:654 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1887 (pt 4); ref. 14479] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: BMNH 1887.11.11.40. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1887.11.11.37 (1, dry). Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1991:138, 140 [ref. 19601] but their catalog number on p. 138 [1887.11.11.37] is not in agreement with specimens on p. 140. •Synonym of Epinephelus epistictus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:137 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:143 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:130 [ref. 22896], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2496 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:54 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus epistictus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

prionura, Mycteroperca Rosenblatt [R. H.] & Zahuranec [B. J.] 1967:241, Figs. 3a, 4a [California Fish and Game v. 53 (no. 4); ref. 7992] Inner Gorda Bank (23°02'N, 109°31'W), Baja California Sur, Mexico, depth 25-30 fathoms. Holotype: SIO 66-48. Paratypes: AMNH 26000 [ex SIO 65-351] (5); SIO (18 lots, 105); USNM 101061 (1), 204315 [ex SIO 65-347] (20). Additional material: BMNH 1969.8.6.1-5 [ex SIO 65-343] (5). •Valid as Mycteroperca prionura Rosenblatt & Zahuranec 1967 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:273 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:110 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1601 [ref. 22830], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Thomson et al. 2000:96 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], Craig et al. 2011:313 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354], Love et al. 2021:147 [ref. 39279]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca prionura Rosenblatt & Zahuranec 1967. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) and western Mexico. Habitat: marine.

profundorum, Mycteroperca Cervigón [F.] 2011:3, Figs. 1-4 [Boletín del Instituto Oceanográphico de Venezuela v. 50 (no. 1); ref. 39393] North of the Macanao Peninsula, Isla Margarita, Venezuela, depth 165 - 274 meters. Holotype: MMM 1286. Paratypes: MMM 1287 (1), 1288 (1). •Valid as Mycteroperca profundorum Cervigón 2011. Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca profundorum Cervigón 2011. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Isla Margarita, Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

pseudomorrhua, Epinephelus Postel [E.], Fourmanoir [P.] & Guézé [P.] 1963:366, Fig. 10 [Mémoires de l'Institut français d'Afrique Noire No. 68; ref. 5208] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 1962-1296. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:15 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus magniscuttis Postel, Fourmanoir & Guézé 1963 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:527 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:192 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:182 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2510 [ref. 24815], Nakamura et al. 2018:226 [ref. 36354], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:61 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus magniscuttis Postel, Fourmanoir & Guézé 1963. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

punctata, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:291 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Bahamas. No types known. Based on Catesby p. 7, Pl. 7 (upper); should have been spelled puncticulata according to Goode & Bean 1885:201 [ref. 1841]. Perca punctata Linnaeus 1766:485 corresponds to this species; Perca punctatus Linnaeus 1766:482 is a different species. •Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:205 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

punctatissimus, Serranus Günther [A.] 1859:144 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1983.12.22.1. Also listed was Plate X, fig. A, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." The figure apparently is Pl. 4A in Boulenger 1895 [ref. 537]. •Objective synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846) after the type of punctatissimus was made the neotype of cyanopodus -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:128 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:136 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

punctatum, Plectropoma Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:318, Pl. 45 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7676. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:21 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Plectropomus punctatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:535 [ref. 5667], Randall & Hoese 1986:26 [ref. 6009], Winterbottom et al. 1989:27 [ref. 13251], Randall & Heemstra 1991:297 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:297 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:138 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:205 [ref. 24106], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:172 [ref. 28072], Craig et al. 2011:347 [ref. 31786], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:156 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:93 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:76 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:93 [ref. 40522]). Current status: Valid as Plectropomus punctatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Aliwal Shoal (South Africa), East Africa, Oman, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Aldabra (Seychelles), Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (Mauritius) east to Chagos Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Dermatolepis Gill [T. N.] 1861:54 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 13; ref. 1769] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. No types known. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Epinephelus by Holocentrus punctatus Bloch 1790, replaced by Epinephelus dermatolepis Boulenger 1895. •Objective synonym of Dermatolepis dermatolepis (Boulenger 1895) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:65 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:58 [ref. 37354]). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Dermatolepis dermatolepis (Boulenger 1895). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:88, Pl. 241 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Brazil. No types known. On p. 69 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Fricke et al. 2021:37 [ref. 38901]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Pomacentrus Günther [A.] 1859:141 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Not available, name on specimen from India mentioned under Serranus hexagonatus. •Incertae sedis, nomen nudum -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:130 [ref. 37354]). Nomen Nudum. Epinephelidae.

punctiferus, Menephorus Poey [F.] 1875:95 [21] [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 4 (for 13 Jan. 1875); ref. 3509] Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 33938. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:190 [ref. 22926]. See Smith 1966:2 [ref. 29777] for remarks on type. On p. 21 of separate. • Based on a hybrid of Paranthias furcifer and Cephalopholis fulva -- (Smith 1966:4 [ref. 29777]). Hybrid. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

punctulatus, Labrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:431, 477, Pl. 17 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN A-5724 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:100 [ref. 19171], Bauchot et al. 1984:17-18 [ref. 19232]. Based on a Commerson figure. Lectotype selected by Bauchot et al. 1984:17 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Variola louti (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:305 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:304 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:210 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:94 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Variola louti (Fabricius 1775) -- (Heemstra 2022:78 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Variola louti (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

purpureus, Cephalopholis Fourmanoir [P.] 1966:221, Fig. 3 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 38 (no. 3); ref. 9029] Nha-Trang market, Vietnam. Syntypes: MNHN 1965-0276 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:14 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:63 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:57 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2482 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

quernus, Epinephelus Seale [A.] 1901:3, Fig. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 14358] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): BPBM 481. •Valid as Epinephelus quernus Seale 1901 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:238 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:218 [ref. 21042], Mundy 2005:348 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:197 [ref. 30952]). •Valid as Hyporthodus quernus (Seale 1901) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:286 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:86 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus quernus (Seale 1901). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

quinquefasciatus, Serranus Bocourt [F.] 1868:223 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 10; ref. 14069] Mouth of Río Nagualate, Pacific coast of Guatemala. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5211. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:34 [ref. 19232]. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19323]). •Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:3 [ref. 24110]). •Valid as Epinephalus quinquefasciatus (Bocourt 1868) -- (Craig et al. 2009:173 [ref. 29773], Craig et al. 2011:216 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:237 [ref. 36362], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Reis et al. 2016:6 [ref. 34496], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354], Love et al. 2021:146 [ref. 39279], Carvalho-Filho 2023:116 [ref. 40480], Siccha-Ramirez et al. 2023:316 [ref. 40816], Vela-Espinosa et al. 2023:9 [ref. 40981]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus quinquefasciatus (Bocourt 1868). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Peru. Replaced in the Atlantic by E. itajara. Habitat: marine.

quoyanus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:519 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7422. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:34 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:51 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:113 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:240 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:130 [ref. 23929], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:280 [ref. 24014], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:239 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:110 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:113 [ref. 25919] Ikeda 1999:2 [ref. 24398], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2518 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:723 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:87 [ref. 25480], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:723 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:310, 592 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:89 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Craig et al. 2011:217 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:279 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:100 [ref. 34464], Hata et al. 2016:47 [ref. 35065], Motomura et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:104 [ref. 36460], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:393 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:53 [ref. 38701], Nakamura in Motomura et al. 2021:20 [ref. 38121], Hasan et al. 2023:2210 [ref. 40412], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:685 [ref. 40722], Noushad K. et al. 2024:45 [ref. 40947]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: ?Lakshadweep (India), Myanmar, Andaman Sea and Indonesia east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to Korea and southern Japan, south to Western Australia and New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

radiatus, Serranus Day [F.] 1868:699 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 3); ref. 14045] Near Madras, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI F1676. Possible holotype: AMS B.8342 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:301 [ref. 25110]. •Valid as Mycteroperca radiata (Day 1868) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as radiatus). •Valid as Epinephelus radiatus (Day 1868) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:530 [ref. 5667], Randall & Klausewitz 1986:234 [ref. 11513], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:52 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:243 [ref. 19601], Baranes & Golani 1993:307 [ref. 22372], Heemstra & Randall 1993:222 [ref. 21042], Kramer et al. 1994:73 [ref. 21258], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:135 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:506 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:197 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2519 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:716 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:716 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Craig et al. 2011:220 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:200 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35490], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:393 [ref. 37272], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:115 [ref. 37300], Akhilesh et al. 2021:53 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:68 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:87 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:685 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus radiatus (Day 1868). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Gulf of Aden, Socotra (Yemen), Comoros and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

