Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 7 Sep 2022

SEARCH RESULTS FROM

Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
Select the database to search:
GENERA   SPECIES   REFERENCES
Include unavailable names

         Comments: ,

    Please look in Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes for authorships of sections, Families of Fishes (all), and related information.

Species in the family or subfamily Scorpaenidae: [ 649 ] records


accraensis, Pontinus Norman [J. R.] 1935:23 [Discovery Reports v. 12; ref. 13911] Accra, Ghana, western Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1930.3.24.42. •Valid as Pontinus accraensis Norman 1935 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:34 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:667 [ref. 17613], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466], Motomura et al. 2005:14 [ref. 28289], Wirtz et al. 2007:8, 29 [ref. 30263], Poss 2016:2264 [ref. 34610], Reiner 2019:154 [ref. 38139]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus accraensis Norman 1935. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania and Guinea-Bissau south to Namibia, including Cape Verde Islands, and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

acutus, Pteroidichthys Motomura [H.] & Kanade [Y.] 2015:495, Figs. 1C-D, 3B [Zootaxa 4057 (no. 4); ref. 34096] South of Vele, Wallis and Futuna Islands, 14°19'05"S, 178°04'05"W, depth 245-400 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2001-2851. Paratypes: ASIZP, KAUM, MNHN. •Valid as Pteroidichthys acutus Motomura & Kanade 2015. Current status: Valid as Pteroidichthys acutus Motomura & Kanade 2015. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Philippines, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna Islands. Habitat: marine.

adenensis, Phenacoscorpius Norman [J. R.] 1939:94, Fig. 29 [Scientific Reports, John Murray Expedition v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 6556] Gulf of Aden, northwestern Indian Ocean, station 177, depth 274-366 meters. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1939.5.24.1545. •Valid as Phenacoscorpius adenensis Norman 1939 -- (Eschmeyer 1986:470 [ref. 5652], Mandrytsa 1992:13 [ref. 20774], Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Motomura 2008:778 [ref. 30292], Motomura et al. 2011:64 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2012:148 [ref. 32375], Motomura et al. 2012:156 [ref. 32376], Okamoto et al. 2012:77 [ref. 33660], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1093 [ref. 34285], Wibowo & Motomura 2017:261 [ref. 35599], Fricke et al. 2018:132 [ref. 35805], Idreesbabu & Sureshkumar 2021:2 [ref. 38108], Wibowo & Motomura 2022:377 [ref. 38946]). Current status: Valid as Phenacoscorpius adenensis Norman 1939. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden, eastern South Africa, Madagascar, western India, east to Fiji, south to Western Australia and New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

aereus, Sebastodes Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1890:20 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 3; ref. 1256] Coronado Islands, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: BMNH 1891.5.19.17 (1); CAS [old no.] 1070 (2, lost in 1906); USNM 41868 (1), 41912 (1). •Synonym of Sebastes umbrosus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Chen 1971:24 [ref. 7668], Love et al. 2002:272 [ref. 26216]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes umbrosus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

afimbria, Scorpaena scrofa infra. Slastenenko [E. P.] 1935:75, Fig. [Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'URSS), Leningrad, Nouvelle Série v. 1; ref. 14713] Near Glendzhyk, Russia; Sevastopol and Balaklava, Ukraine, Black Sea. Syntypes: ZIN 30456 (1). Described as an "infraspecies" and probably should be regarded as infrasubspecific and not available. •Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810 -- (Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1219 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:673 [ref. 17613], Parin et al. 2002:S64 [ref. 28300], Fricke et al. 2007:77 [ref. 29533], Parin et al. 2014:224 [ref. 33547], Poss 2016:2279 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Infrasubspecific. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

afra, Perca Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:113 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype or Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.?80 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:238, Pl. 32 [ref. 13434] as holotype. •Synonym of Sebastichthys capensis (Gmelin 1789) -- (Wheeler 1958:238 [ref. 13434]). •Synonym of Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789) -- (Lloris & Rucabado 1991:82 [ref. 22530]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

africana, Scorpaena Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:258, 266 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. No types known. •Synonym of Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:100 [ref. 1274], Kong U. 1985:48 [ref. 11639], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:81 [ref. 22530]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

africanus, Hypomacrus Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:177-178 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 12; ref. 4120] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 323. Paratypes: (21) SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 397-404 (1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2). Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Scorpaenodes by Scorpaenodes africanus Pfaff 1933. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes albaiensis (Evermann & Seale 1907) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:471 [ref. 5652], Motomura et al. 2009:77 [ref. 30328]). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes albaiensis (Evermann & Seale 1907). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

africanus, Scorpaenodes Pfaff [J. R.] 1933:311, Fig. 13 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn v. 94; ref. 16517] Dakar, Senegal, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): ZMUC. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:80 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes africanus Pfaff 1933 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:89 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:677 [ref. 17613], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Wirtz et al. 2007:8, 29 [ref. 30263], Poss 2016:2284 [ref. 34610], Reiner 2019:155 [ref. 38139]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes africanus Pfaff 1933. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

afuerae, Scorpaena Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:443, Fig. 85 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Afuera Island, Peru, depth 20 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 128130. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena afuerae Hildebrand 1946 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1553 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:268 [ref. 24555], Gómez C. et al. 2001:200 [ref. 26149], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:402 [ref. 34894], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena afuerae Hildebrand 1946. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica south to Peru, including Cocos Island. Habitat: marine.

agassizii, Scorpaena Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:247, Pl. 67 (fig. 243) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] Gulf of Mexico, 23°13'N, 89°10'W, Blake station 36. Holotype (unique): MCZ 27996. Non-type taken with the holotype: USNM 153583 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. Original type locality in error (see Eschmeyer 1965:144 [ref. 9211]). •Valid as Scorpaena agassizi Goode & Bean 1896 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:273 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:97 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:421 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27192], Caires et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:601 [ref. 38945]). •Valid as Scorpaena agassizii Goode & Bean 1896 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:141 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:61 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:433 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1991:286 [ref. 24472], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:64 [ref. 26475], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:197 [ref. 25013], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1250 [ref. 27048], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:37 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena agassizii Goode & Bean 1896. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) and Gulf of Mexico south to northern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

alascanus, Sebastolobus Bean [T. H.] 1890:44 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 795); ref. 229] Off Trinity Island, Alaska, U.S.A., 56°N, 154°W, Albatross station 2853, depth 159 fathoms. Syntypes: (several) USNM 45369 (4). •Valid as Sebastolobus alascanus Bean 1890 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:152 [ref. 9277], Toyoshima in Amaoka et al. 1983:275, 334 [ref. 8379], Kanayama in Amaoka et al. 1983:279, 336 [ref. 8379], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441], McAllister 1990:184 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:20 [ref. 24942], Musick et al. 2000:15 [ref. 24959], Nakabo 2000:570 [ref. 25086] as alacanus, Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:26 [ref. 25650], Love et al. 2002:115 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:347 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:570 [ref. 26001] as alacanus, Parin et al. 2002:S63 [ref. 28300], Fedorov et al. 2003:60 [ref. 27579], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:80 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:223 [ref. 33547], Pietsch & Orr 2015:36 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:154 [ref. 35888], Robertson et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35676], Burton & Lea 2019:63 [ref. 37205], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:858 [ref. 38925]). Current status: Valid as Sebastolobus alascanus Bean 1890. Scorpaenidae: Sebastolobinae. Distribution: North Pacific: Sea of Japan and sea of Okhotsk north to Bering Sea, then Alaska (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

albaiensis, Hypomacrus Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1907:102, Fig. 20 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 607) (for 1906); ref. 1285] Bacon, Sorsogon Province, Philippines, Albay Gulf, western Pacific. Holotype: USNM 55902. Paratypes: CAS-SU 20006 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:120 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Hypomacrus albaiensis Evermann & Seale 1907 -- (Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636]). •Valid as Scorpaenodes albaiensis (Evermann & Seale 1907) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:471 [ref. 5652], Paxton et al. 1989:449 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:20 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:81 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:81 [ref. 25919], Poss 1999:2336 [ref. 24796], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:39 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:119 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:886 [ref. 29066], Motomura 2009:66 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2009:77 [ref. 30328], Poss et al. 2010:242 [ref. 30744], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:66 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:228 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2016:326 [ref. 35035], Fricke et al. 2018:133 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes albaiensis (Evermann & Seale 1907). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Fiji and Tonga, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

albescens, Bathysebastes Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1884:207 [39] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 49 (1. Abth.); ref. 4248] Tokyo, Japan. Holotype (unique): NMW. •Synonym of Setarches guentheri Johnson 1862 -- (Eschmeyer & Collette 1966:356 [ref. 6485], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:678 [ref. 17613], Wada et al. 2020:[3] [ref. 37692]). Current status: Synonym of Setarches guentheri Johnson 1862. Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Habitat: marine.

albifimbria, Scorpaena Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1900:275, Fig. 82 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 20 (pt 1) [for 1900]; ref. 14876] Off Culebra Island, 5.25 miles southwest of Culebritas Light-house, Puerto Rico, Fish Hawk station 6093, depth 15 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 49532. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena albifimbria Evermann & Marsh 1900 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:116 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:58 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:273 [ref. 23100], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:64 [ref. 26475], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:197 [ref. 25013], Collette et al. 2003:105 [ref. 26784], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1251 [ref. 27048], Smith et al. 2003:19 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:38 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:132 [ref. 37485], Pinheiro et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34324], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena albifimbria Evermann & Marsh 1900. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida (U.S.A.) and Bahamas south to Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil), including southeastern Gulf of Mexico and southeastern Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

albobrunnea, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1874:77 [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 3); ref. 18231] Palau Islands [Pelew Islands]. Syntypes: BMNH 1874.11.9.27-29 (3) Pelew Is., 1881.10.18.8 (2) New Britain. Spelled albo-brunnea originally. •Valid as Scorpaena albobrunnea Günther 1874 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes cyanostigma (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Eschmeyer 1986:475 [ref. 5652], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:125 [ref. 28239], Golani & Fricke 2018:56 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes cyanostigma (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

albofasciata, Scorpaena Metzelaar [J.] 1919:145, Fig. 43 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Bonaire and Aruba. Syntypes: ZMA 110242 (1) Bonaire; RMNH 9771 (1) Aruba. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:82 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

albofasciatus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:333, 372 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] China. Originally albo-fasciatus, correction mandatory. •Valid as Sebastes albofasciatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:33 [ref. 15964], Shytko 2001:9 [ref. 26410]). •Valid as Sebastiscus albofasciatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:313 [ref. 6441], Kim & Lee 1993:467 [ref. 39487], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:130 [ref. 23963], Poss 1999:2307 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:585 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:67 [ref. 25480], Katoh & Tokimura 2001:247 [ref. 25542], Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:585 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:243, 564 [ref. 26218], Motomura et al. 2010:93 [ref. 31256], Shinohara et al. 2014:246 [ref. 33330], Kim et al. 2020:93 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:43 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Sebastiscus albofasciatus (Lacepède 1802). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: southern China and Taiwan north to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

aleutianus, Sebastodes Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1898:1795 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2444] Off Karluk, Kodiak Island, Shelikof Straits, Alaska, U.S.A., Albatross station 3676, about 57°30'N, 154°W, depth 110 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 48800. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 12928 (3), plus specimen in ZMB 8145 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:123 [ref. 12291]. Also in Jordan & Gilbert 1899:445, Pl. 48 [ref. 2478]. Lectotype selected by Orr & Hawkins 2008:117 [ref. 29591]. •Valid as Sebastes aleutianus (Jordan & Evermann 1898) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:133 [ref. 9277], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:311 [ref. 6441], Matarese et al. 1989:288 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:184 [ref. 14674], Tokranov 1998:787 [ref. 24688], Orr et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24942], Nakabo 2000:586 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:25 [ref. 25650], Snytko 2001:10 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:121 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:381 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:586 [ref. 26001], Parin et al. 2002:S61 [ref. 28300], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:74 [ref. 37547], Orr & Hawkins 2008:117 [ref. 29591], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:29 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:128 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes aleutianus (Jordan & Evermann 1898). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: North Pacific: northern Hokkaido (Japan) north to Bering Sea, then south to southern California (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

alexandri, Sebastodes Evermann [B. W.] & Goldsborough [E. L.] 1907:651, Fig. [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 31 (no. 1501); ref. 15143] Monterey Bay, California, U.S.A., Albatross station 3125, depth 65 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 55662. •Synonym of Sebastes auriculatus Girard 1854. Current status: Synonym of Sebastes auriculatus Girard 1854. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

alporti, Sebastes Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:40 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Hobson's Bay, Victoria, Australia; Tasmania, Australia. No types known. Syntypes: (2). •Synonym of Helicolenus percoides (Richardson & Solanmder 1842) -- (Allen et al. 2006:867 [ref. 29078]). •Valid as Helicolenus alporti (Castelnau 1873) -- (Kuiter 1993:121 [ref. 23929], Kuiter 1997:88 [ref. 25488]). Current status: Synonym of Helicolenus percoides (Richardson & Solander 1842). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

altirostris, Scorpaenopsis Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:628, Fig. 244 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Off southern coast of Molokai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3849, depth 43-73 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51636. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8620 (2), USNM 51671 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis altirostris Gilbert 1905 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:309 [ref. 6389], Nakabo et al. 1993:31 [ref. 20716], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:12 [ref. 25801], Mundy 2005:330 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:176 [ref. 30952], Motomura & Causse 2011:50 [ref. 31125], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis altirostris Gilbert 1905. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.) endemic. Habitat: marine.