rahanus, Epinephelus Popta [C. M. L.] 1918:1 [Zweite Fortsetzung der Beschreibung von neuen Fischarten der Sunda-Expedition; ref. 15101] Raha, Muna Island, Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: SMF 4904. Paralectotypes: RMNH 10552 (1), SMF 4905 (1). Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1991:235 [ref. 19601]. •Synonym of Epinephelus polystigma (Bleeker 1853) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:234 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:216 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2517 [ref. 24815], Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus polystigma (Bleeker 1853). Epinephelidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

rankini, Epinephelus Whitley [G. P.] 1945:24 [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 1); ref. 4707] Off Onslow, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): WAM P.2847-001. Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:19 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117], Cao et al. 2022:5 [ref. 39784]. Several ZMUA specimens erroneously listed as paratypes by Cao et al. 2022:7 [ref. 39784]. •Synonym of Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:213 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:198 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1015 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354]). •Valid as Epinephelus rankini Whitley 1945 -- (Cao et al. 2022:7 [ref. 39784]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus rankini Whitley 1945. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: southern Indonesia; Northern Territory (Australia) south to Shark Bay (Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

raymondi, Epinephelus Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:93 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 21; ref. 3287] Cape Moreton, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.1565 [ex AFAQ 678]. •Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1018 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

reevesii, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1846:232 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:212, Pl. 3b [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:117 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:127 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Nakamura & Motomura 2021:271 [ref. 38066]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

remotus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:140 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:195 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

repandus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:135 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10076 (1), 10134 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:192-193 [ref. 22926] with a holotype. •Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:276 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

reticulata, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:354 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. Based on Seba 1759, Pl. 27 (fig. 9). Parenti 2003:500 [ref. 27322] acted as first reviser selecting Anthias striatus Bloch 1792 over Perca reticulata Walbaum 1792. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Parenti 2003:500 [ref. 27322], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

reticulatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:323 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH D113 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:47 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:219 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

reticulatus, Trisotropis Gill [T. N.] 1865:105 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 17; ref. 1710] Barbados, West Indies. Syntypes: USNM (2). •Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:276 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

retouti, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1868:339 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 2; ref. 17062] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5415. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227]). •Valid as Epinephelus retouti Bleeker 1868 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1986:51 [ref. 9721], Heemstra & Randall 1986:531 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:53 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:245 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:224 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:135 [ref. 22896], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:197 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2520 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:715 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:491 [ref. 25191], Nakabo 2002:715 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:162 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:120 [ref. 28745], Hoese et al. 2006:1018 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:222 [ref. 31786], Hata & Motomura 2016:1 [ref. 35078], Fricke et al. 2018:153 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:53 [ref. 38701], Durville et al. 2021:311 [ref. 38802], Furuhashi & Motomura 2022:8 [ref. 39607], Heemstra 2022:69 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus retouti Bleeker 1868. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Marshall Islands, Line Islands and Society Islands (French Polynesia), north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

rhyncholepis, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1853:749 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 5); ref. 335] Bulucomba [now Bulukumba], Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5465. •Valid as Epinephelus rhyncholepis (Bleeker 1853) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:113 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:136 [ref. 22896], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2521 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:162 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Hoese et al. 2006:1018 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

rivulatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:515 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7347. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:34 [ref. 19232]. See Paulin et al. 1989:260 [ref. 24556]. •Valid as Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:531 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:54 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:113 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Randall 1995:136 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:113 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:198 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2521 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:718 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:187 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:718 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:170 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:162 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1018 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:224 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:279 [ref. 31980], Roberts 2015:1188 [ref. 34193], Fricke et al. 2018:153 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626], Bogorodsky et al. 2020:517 [ref. 38001], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:394 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:53 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:69 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:88 [ref. 40522]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Socotra (Yemen), Comoros, Madagascar, western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Tonga, north to Ogasawara Islands, Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) northern New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

rivulatus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:135 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Serranus rivulatus Valenciennes 1830. •Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:276 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

robusta, Perca Couch [J.] 1832:21, Fig. 7 [Magazine of Natural History and Journal of Zoology, Botany, Minerology, Geology, and Meterology v. 5 (no. 23, art. 4); ref. 5557] Polperro, Cornwall, England. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza [or gvaza] (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy St. Hiliare 1817) -- (Heemstra 1991:20 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:104 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rogaa, Perca Fabricius [J. C.] in Niebuhr (ex Forsskål) 1775:38, xi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. No types known. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:174 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:26 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Cephalopholis rogaa (Forsskål 1775) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Zajonz et al. 2022:67 [ref. 40522]). •Valid as Aethaloperca rogaa (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:176 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:95 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:516 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:489 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:22 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:24 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:100 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:20 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:16 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:24 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:125 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:225 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:142 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:41 [ref. 26476], Randall et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:173 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2474 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:710 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:710 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:30 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:194, 204 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:147 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:119 [ref. 28745], Hoese et al. 2006:1002 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:82 [ref. 30492], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:2 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:259 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:57 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34709], Motomura et al. 2017:79 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:317 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:144 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:60 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:105 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:110 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:49 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:381 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:49 [ref. 38701], Kim et al. 2021:124 [ref. 39117], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:660 [ref. 40722]). •Valid as Aethaloperca rogaa (Fabricius 1775) -- (Fricke 2008:26 [ref. 30182], Dewa et al. 2022:17 [ref. 40001], Heemstra 2022:37 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Aethaloperca rogaa (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, there now extinct) east to Marshall Islands, Fiji and Samoa, north to Kagoshima Prefecture (southern Japan), south to northwestern Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

roquensis, Mycteroperca Martín Salazar [F. J.] 1956:88, 100, Fig. [Sociedad de Ciencias Naturelles, La Salle.; ref. 12084] Gran Roque Island, Los Roques Islands, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): MHN La Salle 12597. •Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:266 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

rosacea, Epinephelus Streets [T. H.] 1877:51 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum v.1 (no. 7); ref. 4290] Angel Island, Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 17554 (not found in 1980). •Valid as Mycteroperca rosacea (Streets 1877) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:274 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:111 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1602 [ref. 22830], Thomson et al. 2000:93 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:111 [ref. 37547], Craig et al. 2011:315 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354], Walker et al. 2020:4 [ref. 37499], Love et al. 2021:147 [ref. 39279]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca rosacea (Streets 1877). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Jalisco (Mexico), including Gulf of California (Mexico) Habitat: marine.

roseus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:306 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Based on a Parkinson drawing. •Synonym of Variola louti (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:305 [ref. 19601], Parenti & Randall 2020:94 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Variola louti (Fabricius 1775) -- (Heemstra 2022:78 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Variola louti (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

rosmarus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:345, 389, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality stated. Commerson specimens: MNHN A-5726 (1, dry) Indian seas, A-5736 (2, dry) Indian seas, A-7689 (1, dry) Mauritius. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:16-17 [ref. 19232] with syntypes; the drawn specimen is the holotype if identifiable. Based on Commerson drawing. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227] as rosemarus, Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:184 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:55 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ruber, Epinephelus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:22, Pl. 331 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] "Japan" (probably eastern Atlantic or Mediterranean Sea). Holotype (unique): ZMB 161. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:136 [ref. 24282]. On p. 19 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:787 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:136 [ref. 23100], Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227], Cervigón 1991:349 [ref. 24472], Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19323], Cervigón 1992:432 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:275 [ref. 21042], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:213 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:79 [ref. 26753], Glamuzina et al. 2002:156 [ref. 28416], Golani 2005:36 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:80 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:42 [ref. 36649], Craig et al. 2011:318 [ref. 31786], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2400 [ref. 34618], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Carneiro et al. 2019:245 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Reiner 2019:173 [ref. 38139], Bariche & Fricke 2020:88 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:41 [ref. 37519], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354], Golani 2021:41 [ref. 38303], Iglésias et al. 2021:175 [ref. 38818], Kovačić et al. 2021:77 [ref. 39014], Fermon et al. 2022:288 [ref. 39448], Carvalho-Filho 2023:119 [ref. 40480], Hoff et al. 2023:6 [ref. 40463], Azzola et al. 2024:4 [ref. 40957], He et al. 2024:3 [ref. 40897]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to southern Angola, including São Tomé and Principe. Hybridizes with Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Habitat: marine.

ruber, Gymnocephalus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:346, Pl. 67 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Brazil. •Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:205 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

ruberrima, Mycteroperca olfax var. Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] in Jordan & Eigenmann 1890:367 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 8 (art. 9) (for 1888); ref. 2440] James Island, Galápagos Islands. Holotype: MCZ 90703 [ex MCZ 24198]. Paratypes: USNM 41274 (1). •Synonym of Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns 1840) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:270 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns 1840). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

rubra, Perca Sonnerat [P.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:299 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in footnote under Serranus sonnerati Valenciennes 1828. Nomen Nudum. Epinephelidae.

rubriniger, Serranus Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:369 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities; ref. 13269] Not available, name only; from Queensland, Australia. •Incertae sedis, nomen nudum -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:130 [ref. 37354]). Nomen Nudum. Epinephelidae.

rufus, Serranus Hombron [J. B.] & Jacquinot [H.] in Jacquinot & Guichenot 1853:35, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [Voyage au Pôle Sud et dans l'Oceanie v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 18307] No locality. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:48 [ref. 19232]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Serranus rufus Bowdich 1825. •Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:36 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:35 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

rupestris, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:437 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Santo Domingo. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7180 (1), A-7712 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:34 [ref. 19232] with 7180 as holotype. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

salmoides, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:346, 389 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Probably Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN A-5444 (2, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:17 [ref. 19232]. Originally salmoïdes. Figured on Pl. 34 (fig. 3) in Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710], but with vernacular name. Spelled salmonoides by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:343 [ref. 997]. •Valid as Epinephelus salmonoides (Lacepède 1802) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:240 [ref. 27969]). •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Randall et al. 1990:111 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:192 [ref. 24106], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:62 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

salmonoides, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:343 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Emendation and redescription of Holocentrus salmoides Lacepède 1802. •In the synonymy of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:62 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

salmonopsis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:348 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Name in text, misspelling of Serranus salmonoides Valenciennes 1828, not available. Misspelling. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Epinephelidae.

salonotus, Epinephelus Smith [J. L. B.] & Smith [M. M.] 1963:15, Pl. 14 (fig. I) [The fishes of Seychelles; ref. 5319] Cape Delgado, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 3. Described in more detail by Smith 1963:34 [ref. 32120]. •Valid as Epinephelus salonotus Smith & Smith 1963 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:212 [ref. 19756]). •Synonym of Epinephelus spilotoceps Schultz 1953 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:532 [ref. 5667], Heemstra & Randall 1993:232 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2524 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:80 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:70 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus spilotoceps Schultz 1953. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

scholanderi, Alphestes Walters [V.] 1957:283, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1957 (no. 4); ref. 12175] West of Bimini, Bahamas, depth 1300 feet. Holotype: AMNH 19925 (complete skeleton). Paratypes: AMNH 19924 (1, neurocranium), 19926 (1, skull and fin girdles), 20230 (1). •Synonym of Epinephelus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:204 [ref. 21042], Heemstra et al. 2003:1347 [ref. 27060]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:86 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

scirenga, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:50 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:26 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192] with question, Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227], Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

sebae, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1854:488 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 344] Ambon Island, Moluccs Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:189 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:181 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

selebardo, Perca Fabricius [J. C.] in Niebuhr (ex Forsskål) 1775:xv [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] No locality stated (Alexandria, Egypt, southeastern Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Unavailable, species name not written in Latin letters (see Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]). Appeared as "PERCA? Σελέβαρδο". Authorship and type locality according to Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. •Uncertain in genus Epinephelus, probably Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) -- (Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]). Nomen Nudum. Epinephelidae.

sellicauda, Epinephelus Gill [T. N.] 1862:250 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 4909] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 7247. •Synonym of Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns 1840) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:173 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns 1840). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

semifasciatus, Sparus Shaw [G.] 1803:472 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] American Seas. Unneeded new name for Anthias striatus Bloch 1792. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

semipunctatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:341 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0743 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:35 [ref. 19232]. Originally semi-punctatus, correction mandatory. •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:62 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

septemfasciata, Perca Thunberg [C. P.] 1793:56, Pl. 1 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 14 (for 1793); ref. 17917] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZMUU 280. Type catalog: Wallin 1996:62 [ref. 32133]. Originally as Perca 7-fasciata, correction mandatory. Apparently preoccupied by Perca septemfasciata Walbaum 1792, but it is suggested that Perca septemfasciata Thunberg 1793 be maintained based on current usage. •Valid as Epinephelus septemfasciatus (Thunberg 1793) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:132 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1985:475, 671 [ref. 8056], Heemstra & Randall 1986:531 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442] as septemfasciata, Winterbottom et al. 1989:26 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:54 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:250 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:227 [ref. 21042], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:323 [ref. 24023], Nakabo 2000:714 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:492 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:714 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:310, 592 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:430 [ref. 28370], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Shinohara et al. 2011:48 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33330], Koeda et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35333], Sonoyama et al. 2020:55 [ref. 37637]). •Valid as Hyporthodus septemfasciatus (Thunberg 1793) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:289 [ref. 31786], Kumar et al. 2012:115 [ref. 32541], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Kim et al. 2020:115 [ref. 39118], Parenti & Randall 2020:86 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus septemfasciatus (Thunberg 1793). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: China to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

sexfasciatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:360 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH D153 (dry). Non-types: MNHN 0000-6872 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:35 [ref. 19232]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1991:256 [ref. 19601]. Declared a nomen protectum by Parenti & Randall 2020:80 [ref. 37354]. •Valid as Epinephelus sexfasciatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:171 [ref. 19754], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:113 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:255 [ref. 19601], Randall & Heemstra 1991:256 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:229 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:240 [ref. 27969] with author as Cuvier & Valenciennes, Chen et al. 1997:50 [ref. 26476], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Machida et al. 1997:53 [ref. 25135], Randall et al. 1997:113 [ref. 25919], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2522 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:54 [ref. 27510], Hoese et al. 2006:1018 [ref. 28999], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:90 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:2217 [ref. 31786], Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009], Larson et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:100 [ref. 34464], Tucker et al. 2016:661 [ref. 34684], Motomura et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:319 [ref. 36183], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:104 [ref. 36460], Parenti & Randall 2020:80 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:394 [ref. 37272], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:115 [ref. 37300], Akhilesh et al. 2021:53 [ref. 38701], Vilasri et al. 2023:78 [ref. 40764]). Nomen Protectum. Current status: Valid as Epinephelus sexfasciatus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Bay of Bengal (India) and Myanmar east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to northern Vietnam, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

sexmaculatus, Serranus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:107 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 2994 (dry). •Valid as Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:163 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441] as sexmaculatus, Heemstra & Randall 1986:518 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:30 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:103 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:61 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:55 [ref. 21042], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:127 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:230 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:103 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:112 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:179 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2481 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268] as sexmaculatus, Nakabo 2000:711 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:711 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:163 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:151 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1005 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:50 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:265 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:61 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:113 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:50 [ref. 38701], Fujiwara et al. 2022:20 [ref. 39310], Furuhashi & Motomura 2022:8 [ref. 39607], Heemstra 2022:44 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:68 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:663 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: Aliwal Shoal and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa (Mozambique, Tanzania, kenya), Socotra (Yemen), Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Line Islands, Marquesas Islands and Society Islands (French Polynesia), north to southern Japan and South China Sea, south to Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia), New Caledonia and Lord Howe Island (Australia). Habitat: marine.