altivelis, Sebastolobus Gilbert [C. H.] 1896:410, Pl. 23 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 19 (for 1893) (art. 6); ref. 1628] South of Alaska Peninsula, Albatross station 3338, depth 625 fathoms. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Non-types: CAS-SU 3598 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:124 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Sebastolobus altivelis Gilbert 1896 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:153 [ref. 9277], McAllister 1990:184 [ref. 14674], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1564 [ref. 22830], Orr et al. 2000:20 [ref. 24942], Love et al. 2002:117 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:346 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:81 [ref. 37547], Maslenikov et al. 2013:9 [ref. 37947], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:154 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:63 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastolobus altivelis Gilbert 1896. Scorpaenidae: Sebastolobinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Gulf of Alaska (U.S.A.) south to southern end of Baja California Sur (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

alutus, Sebastichthys Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:76 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Santa Barbara Islands, California, U.S.A., 33°58'N, 119°30'45"W, Albatross station 2946, depth 150 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 48244. •Valid as Sebastes alutus (Gilbert 1890) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:133 [ref. 9277], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:311 [ref. 6441], Ishida & Amaoka 1989 [ref. 12865], Matarese et al. 1989:273 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:184 [ref. 14674], Eitner et al. 1999:91 [ref. 23702], Orr et al. 2000:8 [ref. 24942], Musick et al. 2000:14 [ref. 24959], Nakabo 2000:587 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:25 [ref. 25650], Snytko 2001:11 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:123 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:374 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:587 [ref. 26001], Parin et al. 2002:S61 [ref. 28300], Fedorov et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27579], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:74 [ref. 37547], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:121 [ref. 31212], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:213 [ref. 33547], Mecklenburg & Steinke 2015:163 [ref. 34033], Pietsch & Orr 2015:30 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:128 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:99 [ref. 37205], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:856 [ref. 38925]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes alutus (Gilbert 1890). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: North Pacific: southern Japan and Sea of Okhotsk north to Bering Sea, then south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

amboinensis, Pteroidichthys Bleeker [P.] 1856:34 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1; ref. 311] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia; Manado, Sulawesi. Lectotype: RMNH.PISC 5873. Paralectotypes: RMNH.PISC 5873 (1, head missing). Lectotype selected by Motomura & Kanade 2015:499 [ref. 34096]. •Valid as Pteroidichthys amboinensis Bleeker 1856 -- (Eschmeyer et al. 1973:305 [ref. 6390], Dor 1984:85 [ref. 29757], Chen & Liu 1984:101 [ref. 13451], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:317 [ref. 6441], Goren & Dor 1994:21 [ref. 25356], Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:572 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Nakabo 2002:572 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Shinohara & Imamura 2004:65 [ref. 28198], Randall 2005:118 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:219 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:50 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2015:1 [ref. 33892], Motomura & Kanade 2015:499 [ref. 34096], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pteroidichthys amboinensis Bleeker 1856. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: India east to Philippines and Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

amplisquamiceps, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1938:55, Fig. 21 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Matoco Point, Verde Island Passage and Batangas Bay, Philippines, 13°44'36"N, 120°59'15"E, Albatross station D.5266, depth 100 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 98883. Paratypes: USNM 98985-88 (1, 2, 1, 2). •Valid as Sebastapistes amplisquamiceps (Fowler 1938) -- (Kailola 1971:130 [ref. 39475], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:574 [ref. 27969]). •Valid as Neomerinthe amplisquamiceps (Fowler 1938) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:444 [ref. 12442], Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728], Poss 1999:2322 [ref. 24796], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Allen et al. 2006:882 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308], Larson et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32988], Naranji et al. 2020:[2] 400 [ref. 37504]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe amplisquamiceps (Fowler 1938). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: east coast of India east to Philippines and Papua New Guinea, south to northern Western Australia. IUCN (2020): not assessed. Habitat: marine.

andover, Pterois Allen [G. R.] & Erdmann [M. V.] 2008:129, Figs. 1-2, 4-6 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 13 (nos 3-4); ref. 29479] Marai, 01°43.862'S, 135°46.398'E, southwestern Yapen Island, Cenderawasih Bay, Papua Province, Indonesia, depth 17 meters. Holotype: NCIP 6307. Paratypes: BMNH 2007.11.26.1 (1), MNHN 2007-1930 (1), NCIP 6317 (1), USNM 390776 (1), WAM P.32893-001 (1). •Valid as Pterois andover Allen & Erdmann 2008 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:220 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Pterois andover Allen & Erdmann 2008. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: eastern Indonesia east to New Ireland ( Papua New Guinea). Habitat: brackish, marine.

angolensis, Helicolenus dactylopterus Barsukov [V. V.] 1979:581 [3], Fig. 1 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 19 (no. 4) (art. 117); ref. 9003] Atlantic coasts of Africa, 24°51'N, 13°42'E, depth 370 meters. Holotype: ZIN 43191. Paratypes: ZIN 43194 (12). Additional material: ZIN 43195-43198 (20). On p. 4 of English translation. •Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809) -- (Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:666 [ref. 17613]). Current status: Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

angolensis, Scorpaena Norman [J. R.] 1935:(26) 28, Fig. 10 [Discovery Reports v. 12; ref. 13911] Elephant Bay, Angola. Holotype: BMNH 1910.2.24.1. Paratypes: BMNH 1905.2.24.13 (1), 1935.5.11.199 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena angolensis Norman 1935 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:64 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:669 [ref. 17613], Wirtz et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32972], Poss 2016:2268 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Reiner 2019:156 [ref. 38139], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena angolensis Norman 1935. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola, including Cape Verde Islands, and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

annobonae, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1969:75, Fig. 8c [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences No. 79; ref. 1274] Annobón Island, Equatorial Guinea, Gulf of Guinea, 1°24'N, 5°38'E, Pillsbury station 275, depth 5-26 fathoms. Holotype (unique): CAS 14214 [ex UMML 22219]. Not treated by Wirtz et al. 2007 [ref. 30263]. •Valid as Scorpaena annobonae Eschmeyer 1969 -- (Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:670 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2269 [ref. 34610], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena annobonae Eschmeyer 1969. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Annobón Island, Equatorial Guinea. Habitat: marine.

antennaria, Pterois Swainson [W.] 1839:264 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Not available; an incorrect subsequent spelling of antennata of Bloch; based on Bloch, pl. 185 -- which is Bloch 1787:Pl. 185 [ref. 468] Scorpaena antennata. Misspelling. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae.

antennata, Scorpaena Bloch [M. E.] 1787:21, Pl. 185 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: ZMB 796. Paralectotypes: ZMB (1, lost). Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:269 [ref. 19946], Paepke 1999:131 [ref. 24282], Matsunuma & Motomura 2018:96 [ref. 36416]. On p. 16 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Pteropterus antennatus (Bloch 1787) -- (Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636]). •Valid as Pterois antennata (Bloch 1787) -- (Paulin 1982:445 [ref. 23678] with authors Bloch & Schneider 1801, Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:466 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:48 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:446 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:20 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:79 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:115 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Randall 1995:108 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:76 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:90 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:79 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:101 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:157 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2329 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:569 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:164 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:569 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:39 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:144 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:116 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:879 [ref. 29002], Allen & Erdmann 2008:128 [ref. 29479], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213], Motomura 2009:65 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:89 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Hubert et al. 2012:5 [ref. 31846], Allen & Erdmann 2012:220 [ref. 31980], Matsunuma et al. 2011:3 [ref. 32398], Larson et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33932], Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:343 [ref. 33609], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:24 [ref. 33935], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:112 [ref. 36167], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1095 [ref. 34285] as cf. antennata, Koeda et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35333], Matsunuma et al. 2017:333 [ref. 35034], Fricke et al. 2018:132 [ref. 35805], Matsunuma & Motomura 2018:96 [ref. 36416], Fricke et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:68 [ref. 36871], Kwik & Lim 2020:15 [ref. 38869], Psomadakis et al. 2020:360 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:44 [ref. 37637], Durville et al. 2021:311 [ref. 38802]). Current status: Valid as Pterois antennata (Bloch 1787). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Wake Atoll, northern Line Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to Sea of Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), Kermadec Islands and to Rapa. Habitat: marine.

aphanes, Rhinopias Eschmeyer [W. N.] in Eschmeyer, Hirosaki & Abe 1973:300, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 39 (no. 16); ref. 6390] New Caledonia, outside barrier reef facing Nouméa, depth 30 meters. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.7079. •Valid as Rhinopias aphanes Eschmeyer 1973 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:447 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:80 [ref. 15987], Randall & DiSalvo 1997:1035 [ref. 22982], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:88 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:80 [ref. 25919], Poss 1999:2332 [ref. 24796], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:166 [ref. 25191], Randall 2001:6 [ref. 25610], Randall 2005:119 [ref. 28239], Motomura & Johnson 2006:500 [ref. 28799], Allen et al. 2006:884 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308]). Current status: Valid as Rhinopias aphanes Eschmeyer 1973. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Papua New Guinea, Great Barrier Reef (Australia), New Caledonia and Japan. Habitat: marine.

apistus, Amphiprionichthys Bleeker [P.] 1855:173 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 347] Cocos-Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (2) ?RMNH 5893 (1), SMNS 10577 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:10 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:23 [ref. 29864]. •Considered the same as Caracanthus unipinna by authors. Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae. Habitat: marine.

aplodactylus, Scorpaena Bleeker [P.] 1853:698 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 5); ref. 16833] Wahai, Ceram, Indonesia. Syntypes and/or Bleeker specimens: AMS B.8277 (1); RMNH 5861 (up to 3 of 22 are in size range). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2000:295 [ref. 25110]. Spelled aplodactylus on p. 690 and 691 and aplodactylos on p. 698. Scorpaena haplodactylus is an unjustified emendation. •Questionably valid as Scorpaena aplodactylus Bleeker 1853 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). •In Sebastapistes -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[4] [ref. 38565]). •Questionably valid as Sebastapistes aplodactylus (Bleeker 1853). Current status: Uncertain as Sebastapistes aplodactylus (Bleeker 1853). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: eastern Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

aqabae, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] & Steinitz [H.] 1956:282, Fig. 25 [Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel v. 5B (no. 3-4); ref. 1478] Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Holotype: ANSP 72139. Paratypes: HUJ 2138 [ex ANSP 72140] (1), SFRS A127 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:152 [ref. 13621], Golani 2006:24 [ref. 28840]. •Synonym of Sebastapistes cyanostigma (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Golani & Fricke 2018:56 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes cyanostigma (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

arenai, Scorpaenodes Torchio [M.] 1962:113, Pl. 17; Fig. 1 [Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano v. 101 (no. 2); ref. 6544] Punta Pezzo, Ganzirri, Straits of Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MSNM 61 [ex 5734b]. Paratypes: MSNM 62 [ex MSNM 5734a] (1), 63 [ex MSNM 5640b] (1), 4612 (1, not present in 1995); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 617 (1). Type catalog: Conci & Michelangeli 1974:228 [ref. 21560]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes arenai Torchio 1962 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:90 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:583 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1222 [ref. 13677], Azevedo & Heemstra 1995:4 [ref. 22269], Santos et al. 1997:78 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:117 [ref. 24952], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Carneiro et al. 2019:234 [ref. 37250], Kovačić et al. 2021:76 [ref. 39014]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes arenai Torchio 1962. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Azores. Habitat: marine.