shihpan, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1846:231 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. Syntypes: BMNH (apparently lost). Type information: Whitehead 1970:212 [ref. 11606]. •Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:91 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:106 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

sicana, Cerna Doderlein [P.] 1882:250 [83] [Giornale di scienze naturali ed economiche, Società Naturali ed Economiche di Palermo v. 15; ref. 17414] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MZPA P/46 (dry), AN/1233, AN/440. Type catalog: Bellia et al. 2020:192, 193 [ref. 37558]. On p. 83 of separate. Declared a nomen oblitum by Parenti & Randall 2020:85 [ref. 37354] (if a synonym of Hyporthodus haifensis (Ben-Tuvia 1953)). •Status uncertain -- (Tortonese 1973:361 [ref. 7192]). •Possibly an abnormal specimen of Epinephelus haifensis Ben-Tuvia 1953 -- (Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:162 [ref. 21042]). •In the synonymy of Hyporthodus haifensis (Ben-Tuvia 1953) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:85 [ref. 37354]). •Valid as Epinephelus sicanus (Doderlein 1882) -- (Bellia et al. 2020:193 [ref. 37558]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus sicanus (Doderlein 1882). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea: Sicily (Italy) and Malta. Habitat: marine.

simonyi, Serranus Steindachner [F.] 1891:172 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 28 (18); ref. 12571] Grand Canary Island. Syntypes: NMW 39457 (2). Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1891:352, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [ref. 4236]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith 1990:702 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Mycteroperca fusca (Lowe 1838) -- (Heemstra 1991:48 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2399 [ref. 34618], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca fusca (Lowe 1838). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

slacksmithi, Epinephelus Whitley [G. P.] 1959:312 [Australian Zoologist v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 4729] Heron Island, Capricorn Group, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.3871. Paratypes: AMS I.13424 [ex MAMU] (missing in 1990 and 1997). •Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:220 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2514 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1016 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

socialis, Serranus Günther [A.] 1873:7, Pl. 8 (fig. B) [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 14186] Tahiti, Society Islands. Lectotype: BMNH 1873.4.3.1. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1865.5.29.9 (1) Samoa, BMNH 1873.4.3.2 (1) Tuamotus. Lectotype selected by Randall 1964:289, fig. 7 [ref. 3600]. •Valid as Epinephelus socialis (Günther 1873) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:258 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:230 [ref. 21042], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2523 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:722 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:722 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:162 [ref. 28239], Craig et al. 2011:229 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:80 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus socialis (Günther 1873). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Insular coral reefs from southern Japan to Pitcairn Islands. Habitat: marine.

sonnerati, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:299 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Puducherry, India. Lectotype: MNHN A-7671 (dry). Paralectotypes: MNHN A-5774 (2, dry), A-7686 (1, dry), MNHN 0000-7266 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:35 [ref. 19232]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1991:64 [ref. 19601]. •Valid as Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:180 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:166 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:519 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:492 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:30 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:104 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:63 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:57 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:128 [ref. 23929], Randall 1995:127 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:230 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82, 84 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:43 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:102 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:104 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:112 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:180 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2482 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:712 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:179 [ref. 25191], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:712 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:50 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:151 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1006 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:85 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:95 [ref. 31256], Caratini & Soriano 2011:121 [ref. 39915], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:53 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:265 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:98 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:98 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:195 [ref. 34104], Koeda et al. 2016:25 [ref. 35333], Fowler et al. 2017:[5] 2253 [ref. 36358], Motomura et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:115 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:384 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:50 [ref. 38701], Durville et al. 2021:311 [ref. 38802], Dewa et al. 2022:17 [ref. 40001], Heemstra 2022:44 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:69 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:663 [ref. 40722], Murase et al. 2023:39 [ref. 40935], Ray et al. 2023:3 [ref. 39988]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Socotra (Yemen), Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigeus) east to Marshall Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, southern New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

spiloparaeus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Commerson) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:338 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] No locality stated [Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7172 (dry skin). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:35 [ref. 19232]. Originally spelled spiloparæus. Based on description in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Cephalopholis spiloparaea (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:519 [ref. 5667], Lee 1990:31 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:104 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:66 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:58 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Machida et al. 1997:50 [ref. 25135], Randall et al. 1997:104 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:112 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:181 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2542 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:713 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:179 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:713 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:50 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:152 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1006 [ref. 28999], Randall & Justine 2008:157 [ref. 29942], Fricke et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:56 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:266 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:25 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:147 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:115 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354], Durville et al. 2021:311 [ref. 38802], Heemstra 2022:45 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis spiloparaea (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa (Mozambique), Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Pitcairn Group, north to Taiwan, Ogasawara Islands (Japan) and Wake Island, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Rapa (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

spilotoceps, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:357, Figs. 56-57 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon reef off Namu Island, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: USNM 141901. Paratypes: FMNH 62615-16 (1, 1); USNM 141902 (3), 141904-921 (1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 9, 1, 1, 3, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 7, 1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:35 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Epinephelus spilotoceps Schultz 1953 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:532 [ref. 5667], Randall et al. 1990:114 [ref. 15987], Manilo 1992:22 [131] [ref. 39140], Heemstra & Randall 1993:232 [ref. 21042], Chen et al. 1997:148 [ref. 24620], Kuiter 1997:108 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:114 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:199 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2524 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:163 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:348 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:231 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:280 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:153 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:80 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:53 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:70 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus spilotoceps Schultz 1953. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa (Mozambiquem, Tanzania), Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to Line Islands (Kiribati), Marshall Islands, Tonga and Cook Islands, north to the Philippines, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

spilotus, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:352, Fig. 55 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon reef at Rujoru Island, Eniwetok Atoll, western Pacific. Holotype: USNM 141895. Paratypes: USNM 141896 (2), 150001 (4), 152974 [ex UW] (1). •Synonym of Epinephelus howlandi (Günther 1873) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:169 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:167 [ref. 21042], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus howlandi (Günther 1873). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

spilurus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:433 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7270. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:35 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:49 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:47 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:177 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:42 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

spiniger, Serranus Günther [A.] 1859:146 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] No locality [Apparently Marquesas Islands]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1978.2.1.2. Also listed was Plate X. fig. B, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." The figure apparently is Pl. 4B in Boulenger 1895 [ref. 537]. •Synonym of Epinephelus irroratus (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:174 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:169 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2504 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:157 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:346 [ref. 28379], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus irroratus (Forster 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

spiramen, Epinephelus Whitley [G. P.] 1945:25 [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 1); ref. 4707] 30 miles north of Carnarvon, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): WAM P.2796-001 (head only). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:19 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117]. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Hoese et al. 2006:1011 [ref. 28999]). •Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2521 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

stathouderi, Serranus Vaillant [L. L.] & Bocourt [F.] 1878:69 [Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale Part 4; ref. 4498] No locality. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7360. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:31, 35, 60 [ref. 19232] as stathouderi. Replacement name for Serranus maculosus Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828. •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:45 [ref. 38901]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

stellans, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1842:23 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 55); ref. 21245] Melville Island, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1858.4.12.477. Misspelled Epinephelus stellatus by Snyder 1912:498 [ref. 14871]. •Status uncertain -- (Paxton et al. 1989:508 [ref. 12442]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus quayanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Larson et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32988]). •Synonym of Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:166 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:165 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

stellatus, Bodianus Blosser [C. B.] 1909:297, Pl. 10 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1) (art. 5); ref. 14363] St. Croix Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies. Holotype (unique): FMNH 53048 [ex CM 1473]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:91 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:16 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:38 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:32 [ref. 38901]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

stellio, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Seba) 1792:349 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated (probably Ambon, Maluku, Indonesia) No types known. Based on the 'Perca tota maculis fuscis' of Seba 1759:76, Pl. 27 (fig. 7) [ref. 18716]. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (R. Fricke, pers. comm., Dec. 2020). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