argoliba, Rhinopias Eschmeyer [W. N.], Hirosaki [Y.] & Abe [T.] 1973:288, Fig. 1-2A [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 39 (no. 16); ref. 6390] Off Izu Ocean Park, Sagami Bay, Japan, depth 50 meters. Holotype (unique): Enoshima Aquarium No. 1. An excellent color photograph appears in I.O.P. Diving News, v. 2 (no. 3) in 1991. •Valid as Rhinopias argoliba Eschmeyer, Hirosaki & Abe 1973 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441], Randall & DiSalvo 1997:1035 [ref. 22982], Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:573 [ref. 25086], Randall 2001:6 [ref. 25610], Nakabo 2002:573 [ref. 26001], Mandrytsa 2002:570 [ref. 26272], Motomura & Johnson 2006:500 [ref. 28799]). Current status: Valid as Rhinopias argoliba Eschmeyer, Hirosaki & Abe 1973. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Japan and Coral Sea. Habitat: marine.

armata, Scorpaena Sauvage [H.-E.] 1873:49, Pl. 6 (figs. 1-1a) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 9 (pt 2, Bulletin); ref. 18661] East Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4762 (1), B-1453 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:10 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Parascorpaena armata (Sauvage 1873) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:63 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34135]). Current status: Valid as Parascorpaena armata (Sauvage 1873). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

armata, Scorpaenopsella Fowler [H. W.] 1938:68, Fig. 29 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Sombrero Island, Balayan Bay and Verde Island Passage, Philippines, 13°52'22"N, 120°46'22"E, Albatross station D.5117, depth 118 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98893. •Valid as Scorpaenopsella armata Fowler 1938 -- (Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796]). •Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2019:312 [ref. 36828], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[14] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Habitat: marine.

armatus, Hoplosebastes Schmidt [P. Yu.] 1929:194, Figs. 1-2 [Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Ser. A (Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'URSS), Leningrad No. 8 (1929); ref. 3936] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZIN 22695. •Valid as Hoplosebastes armatus Schmidt 1929 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:581 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:581 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:424 [ref. 28370], Poss et al. 2010:251 [ref. 30744], Roy et al. 2021:[3] [ref. 38782]). Current status: Valid as Hoplosebastes armatus Schmidt 1929. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: East China Sea north to Japan. Bay of Bengal (India) record [ref. 38782] based on misidentification. Habitat: marine.

ascensionis, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1971:503, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 37 (no. 17); ref. 894] Off Ascension Island, Discovery station 1, depth 16-27 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1935.5.2.33. Paratypes: BMNH 1935.5.2.34 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena ascensionis Eschmeyer 1971 -- (Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:670 [ref. 17613], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Poss 2016:2270 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena ascensionis Eschmeyer 1971. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

asperella, Scorpaena Bennett [E. T.] 1828:40 [Zoological Journal, London v. 4 (no. 13, art. 3); ref. 16783] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): lost. Scorpaena asperella Bennett 1828 is a forgotten name that would be a senior synonym of Iracundus signifer Jordan & Evermann 1903, but was not used as valid after 1899, therefore reversal of precedence according to ICZN Art. 23.9 in favor of I. signifer. •Status uncertain -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:319 [ref. 6389], Mundy 2005:328 [ref. 28379]). •Synonym of Iracundus signifer Jordan & Evermann 1903 (R. Fricke, pers. comm. June 2016). •Nomen nudum -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[4] [ref. 38565]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Iracundus signifer Jordan & Evermann 1903. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

asperrimus, Paronescodes Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:177 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 12; ref. 4120] La Digue Island, Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 112. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 377-387 (1, 3, 1, 4, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1). •Synonym of Scorpaenodes parvipinnis (Garrett 1864) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:473 [ref. 5652], Motomura et al. 2010:23 [ref. 30748]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes parvipinnis (Garrett 1864). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

atlantica, Scorpaena russula Nichols [J. T.] & Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1924:21, Pl. 7 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 37; ref. 15461] Off Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., 28°56'N, 94°48'W, depth 10.5 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 86167. Paratypes: AMNH 8194 (3), USNM 86150-51 (1, 6). •Synonym of Scorpaena calcarata Goode & Bean 1882 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:135 [ref. 9211], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena calcarata Goode & Bean 1882. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

atrorubens, Sebastodes Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:1796 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2444] Coast of California (probably Monterey), U.S.A. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 1873. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:123 [ref. 12291]. Author is C. H. Gilbert. Appeared earlier without description as Gilbert in Jordan & Evermann 1896:429 [ref. 2442]. •Synonym of Sebastes atrovirens (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Lea 1983:147 [ref. 11578]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes atrovirens (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

atrovirens, Sebastichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:289 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 150); ref. 10598] Point Conception to San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 12125 (1); MNHN A-3378 [ex USNM] (1); MSNG 8313 (1); MTD F 173 [ex USNM] (1); RMNH 11733 [ex USNM 27032] (1); USNM 24972 (4), 24994 (1), 26870 (1), 26903 (2), 27032 (3), 27096 (2); ZMB 11541 [ex USNM 26903] (1); ZMUB 1066 [ex USNM 26964] (1), 1071 [ex USNM] (1); ZMUC [ex USNM 27032] (?). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:345 [ref. 10350], Blanc & Hureau 1968:22 [ref. 20738], Frøiland 1979:149 [ref. 21547], Böhlke 1984:152 [ref. 13621], Paepke & Fricke 1992:273 [ref. 19946], Zarske 2003:30 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Sebastes atrovirens (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:134 [ref. 9277], Lea 1983:147 [ref. 11578], Chen 1985:36 [ref. 6543], Moreno 1993:6 [ref. 25511], Orr et al. 2000:34 [ref. 24942], Snytko 2001:15 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:127 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:74 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:128 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:57 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes atrovirens (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: northern California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

auriculatus, Sebastes Girard [C. F.] 1854:131 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 1817] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 348 (orig. 2, now 1, osteo. spec.) •Valid as Sebastichthys auriculatus (Girard 1854) -- (Herrera 1896:63 [ref. 39336]). •Valid as Sebastes auriculatus Girard 1854 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:134 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:290 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:184 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:31 [ref. 24942], Musick et al. 2000:14 [ref. 24959], Snytko 2001:15 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:129 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:354 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:74 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:30 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:128 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:57 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes auriculatus Girard 1854. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Gulf of Alaska (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

aurita, Scorpaena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:106, Pl. 27 (fig. 2) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype: SMF 1266. Possible type: RMNH 591 [ex SMF] (1). •Valid as Parascorpaena aurita (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dor 1984:81 [ref. 29757], Winterbottom et al. 1989:20 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:21 [ref. 25356], Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Allen et al. 2006:882 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30319], Motomura 2009:64 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:89 [ref. 31256], Motomura et al. 2011:63 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:224 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34135], Fricke et al. 2018:131 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273], Moore et al. 2020:109 [ref. 37357], Motomura in Motomura et al. 2021:17 [ref. 38121], Fujiwara et al. 2022:88 [ref. 39094], Chou & Liao 2022:9 [ref. 39195]). Current status: Valid as Parascorpaena aurita (Rüppell 1838). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines, north to Taiwan and Amami Islands (southern Japan), south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

aurora, Sebastichthys Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:80 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Santa Barbara Islands, off California, U.S.A., Albatross stations 2948 and 2960, depth 266-267 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 48239. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 323 (3); USNM 48240 (1), 124969 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:122 [ref. 12291] with a lectotype. See Mecklenburg et al. 2002:339 [ref. 25968]. •Valid as Sebastes aurora (Gilbert 1890) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:134 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:292 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:185 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:14 [ref. 24942], Snytko 2001:16 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:132 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:74 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:128 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:57 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes aurora (Gilbert 1890). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: British Columbia (Canada) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

avius, Helicolenus Abe [T.] & Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1972:49, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 39 (no. 4); ref. 7598] Between 32°40'N, 172°17'E and 35°05'N, 171°46'E, southern end of Emperor Seamount Chain, northwestern Pacific, depth 450-600 meters. Holotype: ZUMT 52457. Paratypes: ABE 15256 (1); BMNH 1971.12.14.1 (1); CAS 13614 (2), 13615 (1, c&s); USNM 206327 (2). •Valid as Helicolenus avius Abe & Eschmeyer 1972 -- (Barsukov & Borets 1983:179 [ref. 14645], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:313 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:584 [ref. 25086], Snytko 2001:7 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:584 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:424 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:325 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Shinohara et al. 2011:42 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al. 2014:244 [ref. 33330], Kim et al. 2021:110 [ref. 39117]). Current status: Valid as Helicolenus avius Abe & Eschmeyer 1972. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Western and North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

axillaris, Scorpaena Bliss [R.] 1883:51 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 6028. •Synonym of Sebastapistes mauritiana Cuvier 1829 -- (Fricke 1999:163 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis gibbosa (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (W. Eschmeyer, pers. observation of holotype, Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945], Motomura & Shinohara 2005:300 [ref. 29181]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis gibbosa (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

ayresii, Sebastodes Gilbert [C. H.] & Cramer [F.] in Gilbert 1897:450 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 19 (no. 1115); ref. 1629] Cortez Banks near San Diego, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 47744. •Synonym of Sebastes rosaceus Girard 1854 -- (Chen 1971:11 [ref. 7668]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes rosaceus Girard 1854. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

azorica, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1969:80, Fig. 8a [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences No. 79; ref. 1274] Terceira, Azores, northeastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): USNM 94463. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena azorica Eschmeyer 1969 -- (Blanc & Hureau 1973:579 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1215 [ref. 13677], Golani 1996:25 [ref. 22271], Santos et al. 1997:76 [ref. 23531] with question, Arruda 1997:115 [ref. 24952], Golani 2005:32 [ref. 37112], Psomadakis et al. 2012:16 [ref. 33457], Poss 2016:2271 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Carneiro et al. 2019:230 [ref. 37250], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214], Golani 2021:35 [ref. 38303]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena azorica Eschmeyer 1969. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northeastern Atlantic: Azores; Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

babcocki, Sebastodes Thompson [W. F.] 1915:120, Pl. [Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries for British Columbia 1914; ref. 17909] Off Middleton Island, Alaska, 59°1'N, depth 80-100 fathoms. Syntypes: not found. •Valid as Sebastes babcocki (Thompson 1915) -- (Rosenblatt & Chen 1972:32 [ref. 11481], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:135 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:294 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:185 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:35 [ref. 24942], Snytko 2001:16 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:134 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:351 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:74 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:30 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:130 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:57 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes babcocki (Thompson 1915). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: North Pacific: Bering Sea south to southern California (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

badiorufus, Sebastapistes Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1935:409 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 18 (no. 12); ref. 2109] Takaroa Atoll, Tuamotu Islands. Holotype (unique): FMNH 17337. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:78 [ref. 12367]. Original as badio-rufus. •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis fowleri Pietschmann 1934 -- (authors). •Synonym of Sebastapistes fowleri (Pietschmann 1934) -- (Randall & Poss 2002:57 [ref. 25855], Randall 2005:125 [ref. 28239], Motomura & Senou 2009:3 [ref. 30176]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes fowleri (Pietschmann 1934). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

bakeri, Scorpaena Seale [A.] 1901:120 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 14357] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Syntypes: (4) ANSP 87606 (1), BPBM 254 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:152 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829) -- (Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

ballieui, Scorpaena Sauvage [H.-E.] in Vaillant & Sauvage 1875:278 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 3) v. 3; ref. 17853] Hawaiian Islands. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6883 (2), 0000-8993 (1), 0000-9557 (2). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:10-11 [ref. 20738]. Genus misspelled Scorpoena in the original description. •Valid as Scorpaena ballieui Sauvage 1875 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:317 [ref. 6389]). •Valid as Sebastapistes ballieui (Sauvage 1875) -- (Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Mundy 2005:330 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:178 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2011:69 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2014:138 [ref. 33591], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[32] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes ballieui (Sauvage 1875). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

bandanensis, Scorpaena Bleeker [P.] 1851:237 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 331] Banda Neira, Banda Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): SMNS 10632. Type Catalog: Fricke 2005:57 [ref. 29864]. Appeared first in the abstract as above, then in Steindachner 1866:438, Pl. 3 (figs. 2-2a) [ref. 4210]; also on p. 15 of separate. •Valid as Parascorpaena bandanensis (Bleeker 1851) -- (Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Allen & Erdmann 2012:225 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34135], Kwik & Lim 2020:13 [ref. 38869]). Current status: Valid as Parascorpaena bandanensis (Bleeker 1851). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Singapore, Indonesia and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

bankiensis, Trachycephalus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:456 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 1089] Banks Group, Vanuatu, southwestern Pacific. Syntypes: AMS I.14330 (2). Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae.

baramenuke, Sebastodes Wakiya [Y.] 1917:14, Fig. [Suisangaku Kaiho v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 22697] Miyagi Prefecture, Iwate Prefecture, and Kokkaido, Japan. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Sebastes baramenuke (Wakiya 1917) -- (Kanayama in Amaoka et al. 1983:151, 211 [ref. 8379], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:311 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:35 [ref. 15964], Kim & Lee 1993:457 [ref. 39487], Shinohara et al. 1996:174 [ref. 26605], Nakabo 2000:588 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:25 [ref. 25650], Snytko 2001:17 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:588 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 560 [ref. 26218], Parin et al. 2002:S61 [ref. 28300], Antonenko et al. 2003:281 [ref. 26893], Love et al. 2005:75 [ref. 37547], Orr & Hawkins 2008:128 [ref. 29591], Shinohara et al. 2011:42 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al.2014:245 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:213 [ref. 33547], Kells et al. 2016:349 [ref. 35888], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:856 [ref. 38925]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes baramenuke (Wakiya 1917). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Sea of Japan (Korea northward) and Pacific coast of Honshu (Japan) north to western Aleutian Islands (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

barathri, Scorpaena Hector [J.] 1875:80 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 15 (no. 85) (art. 11); ref. 18268] Off Cape Farewell, New Zealand, depth 400 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1887.12.6.10. Apparently appeared first as above, then in Hector 1875:245, Pl. 10 (fig. 15a) [ref. 18269]. •Valid as Helicolenus barathri (Hector 1875) -- (Paulin 1989:322 [ref. 15772], Paulin et al. 1989:168 [ref. 24556], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:867 [ref. 29078], Johnson & Motomura 2008:496 [ref. 30648], Struthers & Motomura 2015:1079 [ref. 34284]). Current status: Valid as Helicolenus barathri (Hector 1875). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Australia and New Zealand region. Habitat: marine.

barbata, Scorpaena Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Gronow) 1788:70 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] No locality stated. No types known. Based on Scorpaena capite cavernoso, cirris geminis in maxilla inferiore of Gronow 1754:46, No. 103 [ref. 20783]. See also Scorpaena gronovii Walbaum 1792. Homonym of Scorpaena barbata Rüppell 1838 and S. barbata Gronow 1854; not used as valid after 1899 (see ICZN Art. 23.9.1.1); therefore permanently invalid due to reversal of precendence in favor of Scorpaena barbata Rüppell 1838 following ICZN Art. 23.9. •Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Poss 2016:2282 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). •Homonym of Scorpaena barbata Rüppell 1838 and S. barbata Gronow 1854; not used as valid after 1899 (see Art. 23.9.1.1); therefore permanently invalid due to reversal of precedence in favor of Scorpaena barbara Rüppell 1838 following ICZN Art. 23.9. •Nomen nudum -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[4] [ref. 38565]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

barbata, Scorpaena Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:116 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian Ocean. Holotype: BMNH 1853.11.12.8 (skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:237 [ref. 13434]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Scorpaena barbata Rüppell 1838. •Scorpaena sp. -- (Wheeler 1958:237 [ref. 13434]). •Questionably a synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:81 [ref. 1274], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). •Homonym of Scorpaena barbata Rüppell 1838 and S. barbata Gronow 1854; not used as valid after 1899 (see Art. 23.9.1.1); therefore permanently invalid due to reversal of precedence in favor of Scorpaena barbara Rüppell 1838 following ICZN Art. 23.9. Suppressed. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

barbata, Scorpaena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:105, Pl. 27 (fig. 1) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 1381. Scorpaenopsis is feminine, so correct spelling is barbata. Preoccupied by Scorpaena barbata Bonnaterre 1788, but available due to reversal of precedence following ICZN Art. 23.9 (see also comments under Scorpaena barbata Bonnaterre 1788). We are aware of 25 publications that use Scorpaenopsis barbata or barbatus as valid, published in 1984-2013 (R. Fricke, personal communication, Apr. 2016), to meet the conditions of ICZN Art. 23.9.1.2. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis barbata (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dor 1984:83 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356] as barbatus, Randall 1995:111 [ref. 22896] as barbatus, Carpenter et al. 1997:137 [ref. 23922] as barbatus, Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:13 [ref. 25801], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Golani & Fricke 2018:55 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:128 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:68 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis barbata (Rüppell 1838). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea; northwestern Indian Ocean: Somalia and Socotra to Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

barberi, Pterois Steindachner [F.] 1900:175 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 37 (no. 16) (for 21 June 1900); ref. 20498] Honolulu to Cape Horn, pelagic [actual at or near Hawaiian Islands]. Holotype (unique): UMB 164 [RK UMB 4562]. Type catalog: Wahlert 1955:326 [ref. 21527]. Species later illustrated and described in detail in Steindachner 1900:491 Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [ref. 14892]; on p. 9 of separate. •Valid as Dendrochirus barberi (Steindachner 1900) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:275 [ref. 6389], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Mundy 2005:324 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:171 [ref. 30952], Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:5 [ref. 32776], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35277], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[27] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Valid as Dendrochirus barberi (Steindachner 1900). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

barffi, Scorpaena Curtiss [A.] 1944:11 [Further notes on the zoology of Tahiti.; ref. 12574] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Pterois radiata Cuvier 1829 -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[11] [ref. 33935]). Current status: Synonym of Pterois radiata Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

barrybrowni, Scorpaenodes Pitassy [D. E.] & Baldwin [C. C.] in Baldwin, Pitassy & Robertson 2016:143, Figs. 1-2A [ZooKeys No. 606; ref. 34588] Curaçao, eastward of Substation Curaçao downline, 12.0832°N, 68.8991°W, depth 95-160 meters. Holotype: USNM 406390. Paratypes: CAS, USNM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Scorpaenodes barrybrowni Pitassy & Baldwin 2016. Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes barrybrowni Pitassy & Baldwin 2016. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Curaçao, Bonaire and Dominica, western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

bathycolus, Scorpaenodes Allen [G. R.] & Erdmann [M. V.] 2012:229, 1104, Figs. 1-2 [Reef fishes of the East Indies.; ref. 31980] Pulau Panjang, 2°58.560'S, 123°17.732'E, southern Fakfak Peninsula, West Papua, Indonesia, depth 60 meters, Holotype: MZB 20605. Paratypes: WAM P.33090-007 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis bathycolus Allen & Erdmann 2012 -- (Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932]). •Valid as Scorpaenodes bathycolus Allen & Erdmann 2012 -- (Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes bathycolus Allen & Erdmann 2012. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: West Papua (Indonesia) and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

bathyperimensis, Neomerinthe Zajonz [U.] & Klausewitz [W.] 2002:1482, Figs. 1-2, 3a [Journal of Fish Biology v. 61 (no. 6); ref. 26817] Strait of Perim, northwestern of Perim Island, Yemen, southern Red Sea, 12°43.7'N, 43°15.0'E, MINDIK-Expedition, River V. Meteor cruise 5, station 230, depth 228-235 meters. Holotype (unique): SMF 29278. The specimen is an abnormal one, lacking anal fin spines. •Valid as Neomerinthe bathyperimensis Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002-- (Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308]). •Synonym of Neomerinths erostris (Alcock 1896) -- (Motomura et al. 2015:530 [ref. 33980], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Neomerinthe erostris (Alcock 1896). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

bauchotae, Neomerinthe Poss [S. G.] & Duhamel [G.] 1991:94, Figs. 1-2 [Cybium v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 15728] Saint Paul Island [not Amsterdam Island], southern Indian Ocean, 38°48'S, 77°34'E, depth 350-412 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1989-0273. Paratypes: CAS 70095 (1); GCRL 23319 (1); MNHN 1989-0274 to 0276 (1, 1, 3), 1989-0277 (4, 1 c&s), 1989-0278 to 0279 (1, 3), 1990-1500 (1, badly damaged). •Valid as Neomerinthe bauchotae Poss & Duhamel 1991 -- (Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2015:537 [ref. 33980], Motomura et al. 2016:112 [ref. 35079]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe bauchotae Poss & Duhamel 1991. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

beanorum, Pontinus Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1900:279, Fig. 85 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 20 (pt 1) [for 1900]; ref. 14876] 1.25 miles north of the entrance to San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico, Fish Hawk station 6050, depth 91 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 49534. •Valid as Neomerinthe beanorum (Evermann & Marsh 1900) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:42 [ref. 1274], Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:63 [ref. 26475], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1242 [ref. 27048], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:32 [ref. 28815]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe beanorum (Evermann & Marsh 1900). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

bellicosa, Scorpaena Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:17 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Nicol Bay, Queensland, Australia. No types known. •Synonym of Scorpaena picta Cuvier 1829 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:449 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Paracorpaena picta (Cuvier 1829) -- (Allen et al. 2006:882 [ref. 29066] with Kuhl and van Hasselt as authors). •Synonym of Parascorpaena aurita (Rüppell 1838) -- (Motomura et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30319], Motomura et al. 2011:330 [ref. 31618]) Current status: Synonym of Parascorpaena aurita (Rüppell 1838). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

bellus, Brachirus Jordan [D. S.] & Hubbs [C. L.] 1925:274, Pl. 10 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 2486] Misaki, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): FMNH 58783 [ex CM 7894]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:93 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:16 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Dendrochirus bellus (Jordan & Hubbs 1925) -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:570 [ref. 27969], Shimizu & Hatooka 1997:3 [ref. 24377], Poss 1999:2312 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:568 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Shinohara et al. 2001:314 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:568 [ref. 26001], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:5 [ref. 32776], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[16] [ref. 35277], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[27] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Valid as Dendrochirus bellus (Jordan & Hubbs 1925). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Japan, East China Sea, Taiwan, China and Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

bergii, Scorpaena Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1900:276, Fig. 83 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 20 (pt 1) [for 1900]; ref. 14876] Harbor of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Fish Hawk station 6065, depth 4-6 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 49533. Paratypes: USNM 126190 [ex USFC 813, USBF 877] (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena bergii Evermann & Marsh 1900 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:101 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:55 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:274 [ref. 23100] as bergi, Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827] as bergi, Villamizar 1996:37 [ref. 23496] as bergi, Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:65 [ref. 26475], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1252 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:39 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:82 [ref. 38844]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena bergii Evermann & Marsh 1900. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: New York (U.S.A.) and Bermuda south to northern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

bibroni, Sebastes (Sebastichthys) Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:116, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (Série 2) v. 1; ref. 3880] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7032. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:87 [ref. 20738]. •Synonym of Pontinus kuhlii (Bowdich 1825) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:36 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:583 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1213 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:668 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2265 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Synonym of Pontinus kuhlii (Bowdich 1825). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

bilineatus, Sebastodes Welander [A. D.] & Alverson [D. L.] 1954:37 [1], Figs. 1-2 [Fisheries Research Papers, Seattle v. 1 (no. 2) (pt 4); ref. 12671] Cobb Seamount, 46°44'N, 130°47'W, northeastern Pacific, depth 25 fathoms. Holotype (unique): UW 10099. On p. 1 of separate. •Synonym of Sebastes ruberrimus (Cramer 1895) -- (Mecklenburg et al. 2002:380 [ref. 25968]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes ruberrimus (Cramer 1895). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