stictus, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Allen [G. R.] 1987:394, Fig. 1 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 13 (pt 3); ref. 6249] About 20 kilometers south of Heywood Shoals, 13°33'S, 124°02'E, Western Australia, depth 138-142 meters. Holotype: WAM P.28277-001. Paratypes: BMNH 1939.1.17.10 (1), BPBM 30913 (1), CSIRO CA 886 (1), ZUMT 10701 (1), 52224 (1, not seen in 1997). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:19 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Epinephelus stictus Randall & Allen 1987 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:261 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:234 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2525 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:720 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:720 [ref. 26001], Hoese et al. 2006:1019 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:234 [ref. 31786], Tucker et al. 2016:661 [ref. 34684], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Frable et al. 2018:[9] [ref. 36287], Suzuki et al. 2020:[1] [ref. 37360], Parenti & Randall 2020:80 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus stictus Randall & Allen 1987. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: southern Indonesia east to Philippines, north to Taiwan, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

stigmapomus, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1846:232 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH (not found). Type information: Whitehead 1970:212 [ref. 11606]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenack (Bloch 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:39 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:37 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1004 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

stigmogrammacus, Epinephelus Cheng [Q.-T.] & Yang [W.-H.] 1983:506 [English p. 508], Figs. 1-3 [Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica v. 14 (no. 5); ref. 8359] South China Sea. Holotype: ASIO 64-916. Paratypes: ASIO 40955 (1), 64-612 (1), 64-1023 (1), 64-1400 (1), 35503 (1), 56-8665 to 8670 (6). •Synonym of Epinephelus epistictus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Lee 1990:44 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:137 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:143 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus epistictus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

stoliczkae, Serranus Day [F.] 1875:11, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [The fishes of India Part 1; ref. 1080] Coast of Sind, Pakistan, Arabian Sea. Lectotype: ZSI 1679. Paralectotypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.8157 (1, paralectotype); MNHN 0000-9360 (1); NMW 81226 (1); RMNH 143 [? or 73] (1); ZMB 8885 (1); ZSI 897-899 (3), 1955 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762], Bauchot et al. 1984:36 [ref. 19232]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Ben-Tuvia 1983 [ref. 8284]. •Valid as Epinephelus stoliczkae (Day 1875) -- (Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:264 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:235 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:136 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Craig et al. 2011:236 [ref. 31786], Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009], Psomadakis et al. 2015:200 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:319 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:109 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:53 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:70 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:89 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:686 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus stoliczkae (Day 1875). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Socotra (Yemen), Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf east to Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

stomias, Trisotropis Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:427 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 16902. Paralectotypes: USNM 15462 (1), 21336 (1, not found in 1980), 26561 (1), 26587 (1). Lectotype selected by Smith 1971:189 [ref. 14102]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca microlepis (Goode & Bean 1879) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:269 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca microlepis (Goode & Bean 1879). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

striatus, Anthias Bloch [M. E.] 1792:125, Pl. 324 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 6; ref. 470] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types preserved. Based on manuscript drawing by Charles Plumier. On p. 109 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 9 [ref. 21381]. Parenti 2003:500 [ref. 27322] acted as first reviser selecting Anthias striatus Bloch 1792 over Perca reticulata Walbaum 1792. •Valid as Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:134 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:335 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:430 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:236 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:30 [ref. 25512], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:2 [ref. 24110], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:266 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:211 [ref. 25013], Musick et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24959], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1348 [ref. 27060], Smith et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:151 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:238 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:39 [ref. 33341], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354], Robertson et al. 2020:162 [ref. 38098], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:79 [ref. 38844]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and South Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Trinidad and Tobago, and eastern Venezuela, including western and southern Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. IUCN (2018): Critically endangered. Habitat: marine.

striolatus, Serranus Playfair [R. L.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:11, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: BMNH 1867.3.9.39 (stuffed). Striolatus is an adjective, so the correct spelling in the feminine genus Dermatolepis is striolata. •Valid as Dermatolepis striolatus (Playfair 1867) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:520 [ref. 5667], Heemstra & Randall 1993:68 [ref. 21042], Randall 1994:260 [ref. 21644], Randall 1995:127 [ref. 22896]). •Valid as Dermatolepis striolata (Playfair 1867) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:76 [ref. 19601], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Craig et al. 2011:69 [ref. 31786], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:59 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:46 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:70 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:665 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Dermatolepis striolata (Playfair 1867). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Southern Red Sea; Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Gulf of Aden, Socotra (Yemen) and Gulf of Oman, Aldabra (Seychelles), Comoros, Madagascar; Sri Lanka. Habitat: marine.

subfasciatus, Serranus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:389 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 2); ref. 1090] Cardwell, Queensland, Australia. No types known. •Status uncertain -- (Paxton et al. 1989:508 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:147 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1011 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

subniger, Serranus Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:369 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities; ref. 13269] Not available, name only; from Queensland, Australia. •Incertae sedis, nomen nudum -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:130 [ref. 37354]). Nomen Nudum. Epinephelidae.

suborbitalis, Epinephelus Amaoka [K.] & Randall [J. E.] 1990:3, Figs. 1-5 [The J.L.B Smith Institute of Ichthyology Special Publication No. 49; ref. 15984] Minami-Koho Seamount, Kyushu-Palau Ridge, western Pacific, 26°11.5'N, 135°46'E to 26°09.2'N, 135°49.5'E, depth 360-570 meters. Holotype (unique): HUMZ 80533. •Valid as Epinephelus suborbitalis Amaoka & Randall 1990 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:266 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:238 [ref. 21042], Craig et al. 2011:241 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis, Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus suborbitalis Amaoka & Randall 1990. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Kyushu-Palau Ridge (south of Japan). Habitat: marine.

suilexus, Serranus Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:369 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities; ref. 13269] Not available, name only; from Queensland, Australia. Nomen Nudum. Epinephelidae.

suillus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:335 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Coromandel coast of India, Pondicherry, Vizagapathum [Visakhapatnam], India. Syntypes: MNHN A-7710 (1, dry) Puducherry, 7288 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:36 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus suillus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:532 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:491 [ref. 25598], Lee 1990:55 [ref. 19830], Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009]). •Synonym of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822) -- (Randall et al. 1990:106 [ref. 15987], Heemstra 1991:25 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:122 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:383 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:130 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2493 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:82 [ref. 25480], Randall 2005:155 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:53 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

suitonis, Epinephelus Tanaka [S.] 1915:566 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 27 (no. 325); ref. 4324] Saiki fish market, Ooita Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 13309 or 12309 (not seen in 1997). Species originally published in Japanese in above reference, later illustrated and described in more detail in English and Japanese in Tanaka 1916:402, Pl. 109 (fig. 331) [ref. 14938]. •Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:128 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:136 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

suji, Paracanthistius Tanaka [S.] 1916:415, Pl. 112 (fig. 336) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 23; ref. 14938] Saigasaki, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 3911. •Synonym of Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:294 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:292 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:92 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède 1802). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

summana, Perca Fabricius [J. C.] in Niebuhr (ex Forsskål) 1775:xi, 42 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [No locality stated] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P43569 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:61 [ref. 9588], Fricke 2008:29 [ref. 30182]. Holotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 10 [ref. 20847]. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:29 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Epinephelus summana (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:112 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:267 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:239 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Chen et al. 1997:51 [ref. 26476], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:161 [ref. 28239], DiBattista et al. 2015:21 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[16] 254 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:53 [ref. 38701]). •Valid as Epinephelus summana (Fabricius 1775) -- (Fricke 2008:29 [ref. 30182], Heemstra 2022:71 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus summana (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Socotra (Yemen). Habitat: brackish, marine.