biocellatus, Nemapterois Fowler [H. W.] 1938:81, Fig. 36 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Jolo Light, Philippines, Jolo Island, Sulu Sea, 6°04'20"N, 120°59'20"E, Albatross station D.5136, depth 22 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98894. •Valid as Nemapterois biocellatus Fowler 1938 -- (Klausewitz 1969:348 [ref. 39501]). •Valid as Dendrochirus biocellatus (Fowler 1938) -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:317 [ref. 6441], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:100 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:154 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2313 [ref. 24796], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:568 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:568 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:115 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:878 [ref. 29002], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:217 [ref. 31980], Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:5 [ref. 32776], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[40] [ref. 35277], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[27] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Valid as Dendrochirus biocellatus (Fowler 1938). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, western Mascarenes, Maldives and Sri Lanka east to Mariana and Tuamotu islands, Line Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northwestern Australian shelf, New Caledonia and Solomon Islands and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Pterois Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1884:200 [32], Pl. 6 (figs. 1-1a) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 49 (1. Abth.); ref. 4248] Tokyo, Japan. Syntypes: MZS 892 (1); NMW 75648 (1). Type information (MZS) from Amaoka & Fujii 1999:151 [ref. 26515]. •Valid as Ebosia bleekeri (Döderlein 1884) -- (Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1978:68 [ref. 6386], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441], Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:569, 718 [ref. 8056], Chen et al. 1997:166 [ref. 26476] dated 1844, Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:567 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Nakabo 2002:567 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 559 [ref. 26218], Allen & Erdmann 2012:219 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32988], Iwamoto & McCosker 2014:286 [ref. 33298], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:300 [ref. 33570], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[9] [ref. 33899]). Current status: Valid as Ebosia bleekeri (Döderlein 1884). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Australia to Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam, Indonesia, Vanuatu (few records inbetween). Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Scorpaena Day [F.] 1878:747 [149], Pl. 36 (fig. 2) [The fishes of India Part 4; ref. 4887] Andaman Islands, east of Bay of Bengal. Syntypes: AMS B.8277 (1), ZSI 1751 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. Based on Day's treatment on Scorpaena Haplodactylus (not of Bleeker) on p. 149. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •In Parascorpaena -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[4] [ref. 38565]). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

borealis, Sebastes Barsukov [V. V.] 1970:994 [760], Fig. 1 [Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR v. 195 (no. 4); ref. 7717] North Pacific, 57°41'N, 150°00'W, depth 270-310 meters. Holotype: ZIN 39279. Paratypes: ZIN 25035, 35132 (3), 35133 (1). On p. 760 in English translation. •Valid as Sebastes borealis Barsukov 1970 -- (Kanayama in Amaoka et al. 1983:151, 211, 277, 335 [ref. 8379], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:135 [ref. 9277], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:311 [ref. 6441], McAllister 1990:185 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:17 [ref. 24942], Nakabo 2000:588 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:25 [ref. 25650], Snytko 2001:18 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:136 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:382 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:588 [ref. 26001], Parin et al. 2002:S61 [ref. 28300], Fedorov et al. 2003:59 [ref. 27579], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:75 [ref. 37547], Orr & Hawkins 2008:128 [ref. 29591], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:214 [ref. 33547], Mecklenburg & Steinke 2015:163 [ref. 34033], Kells et al. 2016:130 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:57 [ref. 37205], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:856 [ref. 38925]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes borealis Barsukov 1970. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: North Pacific: northern Hokkaido (Japan) and Okhotsk Sea north to western Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (U.S.A.), then south to California (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

brachyptera, Pterois Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:368 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Unknown locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6565. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:8 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Dendrochirus brachypterus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Dor 1984:85 [ref. 29757], Eschmeyer 1986:465 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:48 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:440 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:78 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:116 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:21 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:76 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:92 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:78 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:100 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2313 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:568 [ref. 25086], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:162 [ref. 25191], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:568 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:115 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:878 [ref. 29002], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:88 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:218 [ref. 31980], Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:5 [ref. 32776], Larson et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:112 [ref. 36167], Francis & Duffy 2015:483 [ref. 36161], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1091 [ref. 34285], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[21] [ref. 35277], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[27] [ref. 36536], Kwik & Lim 2020:15 [ref. 38869]). Current status: Valid as Dendrochirus brachypterus (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Sri Lanka east to Hawaiian Islands and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island, northern New Zealand and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

brachyptera, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:111, Figs 7a-b [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 9211] Off Venezuela, 10°50'N, 66°55'W, Oregon station 4461, depth 53 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 198153 [ex UMML 13334]. Paratypes: UF 213335 [ex UMML 13335] (3), USNM 198148 [ex UMML 13333] (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena brachyptera Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:56 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:274 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:289 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:65 [ref. 26475], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1253 [ref. 27048], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:133 [ref. 37485], Pinheiro et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34324], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena brachyptera Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) south to Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil), including Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:305 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6672 (1), 0000-6688 (1), 0000-7300 (1, dry); ZMB 747 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:11 [ref. 20738], Paepke & Fricke 1992:269 [ref. 19946], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:127 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:60 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:434 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:274 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:288 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:98 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:584 [ref. 16204], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:65 [ref. 26475], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:197 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1254 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:40 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:92 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34324], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Caires et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:602 [ref. 38945]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Virginia (U.S.A.) south to northern Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. IUCN (2015): Least concern. Habitat: marine.

brevifrons, Scorpaenopsis Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Randall [J. E.] 1975:299, Figs. 14-15 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 40 (no. 11); ref. 6389] Kaneohe Bay, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: BPBM 10958. Paratypes: ANSP 84921 (1); BPBM 4350 (1), 7816 (3), 10182 (1), 11985 (1), 13350-51 (1, 1); CAS 30231 (2); USNM 214047 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:152 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis brevifrons Eschmeyer & Randall 1975 -- (Eschmeyer 1986:474 [ref. 5652], Poss 1999:2340 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:575 [ref. 25086], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:14 [ref. 25801], Nakabo 2002:575 [ref. 26001], Mundy 2005:330 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:176 [ref. 30952], Motomura & Causse 2011:50 [ref. 31125], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis brevifrons Eschmeyer & Randall 1975. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.) endemic. Habitat: marine.

brevipectoralis, Pteropterus Mandrytsa [S. A.] 2002:129, Fig. [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 42 (no. 1); ref. 25958] Indian Ocean, Saya de Malha Bank, 10°02'S, 61°37'E, depth 70-80 meters. Holotype: ZIN 50137. Paratypes: ZIN 50138-39 (1, 1). •Valid as Pterois brevipectoralis (Mandrytsa 2002) based on status of Pteropterus -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:165 [ref. 33130], Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:x [ref. 33609], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[25] [ref. 33935]). Current status: Valid as Pterois brevipectoralis (Mandrytsa 2002). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Mascarene Islands and Saya de Malha Bank. Habitat: marine.

brevirostris, Lioscorpius Wada [H.] & Motomura [H.] 2022:[3], Figs. 3, 4b, 5b [Ichthyological Research Online First; ref. 39042] Northeast of Tutuba Island, Sanma, Vanuatu, 15°33'47"S, 167°19'30"E, depth 167 - 367 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2008-1242. Paratypes: (18) ASIZP, KAUM-I, MNHN. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Lioscorpius brevirostris Wada & Motomura 2022. Current status: Valid as Lioscorpius brevirostris Wada & Motomura 2022. Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and Fiji. Habitat: marine.

brevispina, Scorpaena Motomura [H.] & Senou [H.] 2008:1762, Figs. 1-5 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 72; ref. 29593] Off Futo, Ito City, Shizuoka Prefecture, east coast of Izu Peninsula, Pacific coast of Honshu Island, Japan, 34°52'N, 139°08'E, depth 45 meters. Holotype (unique): KPM-NI 16667 [ex IOP-O-120]. Plus two photographed specimens (Fig. 5) that were not preserved. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena brevispina Motomura & Senou 2008 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[8] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena brevispina Motomura & Senou 2008. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Izu Peninsula, Japan. Habitat: marine.

brevispinis, Sebastichthys (Pteropodus) Matsubara [K.] 1936:84, Fig. 3 [Journal of the Imperial Fisheries Institute v. 31 (no. 2); ref. 20602] Japan. Syntypes: (44) apparently lost, not at FAKU. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Sebastichthys proriger brevispinis Bean 1884, replaced by Sebastichthys hubbsi Matsubara 1937. •Synonym of Sebastes hubbsi (Matsubara 1936). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Sebastes hubbsi (Matsubara 1937). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

brevispinis, Sebastichthys proriger Bean [T. H.] 1884:359 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 6 (no. 387); ref. 225] Hassler Harbor, Alaska., U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 32004. Also appeared as Sebastichthys brevispinis new species in Bean 1885:627 [ref. 14573]. •Valid as Sebastes brevispinis (Bean 1884) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:135 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:274 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:185 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:28 [ref. 24942], Snytko 2001:19 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:138 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:357 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:75 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:30 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:130 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:57 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes brevispinis (Bean 1884). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: North Pacific: northeastern Bering Sea south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

brocki, Hypomacrus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1966:39, Figs. 138i, 143 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 3; ref. 5366] Talisse Island, Indonesia. Holotype: USNM 99782. Paratypes: USNM 99783 (1), 133076-77 (1, 1), 136430 (1), 136438 (1), 140090-91 (1, 1), 140228 (1). •Synonym of Scorpaenodes minor (Smith 1958) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:472 [ref. 5652], Randall 2005:121 [ref. 28239], Motomura et al. 2009:84 [ref. 30328]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes minor (Smith 1958). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

bucephalus, Scorpaena Alcock [A. W.] 1896:302 [2] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 65 (pt 2, No. 3); ref. 91] Off Malabar, Investigator station 146, depth 36 fathoms; off Coromandel, Investigator, depth 33 fathoms. Syntypes: ZSI F13737 (1) depth 36 fathoms, F14084 (1) depth 33 fathoms. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:155 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:42 [ref. 22148]. On p. 2 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 18 (fig. 7) [ref. 20534]. •Valid as Neomerinthe bucephalus (Alcock 1896) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe bucephalus (Alcock 1896). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: India. Habitat: marine.

bufo, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:306 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Brazil; Martinique Island, West Indies; Cuba. Syntypes (?): ZMB 8750 (1, dry) Martinique, SMF 1703 [ex MNHN] (1) Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:60 [ref. 20738], Paepke & Fricke 1992:269 [ref. 19946]. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:122 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

bulacephala, Scorpaena Motomura [H.], Last [P. R.] & Yearsley [G. K.] 2005:19, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 1043; ref. 28339] South of Norfolk Island, 28°54'-55'S, 167°40'-41'E, Norfolk Ridge, Tasman Sea, depth 111-113 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 6009-05. Paratypes: AMS I. 43470-001 (1); CSIRO H 6009-06 (1), H 6028-03 (1), H 6028-07 (2); NMV A.25132-005 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena bulacephala Motomura, Last & Yearsley 2005 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Wibowo et al. 2019:304 [ref. 37166], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[10] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena bulacephala Motomura, Last & Yearsley 2005. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island (northern Tasman Sea), New Caledonia, Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

burra, Scorpaena Richardson [J.] 1842:215 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 57); ref. 21246] Depuch Island, Western Australia. No type known. Based on a drawing. •Synonym of Scorpaena picta Kuhl & van Hasselt 1829 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442] with Kuhl & van Hasselt as authors). •Synonym of Parascorpaena picta (Cuvier 1829) -- (Allen et al. 2006:883 [ref. 29066] with Kuhl & van Hasselt as authors). •Nomen dubium -- (Motomura et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30319]). Nomen Dubium. Current status: Synonym of Parascorpaena. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

bynoensis, Scorpaena Richardson [J.] 1845:22, Pl. 14 (figs. 3-5) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Northwestern coast of Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Scorpaena bynoensis Richarson 1845 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Sebastapistes bynoensis (Richardson 1845) -- (Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122]). •Synonym of Scorpaena picta Cuvier 1829 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:449 [ref. 12442], Larson & Williams 1997:353 [ref. 23967], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:325 [ref. 28867], Larson et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32988]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 2005:126 [ref. 28239]). •Synonym of Parascorpaena picta (Cuvier 1829) -- (Allen et al. 2006:882 [ref. 29066] with Kuhl & van Hasselt as authors). •Synonym of Parascorpaena aurita (Rüppell 1838) -- (Motomura et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30319]). Current status: Synonym of Parascorpaena aurita (Rüppell 1838). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

cacopsis, Scorpaenopsis Jenkins [O. P.] 1901:401, Figs. 13-14 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 (1899); ref. 2340] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 49690. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis cacopsis Jenkins 1901 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:308 [ref. 6389], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:16 [ref. 25801], Mundy 2005:330 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:177 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis cacopsis Jenkins 1901. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.) endemic. Habitat: marine.