susuki, Plectropoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:404 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Japan. Holotype (unique): ZMB 285 (stuffed). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:44 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus septemfasciatus (Thunberg 1793) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:250 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:227 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus septemfasciatus (Thunberg 1793) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:86 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus septemfasciatus (Thunberg 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

swanius, Cephalopholis Tsai [C.-F.] 1960:188, Fig. [Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum (Taipei) v. 13 (nos 3-4); ref. 11958] Hualien, eastern Taiwan. Holotype (unique): NTUM 2305. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:42 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis igarashiensis Katayama 1957 -- (Lee 1990:28 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:48 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:46 [ref. 21042], Ho & Shao 2011:42 [ref. 31432], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis igarashiensis Katayama 1957. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

taeniocheirus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:518 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] No locality. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7644. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:36 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:157 [ref. 19601], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

taeniops, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:370 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Cape Verde Islands. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6218 (1, dry), 0000-6233 (1), A.7720 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:36 [ref. 19232]. Predated by Serranus taeniops Cuvier in Guérin-Méneville 1827-31, Pl. 27 [ref. 29508]. Species epithet misspelled teniops by Gruvel & Bouyat 1906:Pl. 11, fig. 28 [ref. 30367]. •Valid as Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra 1991:13 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:695 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:60 [ref. 21042], Afonso et al. 1999:72 [ref. 25466], Abdallah et al. 2007:611 [ref. 40998], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:58 [ref. 31786], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Triay-Portella et al. 2015:165 [ref. 36561], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2385 [ref. 34618], Engin et al. 2016:184 [ref. 34718], Vella et al. 2016:1 [ref. 35106], Garcia et al. 2018:962 [ref. 36271], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37509], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Izquierdo-Muñoz & Ramos-Esplá in Stern et al. 2019:437 [ref. 36863], Reiner 2019:167 [ref. 38139], Bariche & Fricke 2020:139 [ref. 37515], Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354], Golani 2021:39 [ref. 38303], González-Lorenzo et al. 2021:145 [ref. 38374], Kovačić et al. 2021:77 [ref. 39014], Fermon et al. 2022:287 [ref. 39448], Carvalho-Filho 2023:114 [ref. 40480], Tiralongo & Spinelli in Langeneck et al. 2023:612 [ref. 40699], Kundu et al. 2024:5 [ref. 40813]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Morocco south to Angola, including Canary Islands (Spain), Cape Verde Islands, and São Tomé and Principe. Introduced in Brazil (southwestern Atlantic). Habitat: marine.

taeniops, Serranus Cuvier [G.] in Guérin-Méneville 1828:no page number, Livraison 13 [Planches de Seba v. 3; ref. 29508] No types known. Text applies to Pl. 27 (no. 6) published in 1827. Described in the same year as Serranus taeniops Valenciennes 1828. Nomen oblitum, see Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:397, 399 [ref. 29507]. •Synonym of Serranus taeniops Valenciennes 1828 -- (Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:397, 399 [ref. 29507]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Nomen Oblitum. Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

tankahkeei, Epinephelus Wu [H.-H.], Qu [M.], Lin [H.-D.], Tang [W.] & Ding [S.-X.] 2020:127, Figs. 1-2 [ZooKeys No. 933; ref. 37525] Yongxing Island, Sansha, Hainan, China. Holotype: ZMUA eptan06. Paratypes: ZMUA. •Valid as Epinephelus tankahkeei Wu, Qu, Lin, Tang & Ding 2020. •Synonym of Epinephelus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Nakamura & Motomura 2021:271 [ref. 38066]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

tarao, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1944:9 [Further notes on the zoology of Tahiti.; ref. 12574] Lagoon near Papeete, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Fowler 1949:85 [ref. 1462], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]) Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

tauvina, Perca Fabricius [J. C.] in Niebuhr (ex Forsskål) 1775:39, xi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P43565 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:61 [ref. 9588], Fricke 2008: 29 [ref. 30182]. Holotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 8 [ref. 20847]. Authorship according to Fricke 2008: 29 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål 1775) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Kyushin et al. 1977:232 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:101 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:532 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:26 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:56 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:114 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:269 [ref. 19601], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:807 [ref. 20764], Coad 1991:26 [ref. 15702], Heemstra & Golani 1993:387 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:241 [ref. 21042], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:129 [ref. 22896], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:241 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:114 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:116 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:199 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2526 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:725 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:189 [ref. 25191], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:185 [ref. 25703], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:177 [ref. 26753], Nakabo 2002:725 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:171 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:163 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1019 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:244 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:280 [ref. 31980], Almukhtar et al. 2012:175 [ref. 41009], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:153 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Suresh et al. 2018:189 [ref. 36495], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:109 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36673], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 21 [ref. 38321], Psomadakis et al. 2020:394 [ref. 37272], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:54 [ref. 38701], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:687 [ref. 40722]). •Valid as Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775) -- (Fricke 2008: 29 [ref. 30182], Heemstra 2022:71 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Persian Gulf, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Wake Atoll and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island (Australia) and Rapa (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

tearlachi, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1944:8 [Further notes on the zoology of Tahiti.; ref. 12574] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Fowler 1949:85 [ref. 1462], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

teatae, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1938:89 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Cephalopholis urodetus (Forster 1801) -- (Fowler 1949:84 [ref. 1462]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

terraereginae, Oligorus Ramsay [E. P.] 1880:93, Pl. 9 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 18587] Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS A.7506 (skin, not found in 1997). Originally as terrae-reginae, correction mandatory. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

testudineus, Holocentrus Shaw [G.] 1803:566 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Northern seas. Unneeded new name for Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793 -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

thompsoni, Epinephelus Whitley [G. P.] 1948:89 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 4710] 36.5 miles northeast of Cape Moreton, Queensland, Australia, depth 70-75 fathoms. Holotype (unique): AMS E.2116. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Stereolepoides thompsoni Fowler 1923 when both are in Epinephelus, replaced by Epinephelus perplexus Randall, Hoese & Last 1991. •Status uncertain -- (Paxton et al. 1989:508 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Epinephelus perplexus Randall, Hoese & Last 1991 -- (Randall et al. 1993:30 [ref. 21004], Heemstra & Randall 1993:210 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1016 [ref. 28999]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus perplexus (Randall, Hoese & Last 1991) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:86 [ref. 37354]). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus perplexus (Randall, Hoese & Last 1991). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

thompsoni, Stereolepoides Fowler [H. W.] 1923:382 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 8 (no. 7); ref. 1398] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: BPBM 3406 (cast of head). •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Mundy 2005:347 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:197 [ref. 30952], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

thyrsites, Serranus Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:369 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities; ref. 13269] Name only, not available; from Queensland, Australia. •In the synonymy of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19601], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Epinephelidae.

tigris, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:440 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] San Domingo [Dominican Republic]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7178. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:36 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Bullock & Godcharles 1982:53 [ref. 39762], Robins & Ray 1986:136 [ref. 23100], Dennis & Bright 1988:7 [ref. 39782], Bullock & Smith 1991:147 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:351 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:432 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:276 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:41 [ref. 25512], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:215 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1359 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:170 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:320 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:41 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354], Robertson et al. 2020:162 [ref. 38098], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:526 [ref. 38945], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:79 [ref. 38844], González-Lorenzo et al. 2021:148 [ref. 38374], Bennema & van Moorsel 2022:71 [ref. 39585], Carvalho-Filho 2023:121 [ref. 40480]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida (U.S.A.), Bahamas and Greater Antilles south to São Paulo (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Introduced at ?Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

timorensis, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Allen [G. R.] 1987:399, Fig. 2 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 13 (pt 3); ref. 6249] Base of drilling rig, 11°S, 124°E, Dillon Shoals, Timor Sea, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): WAM P.24794-001. Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:19 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Epinephelus timorensis Randall & Allen 1987 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:274 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:243 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2546 [ref. 24815], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:1019 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:247 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis, Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus timorensis Randall & Allen 1987. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Timor Sea; Samoa; Phoenix Islands. Habitat: marine.

tinca, Serranus Cantraine [F. J.] 1833:176 [Nuovo Giornale de'letterati; Academia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti. 26; ref. 19960] Port of Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Also appeared in Cantraine 1835:207 [ref. 17346] and Cantraine 1838:4 [ref. 21344]. •Nomen nudum, in the synonymy of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19323] with question, Heemstra & Randall 1993:275 [ref. 21042] with question, Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

townsendi, Epinephelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:133 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 2 (no. 8) (art. 20); ref. 14680] Karachi, Sind, Pakistan. Syntypes: BMNH 1898.6.29.4-7 (4). •Synonym of Epinephelus erythrurus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:142 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:146 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:55 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus erythrurus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

trimaculatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes (ex Tilesius) 1828:331 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Japan. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:48 [ref. 19232]. Based on Pl. 64 (fig. 2) in Tilesius 1814 [ref. 19304]. •Valid as Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Lee 1990:56 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:275 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:244 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2472 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:723 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:88 [ref. 25480], Nakabo 2002:723 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:310, 591 [ref. 26218], Craig et al. 2011:248 [ref. 31786], Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:105 [ref. 36460], Kim et al. 2020:115 [ref. 39118], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: northern Vietnam, southern China and Taiwan to Korea and southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

trophis, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Allen [G. R.] 1987:402, Fig. 3 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 13 (pt 3); ref. 6249] Base of drilling rig, 11°S, 124°E, Dillon Shoals, Timor Sea, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.24795-001. Paratypes: BPBM 30279 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:19 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Epinephelus trophis Randall & Allen 1987 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:277 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:245 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2546 [ref. 24815], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:1020 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:250 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis, Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus trophis Randall & Allen 1987. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Timor Sea (off northern Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

truncatus, Epinephelus Katayama [M.] 1957:158, Fig. 4 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 6 (nos 4-6); ref. 12079] Torishima, Izu Islands, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 18222 [ex Katayama's Fish Coll. No. 1940]. Paratypes: Katayama Fish Coll. 1941 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus truncatus Katayama 1957 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:220 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:181 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:51 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Epinephelus retouti Bleeker 1868 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1986:51 [ref. 9721], Lee 1990:53 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:245 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:224 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:135 [ref. 22896], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2520 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:162 [ref. 28239], Hata & Motomura 2016:2 [ref. 35078], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus retouti Bleeker 1868. Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

truncatus, Plectropomus Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1930:196, Fig. 5 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 100, v. 10; ref. 1477] Atulayan Island, Lagonoy Gulf, eastern coast of Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 89984. Paratypes: (13) USNM 149324 (1), 149396 (1), 170588 (1). •Valid as Plectropomus truncatus Fowler & Bean 1930 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:186 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:102 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Plectropomus areolatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Randall & Hoese 1986:9 [ref. 6009], Paxton et al. 1989:499 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:116 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:291 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:289 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2531 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1021 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:92 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Plectropomus areolatus (Rüppell 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

tsirimenara, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:7, Pl. 4A (fig. 3) [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D64 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D62-D63 and D65 (3, stuffed), 114 (2), 2754 (1); ZMB 5216 [ex RMNH] (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:331 [ref. 25566]. Originally as Tsirimen-ara, correction mandatory. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:23 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tuamotuensis, Epinephelus Fourmanoir [P.] 1971:127, Fig. 1 [Cahiers du Pacifique No. 15; ref. 7672] Rangiroa Atoll, from the village of Avatoru to 2 kilometers east, Tuamotu Archipelago, depth 180-240 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1970-0040. Paratypes: (8) ?MNHN [ex ORSTOM Nouméa] (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:15 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus tuamotuensis Fourmanoir 1971 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:278 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:2464 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2546 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:12 [ref. 25829], Craig et al. 2011:251 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus tuamotuensis Fourmanoir 1971. Epinephelidae. Distribution: South Pacific: Cook Islands, Rapa, Society Islands, Tuamotu Archipelago and Pitcairn Group. Habitat: marine.

tukula, Epinephelus Morgans [J. F. C.] 1959:651, Pls. 17, 19 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 1 (no. 10) (for 1958); ref. 12011] Mafia Island, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: EAMFRO S.96. Paratypes: EAMFRO. S.88 (1), S.102 (1), S.122 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus tukula Morgans 1959 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:533 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:57 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:115 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:279 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:248 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:136 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:51 [ref. 26476] dated 1958, Randall et al. 1997:115 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:200 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2527 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:719 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:719 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:172 [ref. 28072], Hoese et al. 2006:1020 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Ghanbarifardi & Malek 2009:[4] 498 [ref. 37937], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:90 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Caratini & Soriano 2011:55 [ref. 39915], Craig et al. 2011:252 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:280 [ref. 31980] Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Psomadakis et al. 2015:201 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:154 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:120 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:83 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:54 [ref. 38701], Durville et al. 2021:311 [ref. 38802], Heemstra 2022:72 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:90 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:688 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus tukula Morgans 1959. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius) east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to southern Japan and Pacific coast of Japan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

tumilabris, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:346 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Seychelles. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7336. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:36 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:101 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:219 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:66 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

undulatostriatus, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1866:518 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1866; ref. 3439] Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5520. •Valid as Epinephelus undulostriatus [sic] (Peters 1866) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977]). •Valid as Epinephelus undulatostriatus (Peters 1866) -- (Randall et al. 1990:115 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:283 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:249 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:129 [ref. 23929], Randall et al. 1997:115 [ref. 25919], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2528 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Hoese et al. 2006:1020 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:255 [ref. 31786] dated 1867, Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:83 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus undulatostriatus (Peters 1866). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Queensland and New South Wales (Australia); ? Lord Howe Island [shown in ref. 31786] Habitat: marine.

undulosus, Bodianus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:310 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Waigiou [Pulau Waigeo, Papua Province, New Guinea, Indonesia]; Rawak Island [Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:13 [ref. 19171], Bauchot et al. 1984:39 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:533 [ref. 5667], Lee 1990:58 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:284 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:250 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:137 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:243 [ref. 27969], Anderson et al. 1998:23 [ref. 23611], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2529 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:90 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:256 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:281 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:62 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:201 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:83 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:395 [ref. 37272], Akhilesh et al. 2021:54 [ref. 38701], Heemstra 2022:72 [ref. 39742], Zajonz et al. 2022:91 [ref. 40522], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:689 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa (Kenya, Somalia), Gulf of Aden, Socotra (Yemen), Lakshadweep Islands (India) and Maldives east to Philippines and Solomon Islands, north to Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

undulosus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:295 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0133 (1), 5288 (1), 7406 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:36-37 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:261 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

unicolor, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] (ex Liénard) 1874:89 [Poissons de Madagascar et de l'Ile la Réunion Part 4; ref. 443] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Proposed as "Epinephelus unicolor Blkr = Serranus unicolor Lién. Hab. Mauritius." -- this refers to "le Mérou unicolore" of Liénard 1839:31 [ref. 17536] (see Randall & Heemstra 1991:64 [ref. 19601]). For date of publication (as laterst in Dec. 1974), see Kottelat 2013 [ref. 32740]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:63 [ref. 19601] as Serranus unicolor Liénard in Bleeker & Pollen, Heemstra & Randall 1993:57 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:180 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:44 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

ura, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:332 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Japan. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5529 (stuffed). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:48 [ref. 19232]. Spelled ara in Temminck & Schlegel 1842:9 [ref. 4370]. •Synonym of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:275 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:244 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

urodelops, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] 1943:105, Fig. 8 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 180; ref. 3957] Lagoon of Canton Island, Phoenix Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 115366. •Synonym of Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:49 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:47 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

urodelus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Forster) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:306 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Santa Christina Island [= Tahuata], Marquesas Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1979.6.13.7. Based on a Forster painting; regarded as an available, independent description. Randall and Wheeler 1991: 762 [ref. 19601] treat as an error for "urodeta" that appeared on Forster's plate -- even if an error, Valenciennes spelled the name with an "l" in several places. •Absolute synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:492 [ref. 12442], see Randall & Heemstra 1991:70 [ref. 19601], Hoese et al. 2006:1006 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:266 [ref. 31980], Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

urodeta, Perca Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:333, xlv [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] St. Christina Island, Waitaho [Vaitahu, Tahuata Island, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1979.6.13.7. Based on description and painting in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Forster painting reproduced in Randall & Wheeler 1991:762, Pl 1 (fig. a) [ref. 15994]. As Percam urodetam on p. 333, Latinized in index under Bodianus as Perca urodeta, a variety of B. miniatus. Lichtenstein (1844:221 [ref. 17531] in footnote) treats as a synonym of "Bodianus miniatus Bl. Schn. p. 332" and as "Serranus urodelis [sic] Cuv. Val. II. p. 227". Author given as 'Schn.' (Schneider), but description based on manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German zoologist, naturalist of Cook's second voyage). •Valid as Cephalopholis urodetus (Forster 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:167 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:000 [ref. 26476] as urodelus with author and date as Bloch & Schneider 1801, Mohsin & Ambak 1996:231 [ref. 27969] as urodelus with author as Schneider). •Valid as Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477] with Schneider as author, Paxton et al. 1989:492 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:31 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:104 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:69 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:61 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:104 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:104 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:112 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:181 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2483 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:712 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:180 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:78 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:712 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:50 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:152 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:345 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1006 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:85 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:96 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988] with authors as Bloch & Schneider, Motomura et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:25 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35490] with authorship as Valenciennes 1828, Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:28 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:115 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354], Akhilesh et al. 2021:50 [ref. 38701], Moazzam & Osmany 2023:664 [ref. 40722]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Christmas Island and Indonesia east to Wake Atoll, Line Islands and Pitcairn Group, south to Western Australia at 32°01'S, Queensland (Australia) at 18°16'S, New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