caenaematicus, Sebastes Tsuyuki [H.] & Westrheim [S. J.] 1970:2243, Fig. 7 [Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada v. 27 (no. 12); ref. 6803] 40 miles west of Amphitrite Pt., southwestern Vancouver Island, 48°45.8'N, 126°30'W, British Columbia, Canada, depth 307-311 meters. Holotype: UBC 69-2. Paratypes: NMC 69-439 (4); UBC 69-3 (8). •Synonym of Sebastes borealis Barsukov 1970 -- (Love et al. 2002:122 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:382 [ref. 25968], Parin et al. 2014:214 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes borealis Barsukov 1970. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

calcarata, Scorpaena Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:422 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Clearwater Harbor, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 23556 [not 23566]. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena calcarata Goode & Bean 1882 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:134 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:60 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:275 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:482 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:184 [ref. 14674], Cervigón 1991:290 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:98 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:65 [ref. 26475], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1255 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:821 [ref. 28049], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:41 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Caires et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:603 [ref. 38945]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena calcarata Goode & Bean 1882. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: South Carolina (U.S.A.) south to northeastern Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

canariensis, Sebastes (Sebastichthys) Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:117, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (Série 2) v. 1; ref. 3880] Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7031. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:19 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena canariensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:79 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:670 [ref. 17613], Motomura et al. 2005:3 [ref. 28289], Poss 2016:2272 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Carneiro et al. 2019:230 [ref. 37250], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena canariensis (Sauvage 1878). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

capensis, Scorpaena Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & von Bonde [C.] 1924:18 [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa v. 3 (no. 7) (1922); ref. 1649] West coast of South Africa, Pickle stations 66, 86, 336 and 312, depth 537 and 280 fathoms. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Permanently invalid, preoccupied by Scorpaena capensis Gmelin 1789, replaced by Trachyscorpia (Mesoscorpia) eschmeyeri Whitley 1970. •Treated incorrectly as valid as Trachyscorpia capensis [should use Trachyscorpia eschmeyeri] -- (Eschmeyer 1969:50 [ref. 1274], Paulin 1982:439 [ref. 23678], Eschmeyer 1986:477 [ref. 5652], Paulin et al. 1989:168 [ref. 24556], Shcherbachev et al. 1989:165 [ref. 36134], Ishida in Amaoka et al. 1990:234 [ref. 16024], Gomon et al. 1994:493 [ref. 22532], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Pakhorukov 2001:379 [ref. 25409]). •Synonym of Trachyscorpia eschmeyeri Whitley 1970 -- (Allen et al. 2006:867 [ref. 29078], Motomura et al. 2007:31 [ref. 29137], McCosker 2008:118 [ref. 29639]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Trachyscorpia eschmeyeri Whitley 1970. Scorpaenidae: Sebastolobinae. Habitat: marine.

capensis, Scorpaena Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1219 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1853.11.12.80 (LHS on paper). •Valid as Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:100 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Hureau 1971:578 [ref. 21187], Chen 1971:37 [ref. 7668], Eschmeyer 1986:477 [ref. 5652], Kong U. 1985:48 [ref. 11639], Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:81 [ref. 22530], Andrew et al. 1995:18 [ref. 38009], Rocha-Olivares et al. 1999:410 [ref. 27389], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:143 [ref. 28072], Anderson et al. 2005:28 [ref. 28396], Venerus et al. 2013 [ref. 32729]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: South Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

cardinalis, Scorpaena Solander [D. C.] & Richardson [J.] in Richardson 1842:212 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 57); ref. 21246] White Island, 37°30'S, 177°09'E, New Zealand, depth 19-21 meters [Original locality: Motuaro, Queen Charlotte's Sound [probably Bay of Islands], Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand]. Neotype: NMNZ P.044152. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. Taken in large part from Solander manuscript, authorship as above is here suggested. Neotype selected in Motomura et al. 2011:319 [ref. 31618]. •Valid as Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842 -- (Paulin 1982:439 [ref. 23678], Paxton et al. 1989:447 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:168 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:119 [ref. 23929], Kuiter 1997:86 [ref. 25488], Poss 1999:2334 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Motomura et al. 2005:866 [ref. 28254], Allen et al. 2006:884 [ref. 29066] with authorship as Richardson, Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2011:317 [ref. 31618], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:112 [ref. 36167], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1097 [ref. 34285], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Wibowo et al. 2019:308 [ref. 37166], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[10] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Zealand to Lord Howe, Norfolk and Kermadec islands. Habitat: marine.

caribbaeus, Scorpaenodes Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:847, Pl. 82 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Toro Point, Canal Zone, Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 81619. •Valid as Scorpaenodes caribbaeus Meek & Hildebrand 1928 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:88 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:276 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:292 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:67 [ref. 26475], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:198 [ref. 25013], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Collette et al. 2003:105 [ref. 26784], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1262 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:47 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34324], Baldwin et al. 2016:153 [ref. 34588], Robertson et al. 2020:161 [ref. 38098], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:82 [ref. 38844]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes caribbaeus Meek & Hildebrand 1928. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

carnatus, Sebastichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:73 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 126); ref. 10597] Monterey Bay, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 12190 (1); MNHN A-3284 [ex USNM] (1); MSNG 8352 (1); MTD F 167 [ex USNM] (1); ?NMW 5892 (1); RMNH 11906 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 26993 (1), 27098 (2, osteo. coll.); ZMUC 1881-87. Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:345 [ref. 10350], Blanc & Hureau 1968:22 [ref. 20738], Böhlke 1984:152 [ref. 13621], Zarske 2003:30 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Sebastes carnatus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:135 [ref. 9277], Moreno 1993:4 [ref. 25511], Orr et al. 2000:33 [ref. 24942], Snytko 2001:20 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:140 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Narum et al. 2004:926 [ref. 28046], Love et al. 2005:75 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:130 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:57 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes carnatus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Oregon (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

carnomagula, Trachyscorpia (Mesoscorpia) Motomura [H.], Last [P. R.] & Yearsley [G. K.] 2007:22, Figs. 1A-B, 2A [Zootaxa No. 1466; ref. 29137] East of St Patricks Head, Tasmania, Australia, 41°30'S, 148°44'E, depth 900 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 4234-01. Paratypes: (18) at AMS, CSIRO, NMNZ. Plus non-type specimen. •Valid as Trachyscorpia carnomagula Motomura, Last & Yearsley 2007 -- (McCosker 2008:118 [ref. 29639], Béarez & Motomura 2010:61 [ref. 30680], Struthers & Motomura 2015:1081 [ref. 34284]). Current status: Valid as Trachyscorpia carnomagula Motomura, Last & Yearsley 2007. Scorpaenidae: Sebastolobinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean off Australia. Habitat: marine.

castor, Pontinus Poey [F.] 1860:173 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Valid as Pontinus castor Poey 1860 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:30 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:273 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:281 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:420 [ref. 23827], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:196 [ref. 25013], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1245 [ref. 27048], Bunkley-Williams & Williams 2004:104 [ref. 27795], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:36 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2020:161 [ref. 38098]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus castor Poey 1860. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.), Bermuda, Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

castus, Pterois volitans Whitley [G. P.] 1951:406, Fig. 14 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 4); ref. 4715] Point Hedland, Western Australia. Holotype: AMS I.12941. •Synonym of Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Schultz 1986:686 [ref. 22245], Paxton et al. 1989:447 [ref. 12442], Allen & Erdmann 2008:129 [ref. 29479]). Current status: Synonym of Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

catocala, Scorpaenopsis Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:201, Pl. 56 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50651. Paratypes: AMNH 2293 [ex CAS-SU 7466] (1); ANSP 24221 (1); BPBM 1698 (1); FMNH 3966 (1); MCZ 54338 (1); CAS-SU 7466 (1), 7754 (6); USFC 2717 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:122 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:78 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis diabolus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:305 [ref. 6389], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:19 [ref. 25801], Mundy 2005:331 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis diabolus (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

caurinus, Sebastes Richardson [J.] 1844:no p., Pl. 41 (fig. 1) [Ichthyology.--Part 1. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur; ref. 3739] Sitka, Alaska, U.S.A. [Russia at time of collection] Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown (dry). Available from plate. Text in Richardson 1845:77 [ref. 20574]. •Valid as Sebastes caurinus Richardson 1844 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:136 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:296 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:185 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:23 [ref. 24942], Musick et al. 2000:14 [ref. 24959], Snytko 2001:21 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:144 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:366 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:75 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:30 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:130 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:58 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes caurinus Richardson 1844. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: North Pacific: western Gulf of Alaska (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

caussei, Pteroidichthys Motomura [H.] & Kanade [Y.] 2015:504, Figs. 2D-F, 3D [Zootaxa 4057 (no. 4); ref. 34096] Chesterfield Islands, New Caledonia, 19°12'S, 158°42'E, depth 68 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2005-2607. Paratypes: BPBM, MNHN. •Valid as Pteroidichthys caussei Motomura & Kanade 2015. Current status: Valid as Pteroidichthys caussei Motomura & Kanade 2015. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Chesterfield Islands (New Caledonia) and Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

cea, Rhinopias Randall [J. E.] & DiSalvo [L. H.] 1997:1036, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 22982] Motu Iti, Easter Island, depth 5 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 36317. •Valid as Rhinopias cea Randall & DiSalvo 1997 -- (Randall 2001:6 [ref. 25610], Motomura & Johnson 2006:500 [ref. 28799]). Current status: Valid as Rhinopias cea Randall & DiSalvo 1997. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Easter Island, southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

chalcogrammus, Sebastes (Murasoius) pachycephalus form Matsubara [K.] 1943:244 [Transactions Sigenkagaku Kenkyusyo No. 2; ref. 2905] Simonoseki, Japan. Holotype: Imp. Fish. Inst. No. 6317. Paratypes: (12). Called a form but treated as a subspecies and is regarded as available. •Apparently a synonym of Sebastes pachycephalus Temminck & Schlegel 1843. •Synonym of Sebastes pachycephalus Temminck & Schlegel 1843, but a valid subspecies -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:77 [ref. 15964], Nakabo 2000:595 [ref. 25086], Shimizu 2001:25 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:595 [ref. 26001]). •Treated chalcogrammus and nudus as a valid species separate from S. pachycephalus, but no first reviser action taken -- (Kai et al. 2011:340 [ref. 31619]). •Synonym of Sebastes nudus Matsubara 1943 -- (Kai & Nakabo 2013:551 [ref. 32653]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes nudus Matsubara 1943. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

chamaco, Sebastichthys Evermann [B. W.] & Radcliffe [L.] 1917:136, Pl. 12 (fig. 3) [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 95; ref. 1284] Mollendu, Peru. Holotype: USNM 77621. Paratypes: (5) USNM 77614 (1), 77663-64 (1, 1), 77677 (1). •Valid as Sebastichthys chamaco Evermann & Radcliffe 1917 -- (Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125]). •Valid as Sebastes chamaco (Evermann & Radcliffe 1917) -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:267 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kong U. 1985:48 [ref. 11639], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:82 [ref. 22530]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

cheni, Sebastes Barsukov [V. V.] 1988:39, fig'd [Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, Akademii Nauk SSSR v. 181; ref. 17642] Tsurga, Fukui Prefecture, Japan. Lectotype: ZIN 22958. Paralectotypes: identified as cheni CAS 45866 (1), 221441 (1), 221442 (1); CAS-SU 23647 (2), 29095 (2), 69870 (1), 69871 (1), 69872 (1); ZIN 44651(1). Plus other Paralectotypes reidentified to ventricosus (2), unidentified (9), plus one misidentifiation; original lots divided. Lectotype selected by Kai & Nakabo 2008:254, 256 [ref. 29759]. •Status uncertain -- (Kai & Nakabo 2002:260 [ref. 26335] as a color morph of S. inermis or a valid species, Kai et al. 2002:2596 [ref. 26731]). •Valid as Sebastes cheni Barsukov 1988 -- (Snytko 2001:22 [ref. 26410], Kai & Nakabo 2008:254 [ref. 29759], Kim et al. 2020:89 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:41 [ref. 37637], Yasutake et al. 2021:36 [ref. 38944]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes cheni Barsukov 1988. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Japan and southern Korea. Habitat: marine.

chilensis, Sebastodes Steindachner [F.] 1898:295 [Zoologische Jahrbücher. Jena, Supplementband v. 4; ref. 4238] Tumbes at Talcahuano, Chile. Syntypes: ZMB 15632 (3). Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:275 [ref. 19946]. •Synonym of Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kong U. 1985:48 [ref. 11639], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:82 [ref. 22530]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

chilioprista, Scorpaena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:107, Pl. 27 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 476. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

chincha, Sebastodes Nichols [J. T.] & Murphy [R. C.] 1922:511, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 46 (art. 9); ref. 15356] Chincha Islands, Ica Province, Peru. Holotype: AMNH 7784. Paratypes: AMNH 7941 (6), 7958 (1). •Synonym of Scorpaenodes xyris (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes xyris (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

chloreus, Dendrochirus Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:498, Fig. 41 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50701. Paratypes: (8) CAS-SU 23315 (1), 23294 (5); USNM 126089 (1). •Synonym of Dendrochirus barberi (Steindachner 1900) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:275 [ref. 6389], Mundy 2005:324 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:171 [ref. 30952], Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:5 [ref. 32776], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35277], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[27] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Synonym of Dendrochirus barberi (Steindachner 1900). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

chlorostictus, Sebastichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:294 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 150); ref. 10598] Monterey, California, U.S.A. (obtained at San Francisco market). Syntypes: (many) ANSP 12126 (1), ? 21709 [ex USNM 26964] (1); MNHN A-3275 [ex USNM] (1); MSNG 8307 (1); MTD F 170 [ex USNM] (1); RMNH 11909 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 26964 (8), 27092 (2, osteo.); ZMUB 1061 [ex USNM 26964] (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:345 [ref. 10350], Blanc & Hureau 1968:22 [ref. 20738], Frøiland 1979:149 [ref. 21547], Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621], Paepke & Fricke 1992:273-274 [ref. 19946], Zarske 2003:30 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Sebastes chlorostictus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Chen 1971:28 [ref. 7668], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:136 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:275 [ref. 26885], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:322 [ref. 24939], Orr et al. 2000:37 [ref. 24942], Snytko 2001:22 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:148 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:75 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:132 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:58 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes chlorostictus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) south to Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

chorista, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1860:103 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Not available, name on specimen mentioned under Sebastes kuhlii. •In the synonymy of Pontinus kuhlii (Bowdich 1825). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Pontinus kuhlii (Bowdich 1825). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

chrysomelas, Sebastichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1881:465 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 176); ref. 10607] Monterey, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 12127 (1); RMNH 11908 [ex USNM 26968] (1); MNHN A-3208 [ex USNM] (1); MSNG 8306 (1); MTD F 166 [ex USNM] (1); UMMZ 162177 (1); USNM 26880 (4), 26968 (3); ZMB [ex USNM 26880] (?); ZMUB 1068 [ex USNM] (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:22-23 [ref. 20738], Frøiland 1979:149 [ref. 21547], Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621], Paepke & Fricke 1992:274 [ref. 19946], Zarske 2003:30 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Sebastes chrysomelas (Jordan & Gilbert 1881) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:136 [ref. 9277], Orr et al. 2000:33 [ref. 24942], Snytko 2001:22 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:140 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Narum et al. 2004:926 [ref. 28046], Love et al. 2005:75 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:132 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:58 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes chrysomelas (Jordan & Gilbert 1881). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Oregon (U.S.A.) south to pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

ciliatus, Epinephelus Tilesius [W. G. von] 1813:474, Pl. 16 (figs. 1-6) [Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg v. 4 (for 1811); ref. 13413] Lynn Canal, north of Funter Bay, 58.2467°N, 134.899°W, depth 25 meters. Neotype: UW 43493. Appeared as Epinephelus ciliatus Camtschaticus et Americanus. Orr & Blackburn 2004 [ref. 27661] showed that ciliatus and its presumed synonym variabilis were separate species. Neotype designated by Orr & Blackburn 2004:339 [ref. 27661]. Original type locality was bodering Kamchatka, Russia and Aleutian Is. [one specimen]. •Valid as Sebastes ciliatus (Tilesius 1813) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:136 [ref. 9277], Richards & Westrheim 1988 [ref. 12454], Matarese et al. 1989:275 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:185 [ref. 14674], Shinohara et al. 1994:61 [ref. 22376], Orr et al. 2000:26 [ref. 24942], Nakabo 2000:589 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:25 [ref. 25650], Snytko 2001:23 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:151 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:356 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:589 [ref. 26001], Parin et al. 2002:S61 [ref. 28300], Orr & Blackburn 2004:334 [ref. 27661], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:75 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:214 [ref. 33547], Frable et al. 2015:373 [ref. 33878], Kells et al. 2016:132 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes ciliatus (Tilesius 1813). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: North Pacific: western Aleutian Islands (U.S.A.) and Bering Sea, through the Gulf of Alaska, then south to British Columbia (Canada). Habitat: marine.

cincta, Pterois Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:108, Pl. 26 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 349. •Synonym of Pterois radiata Cuvier 1829 -- (Dor 1984:86 [ref. 29757], Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:x [ref. 33609]). •Valid as Pterois cincta Rüppell 1838 -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[3] [ref. 33935], Matsunuma et al. 2017:333 [ref. 35034], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pterois cincta Rüppell 1838. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

cirrosa, Perca Thunberg [C. P.] 1793:199, Pl. 7 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 14 (for 1793); ref. 26701] Miyake-jima Island, Izu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZMUU 315. Type catalog: Wallin 1996:62 [ref. 32133]. The correct original spelling is cirrosa, but often seen as cirrhosa. Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308] states neotype designated by Randall & Eschmeyer 2001:17 [25801], but the holotype is apparently available. •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis oxycephalus (Bleeker 1849) -- (Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis cirrosa (Thunberg 1793) [sometimes as cirrhosa] -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:332 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:271 [ref. 19754], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:87 [ref. 15964] as cirrhosa, Kim & Lee 1993:471 [ref. 39487] as cirrhosa, Chen et al. 1997:165 [ref. 26476] as cirrhosa, Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:130 [ref. 23963], Poss 1999:2341 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:576 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:64 [ref. 25480] as cf. cirrhosa, Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:576 [ref. 26001], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:17 [ref. 25801], Choi et al. 2003:242, 564 [ref. 26218] as cirrhosa, Motomura et al. 2004:90 [ref. 28581], Motomura et al. 2010:91 [ref. 31256], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2011:64 [ref. 32410], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Motomura et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34709], Kim et al. 2020:95 [ref. 39118], Kwik & Lim 2020:14 [ref. 38869], Sonoyama et al. 2020:45 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis cirrosa (Thunberg 1793). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Vietnam, southern China and Taiwan north to South Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

citrinellus, Taenianotus Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:636, Pl. 81 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Off south coast of Molokai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3849 [or 3810] [or 3810], depth 43-73 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 51634. •Synonym of Taenianotus triacanthus Lacepède 1802 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:285 [ref. 6389], Mundy 2005:333 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Taenianotus triacanthus Lacepède 1802. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

clavilatus, Sebastodes Starks [E. C.] 1911:181, Pl. 30 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 2) (art. 9); ref. 10108] San Juan Islands, Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A. Holotype: FMNH 52293 [ex CM 548] (1). Paratypes: CAS-SU 21405 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:93 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:123 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:78 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Sebastes proriger (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes proriger (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

clemensi, Pontinus Fitch [J. E.] 1955:61, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 45 (no. 2); ref. 12270] 22 miles off the coast of Colombia, 2°25'N, 79°00'W, depth 50 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 163597. •Valid as Pontinus clemensi Fitch 1955 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1549 [ref. 22830], Franke & Acero P. 1996:765 [ref. 22923], McCosker et al. 1997:25 [ref. 22816], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:294 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:271 [ref. 24555], Béarez 2000:62 [ref. 38451], Mora et al. 2000:85 [ref. 25678], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:402 [ref. 34894], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus clemensi Fitch 1955. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Colombia south to northern Peru, including offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

cocosensis, Scorpaena Motomura [H.] 2004:819, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 2004 (no. 4); ref. 28049] Off Nuez Island, 5°34'00"N, 86°59'20"W, Cocos Island, eastern Pacific, 31-50 fathoms [57-92 meters]. Holotype (unique): CAS 219506. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena cocosensis Motomura 2004 -- (Motomura & McCosker 2009:135 [ref. 30886], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena cocosensis Motomura 2004. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Cocos Island and Galapágos Islands. Habitat: marine.

colesi, Scorpaena Nichols [J. T.] 1914:537, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 33 (art. 32); ref. 14161] Cape Lookout, Carteret County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): AMNH 4689. •Synonym of Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:129 [ref. 9211], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1254 [ref. 27048], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

colonensis, Scorpaena Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:844, Pl. 81 (fig. 1) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Tide pools, Colón, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 81606. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

coloratus, Sebastapistes Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:627, Fig. 243 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] South of Molokai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3849 [or 3810], depth 43-73 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51631. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8618 (1), USNM 51667 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:122 [ref. 12291], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena colorata (Gilbert 1905) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:326 [ref. 6389], Motomura et al. 2005:866 [ref. 28254], Motomura et al. 2005:29 [ref. 28339], Mundy 2005:328 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:174 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2011:66 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Wibowo et al. 2019:304 [ref. 37166], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[11] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena colorata (Gilbert 1905). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

columbianus, Sebastodes Hubbs [C. L.] & Schultz [L. P.] 1933:24, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [University of Washington Publications in Biology v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 2262] Columbia River mouth, on the Washington side between Chinook and Sand Island, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 94368. Paratypes: UMMZ 94369 (4). •Synonym of Sebastes melanops Girard 1856 -- (Kai et al. 2013:175 [ref. 33093]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes melanops Girard 1856. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

coniorta, Sebastapistes Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:495, Fig. 39 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50693. Paratypes: CAS-SU 23330 (122), 23589 (57). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:122 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Scorpaena coniorta (Jenkins 1903) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:316 [ref. 6389]). •Valid as Sebastapistes coniorta Jenkins 1903 -- (Myers 1999:100 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2307 [ref. 24796], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Mundy 2005:332 [ref. 28379], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:325 [ref. 28867], Randall 2007:178 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes coniorta Jenkins 1903. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia); Wake Atoll, Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands; probably antiequatorial but maybe more widespread. Habitat: marine.