urodeta, Perca Forster [J. R.] in Lichtenstein 1844:221 [Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis; ref. 17531] St. Christinae, Waitaho [Vaitahu, Tahuata Island, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific]. No types known. Lichtenstein (editor, p. 221, footnote) treats as a synonym (in footnote). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Perca urodeta Forster 1801. •Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:61 [ref. 21042] with author as Schneider, Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

urophthalmus, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1855:310 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 2); ref. 348] Batu Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Anyperodon leucogrammicus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:23 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:23 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2475 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:50 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Anyperodon leucogrammicus (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

variegatum, Plectropoma Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:7 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Plectropomus oligacanthus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Randall & Hoese 1986:20 [ref. 6009], Paxton et al. 1989:500 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:296 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:295 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2535 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1023 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:92 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Plectropomus oligacanthus (Bleeker 1855). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

variegatus, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1846:231 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:212, Pl. 4a [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:91 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:106 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

variolosa, Perca Forster [J. R.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:354 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing under Serranus variolosa Valencinnes 1828. •Incertae sedis, nomen nudum -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:130 [ref. 37354]). Nomen Nudum. Epinephelidae.

variolosus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:354 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] ?Tahiti, Society Islands. Possible types: BMNH 1979.6.13.4-5 (2) Marqueses, Cook's second voyage. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:48-49 [ref. 19232]. Based on a Forster drawing. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:184 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

varius, Serranus Bocourt [F.] 1868:222 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 10; ref. 14069] Gulf of Mexico. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5186 (1), 5190 (1) Bauchot holotype, B-3115 [ex MNHN 0000-5190] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:37 [ref. 19232] with holotype and paratypes. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:265 [ref. 24550], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354], Fricke et al. 2021:38 [ref. 38901]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

venadorum, Mycteroperca Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:446 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Near Isla Blanca, off Sinaloa, western coast of Mexico. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1895.5.27.342 (stuffed). •Synonym of Mycteroperca jordani (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:268 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1599 [ref. 22830], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca jordani (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

venenosa, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:292 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Bahamas. No types known. Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:49 [ref. 20705]. Based on Catesby 1743: Pl. 5. •Valid as Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:136 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:149 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:352 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:108 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:433 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:43 [ref. 25512], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:215 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Heemstra et al. 2003:1360 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:171 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:322 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:41 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354], Robertson et al. 2020:162 [ref. 38098], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:527 [ref. 38945], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:79 [ref. 38844], Carvalho-Filho 2023:121 [ref. 40480]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Bahamas south to São Paulo (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

virgatus, Cephalopholis Fourmanoir [P.] 1955:214, Pl. 8 B [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série A, Biologie Animale v. 9; ref. 12271] Mutsamudu, Anjouan Island, Comoro Islands. Syntypes: IRSMNB (lost). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:40 [ref. 19232]. Also in Fourmanoir 1957:148, Pl. 8 B. •Synonym of Gracila polleni (Bleeker 1868) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:534 [ref. 5667]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1988:18 [ref. 9299], Randall & Heemstra 1991:58 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:54 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:43 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

viridipinnis, Serranus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:144 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 17384] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. •Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Hoese et al. 2006:1018 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

waandersii, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1858:152 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 17 (no. 1); ref. 16982] Boleling, Bali, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5509. •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:112 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

woorei, Altiserranus Whitley [G. P.] 1951:396, Fig. 5 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 4); ref. 4715] Off Laurieton, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.2489. •Valid but genus uncertain -- (Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Triso dermopterus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall et al. 1989:415 [ref. 12737], Randall & Heemstra 1991:301 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:300 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1023 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:93 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Triso dermopterus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

xanthometopon, Epinephelus flavocoeruleum var. Bleeker [P.] 1871:97 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 17077] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean; Sri Lanka. Based on Holocentrus flavocaeruleus Lacepède 1802:331, 367 [ref. 4929] and on Perca flavopurpurea Bennett 1830: p. opp. Pl. 19, Pl. 19 [ref. 16785]. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

xanthopterus, Cephalopholis Allen [G. R.] & Starck [W. A., Jr.] 1975:246, Fig. 1 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 7406] Alite Reef, off Malaita, Solomon Islands, about 8°52'S, 160°36'E, depth 15 meters. Holotype: BPBM 15621. Paratypes: AMS I.16866-001 (1), I.17498-001 (2), I.17499-001 (1), I.17503-001 (1); BPBM 18088 (1); WAM P.25244-008 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:18 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:19 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Cephalopholis xanthopterus Allen & Starck 1975 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:492 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis cyanostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall et al. 1990:101 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:41 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:40 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2477 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis cyanostigma (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

xanthosticta, Mycteroperca bonaci var. Jordan [D. S.] & Swain [J.] 1884:371 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 447); ref. 9337] Snapper banks off Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 35083 (skin). •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

xenarcha, Mycteroperca Jordan [D. S.] 1888:387 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 39 (for 1887); ref. 10471] James Island, Galápagos Islands. Holotype: MCZ 24198. Additional material: MCZ 10061 (1). •Valid as Mycteroperca xenarcha Jordan 1888 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:199 [ref. 9277], Heemstra & Randall 1993:280 [ref. 21042], Bussing & López S. 1994:94 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1603 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:354 [ref. 24555], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Thomson et al. 2000:94 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:112 [ref. 37547], Craig et al. 2006:94 [ref. 29771], Craig et al. 2011:324 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:397 [ref. 34894], Kells et al. 2016:226 [ref. 35888], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Burton & Lea 2019:73 [ref. 37205], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354], Love et al. 2021:147 [ref. 39279], Siccha-Ramirez et al. 2023:322 [ref. 40816], Vela-Espinosa et al. 2023:9 [ref. 40981]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca xenarcha Jordan 1888. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: central California (U.S.A.) south to southern Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico) and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: brackish, marine.

zanana, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:339 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7271 (dry). Not available for priority, placed on Official Index (Opinion 1439). •Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:61 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:55 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:179 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:44 [ref. 39742]). Suppressed. Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

zananella, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Commerson) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:304 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Fort Dauphin, Madagascar. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:49 [ref. 19232]. Based on Commerson manuscript and figure. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:63 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:57 [ref. 21042], Fricke et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354], Heemstra 2022:44 [ref. 39742]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

zanclus, Dermatolepis Evermann [B. W.] & Kendall [W. C.] 1898:129, Pl. 8 (fig. 9) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 17 (art. 5) (for 1897); ref. 1281] Near Dry Rocks Reef, 1 mile east of Sand Key, Key West, Florida, U.S.A., depth 5 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 48843. •Synonym of Dermatolepis inermis (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:66 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:59 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Dermatolepis inermis (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

zapyrus, Epinephelus Seale [A.] 1906:36, Fig. 11 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Tubuai, Austral Islands [Tubuai Islands], French Polynesia. Holotype (unique): BPBM 761. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Randall & Heemstra 1991:147 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

zaslavskii, Epinephelus Poll [M.] 1949:223, Fig. 12 [Mémoires, Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 2.Séries, No. 33; ref. 13028] Baie des Eléphants, Angola, depth 14-18 fathoms. Holotype: IRSNB 90. Paratypes: IRSNB 600 (1). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:25 [ref. 20755], Derijst 1991:39 [ref. 21528]. •Synonym of Epinephelus alexandrinus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith 1990:698 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Heemstra 1991:27 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:134 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2390 [ref. 34618], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

zebra, Bodianus Shaw [G.] 1803:574 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Japan. Unneeded new name for Bodianus boenak Bloch 1790. •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.


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