constellatus, Sebastichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:295 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 150); ref. 10598] Coast of California, U.S.A. Syntypes: ?ANSP 12129 (1); MNHN A-3291 [ex USNM] (1); MSNG 8329 (1); MTD F 172 [ex USNM] (1); NMW 78656 (1); RMNH 11915 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 24147 (now 0), 26963 (1), 27086 (1), 153881 [ex 26963] (9); ZMB 11505 [ex USNM 26936] (1); ZMUB 1963 [ex USNM 26963] (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:345 [ref. 10350], Blanc & Hureau 1968:23 [ref. 20738], Frøiland 1979:149 [ref. 21547], Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621], Paepke & Fricke 1992:274 [ref. 19946], Zarske 2003:31 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Sebastes constellatus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Chen 1971:9 [ref. 7668], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:137 [ref. 9277], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:322 [ref. 24939], Orr et al. 2000:40 [ref. 24942], Snytko 2001:24 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:75 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:132 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:58 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes constellatus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: northern California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

cookii, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1874:78, Pl. 55 [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 3); ref. 18231] Raoul Island [Sunday Island], Kermadec Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.8.16.88. •Valid as Scorpaena cookii Günther 1874 -- (Eschmeyer & Allen 1971:521 [ref. 893], Paulin 1982:440 [ref. 23678], Kuiter 1993:119 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Poss 1999:2334 [ref. 24796], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Motomura et al. 2005:866 [ref. 28254], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066]). •Synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842 -- (Motomura et al. 2011:318 [ref. 31618], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[10] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

corallicola, Sebastapistes Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:493, Fig. 38 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50691. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7729 (35), U.S. Fish Comm. 2756 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:122 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Sebastapistes nuchalis (Günther 1874) -- (Blanc & Hureau 1973:585 [ref. 7218]). •Synonym of Scorpaena ballieui Sauvage 1875 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:317 [ref. 6389]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes ballieui (Sauvage 1875) -- (Mundy 2005:331 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:178 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2014:138 [ref. 33591]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes ballieui (Sauvage 1875). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

corallinus, Pontinus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1903:178 [35] [Boletim Sociedade Nacional Agricultura, Rio de Janeiro [Lavoura] 1903 (nos 4-7); ref. 3709] East-southeast of Ilha Rasa, off coast of Brazil, depth 100 meters. Lectotype: MNRJ 1889A. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 1889 (2). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:406 [ref. 12732]. On p. 35 of separate. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:406 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps not isolated]. •Questionably valid as Pontinus corallinus Miranda Ribeiro 1903 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:34 [ref. 1274]). •Valid as Pontinus corallinus Miranda Ribeiro 1903 -- (Cervigón 1992:421 [ref. 23827], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1238 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus corallinus Miranda Ribeiro 1903. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

corallinus, Scorpaenodes Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:64, Pl. 3 (fig. E), Fig. 5 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 4; ref. 4112] Baixo Pinda, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 301. Paratypes: (14) SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 368-376 (1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1). •Valid as Scorpaenodes corallinus Smith 1957 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:283 [ref. 6389], Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:120 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:328 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:174 [ref. 30952], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:65 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:229 [ref. 31980], Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes corallinus Smith 1957. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Hawaiian and Society islands. Habitat: marine.

cortezi, Scorpaenodes Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1938:304, Fig. 3 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 23 (pt 3, no. 15); ref. 249] 10 miles east of San Jose Island, Gulf of California, Mexico, 24°55'N, 110°20'W, surface. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 46503 [ex NYZS 24889-A]. Type catalog: Mead 1958:134 [ref. 20648]. •Valid as Sebastes cortezi (Beebe & Tee-Van 1938) -- (Chen 1975:111 [ref. 7413], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1560 [ref. 22830], Snytko 2001:24 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:157 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes cortezi (Beebe & Tee-Van 1938). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Eastern North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

cotticeps, Scorpaenopsis Fowler [H. W.] 1938:65, Fig. 27 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Tinakta Island, Tawi Tawi Islands, Sulu Archipelago, 5°11'50"N, 119°54'E, Albatross station D.5159, depth 10 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98891. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis cotticeps Fowler 1938 -- (Nakabo et al. 1993:31 [ref. 20716], Poss 1999:2341 [ref. 24796], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:18 [ref. 25801], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Motomura et al. 2004:93 [ref. 28581], Allen et al. 2006:889 [ref. 29066], Motomura & Causse 2011:50 [ref. 31125], Allen & Erdmann 2012:232 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis cotticeps Fowler 1938. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden, Somalia and Seychelles east to Philippines, north to Japan, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

cottoides, Scorpaena Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:196 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Not available; manuscript name mentioned under Synanceia papillosus. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Forster's description is reproduced in Lichtenstein 1844:128-130 [ref. 17531]. Also appeared in Richardson 1842:95 [ref. 13097] but without distinguishing features. From New Zealand. •In the synonymy of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159], Wibowo & Motomura 2020:542 [ref. 37777], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[19] [ref. 38565]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

crameri, Sebastodes Jordan [D. S.] in Gilbert 1897:451 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 19 (no. 1115); ref. 1629] Off Tillamook, Oregon, U.S.A., 45°32'N, 124°19'30"W, Albatross station 3091, depth 87 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 47745. •Valid as Sebastes crameri (Jordan 1897) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:137 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:298 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:185 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:12 [ref. 24942], Musick et al. 2000:14 [ref. 24959], Shytko 2001:24 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:158 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:376 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:76 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:31 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:132 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:58 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes crameri (Jordan 1897). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: eastern Bering Sea south to southern California (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

crassispinis, Sebastes Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1884:200 [32] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 49 (1. Abth.); ref. 4248] •Not available; mentioned in passing under Sebastes marmoratus; from Tokyo, Japan. Nomen Nudum. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae.

crenulata, Scorpaenopsis Motomura [H.] & Causse [R.] 2011:46, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 87 (no. 1); ref. 31125] Wallis and Futuna Islands, 11°54'00"S, 179°31'06"W, depth 600 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1995-746. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis crenulata Motomura & Causse 2011 -- (Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis crenulata Motomura & Causse 2011. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Wallis and Futuna Islands. Habitat: marine.

cristatus, Pterois Swainson [W.] 1839:264 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Sri Lanka. No types known. Based on Benn. Cey. pl. 1 -- which is Bennett 1828:Pl. 1 [ref. 16785]. •Synonym of Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Schultz 1986:686 [ref. 22245]). Current status: Synonym of Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

cristulata, Scorpaena Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:246, Pl. 67 (fig. 242) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] Off Georgia, U.S.A., 30°44'N, 79°26'W, Albatross station 2415, depth 440 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 39326. Two subspecies usually recognized: T. c. cristulata in the western Atlantic and T. c. echinata in the eastern Atlantic. •Valid as Trachyscorpia cristulata (Goode & Bean 1896) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:48 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:585 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1229 [ref. 13677], Robins & Ray 1986:272 [ref. 23100], Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Hutchins 2001:28 [ref. 25847] as cf. cristulata, Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1265 [ref. 27048], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:50 [ref. 28815], Motomura et al. 2007:21 [ref. 29137], McCosker 2008:118 [ref. 29639], Béarez & Motomura 2010:61 [ref. 30680], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708], Poss 2016:2288 [ref. 34610] as T. c. cristulata, Carneiro et al. 2019:229 [ref. 37250], Kovačić et al. 2021:76 [ref. 39014]). Current status: Valid as Trachyscorpia cristulata (Goode & Bean 1896). Scorpaenidae: Sebastolobinae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

crocotulus, Sebastes Hyde [J. R.], Kimbrell [C. A.], Budrick [J. A.], Lynn [E. A.] & Vetter [R. D.] 2008:1130, Fig. 4 [Molecular Ecology v. 17 (no. 4); ref. 32967] Described as a form of Sebastes miniatus. Formal description still pending according to Kells et al. 2016:134 [ref. 35888]. •Not available as of 2017. (A formal description... of the new species is currently in preparation [in 2008].) Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Sebastes. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae.

crossotus, Thysanichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:123, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 27 (no. 1351); ref. 2527] Off Ose Point, Suruga Bay, Japan, Albatross station 3720, depth 63 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 50907. •Valid as Thysanichthys crossotus Jordan & Starks 1904 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:313 [ref. 6441], Mandrytsa 1993 [ref. 21231], Nakabo 2000:581 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:581 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:425 [ref. 28370], Poss et al. 2010:242 [ref. 30744], Motomura et al. 2010:71 [ref. 31103]). Current status: Valid as Thysanichthys crossotus Jordan & Starks 1904. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

cruenta, Scorpaena Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1842:217 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 57); ref. 21246] Cape Kidnappers, New Zealand. No types known. •Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider and Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1982:438 [ref. 23678], Motomura et al. 2011:330 [ref. 31618], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159], Wibowo & Motomura 2020:528 [ref. 37777], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[19] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

curvispina, Brachypterois Matsunuma [M.], Sakurai [M.] & Motomura [H.] 2013:407, Figs. 3-5, 6a,7, 9A-C, 10-11 19, 20a [Zootaxa 3693 (no. 4); ref. 32811] Southeast of Weary Bay, Queensland, Australia, 15°55.36'S, 145°39.60E, to 15°55.15'S, 145°40.14'S, depth 40 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H7204-02 (X.). Paratypes: Many at CSIRI, ROM. •Valid as Brachypterois curvispina Matsunuma, Sakurai & Motomura 2013. Current status: Valid as Brachypterois curvispina Matsunuma, Sakurai & Motomura 2013. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Queensland. Australia. Habitat: marine.

cyanostigma, Scorpaena Bleeker [P.] 1856:400 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 353] Kajeli, Buru, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (6) RMNH 4756 (up to 6 of 9). •Valid as Scorpaena cyanostigma Bleeker 1856 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:447 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Sebastapistes cyanostigma (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Eschmeyer 1986:475 [ref. 5652], Winterbottom et al. 1989:21 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:84 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:88 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:84 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:100 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:163 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2344 [ref. 24796], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:579 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:28 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:579 [ref. 26001], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:125 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:891 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2010:92 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:69 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:237 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:54 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35333], Golani & Fricke 2018:56 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:103 [ref. 36673], Rajan et al. 2021:4 [ref. 39508], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[32] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes cyanostigma (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Aldabra, Comoro Islands and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Mariana Islands and Phoenix Islands (Kiribati), north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

cypho, Scorpaenella Fowler [H. W.] 1938:84, Fig. 37 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off March Island, Molucca Passage, 0°37'00"N, 127°15'00"E, Albatross station D.5618, depth 417 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98899. •Synonym of Setarches longimanus (Alcock 1894) -- (Eschmeyer & Collette 1966:356 [ref. 6485]). •Valid as Lythrichthys cypho (Fowler 1938) -- (Wada et al. 2021:1 [ref. 38160]). Current status: Valid as Lythrichthys cypho (Fowler 1938). Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Habitat: marine.

dabryi, Scorpaena Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:124, Pl. 1 (fig. 8) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (Série 2) v. 1; ref. 3880] China. Lectotype: MNHN 6882. Paralectotype: MNHN 2021-0285 [ex 0000-6882] (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:11 [ref. 20738]. Lectotype selected by Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[13] [ref. 38565]. Scorpaena dabryi Sauvage 1878 is a forgotten name that could be a senior synonym of Neomerinthe procurva Chen 1981, but was not used as valid after 1899, therefore reversal of precedence according to ICZN Art. 23.9 in favor of N. procurva. •Synonym of Neomerinthe procurva Chen 1981. •Synonym of Scorpaena miostoma Günther 1877 -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[13] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena miostoma Günther 1877. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

dactyloptera, Scorpaena Delaroche [F. E.] 1809:337 [51], Pl. 22 (fig. 9) [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 13; ref. 17380] [Iviça] Ibiza, Balearic Islands; Barcelona, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4846 (2) Iviça. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:11-12 [ref. 20738]. On p. 51 and Pl. 3 of separate. •Valid as Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:94 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:582 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1212 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer 1986:477 [ref. 5652], Robins & Ray 1986:271 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:480 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:184 [ref. 14674], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:665 [ref. 17613], Boschung 1992:97 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:420 [ref. 23827], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:152 [ref. 25472], Santos et al. 1997:75 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:114 [ref. 24952], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221] with genus as Halicolenus, Uiblein et al. 1999:64 [ref. 24045], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:69 [ref. 26753], Klein-MacPhee & Collette in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:332 [ref. 26158], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1240 [ref. 27048], Moore et al. 2003:222 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:143 [ref. 28072], Golani 2005:32 [ref. 37112], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:31 [ref. 28815], Fricke et al. 2007:76 [ref. 29533], Fricke 2008:24 [ref. 30182], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:38 [ref. 36649], Møller et al. 2010:50 [ref. 31169], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:212 [ref. 33547], Goren & Galil 2015:519 [ref. 33910], Bañón et al. 2016:321 [ref. 34397], Poss 2016:2261 [ref. 34610], Vieira et al. 2016:[7] [ref. 34869], Nión et al. 2016:45 [ref. 35565] as Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus, Martins & Carneiro 2018:105 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:228 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36864], Reiner 2019:153 [ref. 38139], Bariche & Fricke 2020:107 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519], Bañón & Maño 2021:67 [ref. 38883], Golani 2021:35 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:76 [ref. 39014]). Current status: Valid as Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: Norway south to South Africa, including Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, and São Tomé and Principe; southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa; Greenland; Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

dallii, Pteropodus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Beeson [C. H.] 1894:66 [American Naturalist v. 28 (no. 325); ref. 14525] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): CAS 25905 [ex IU]. •Valid as Sebastes dallii (Eigenmann & Beeson 1894) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:137 [ref. 9277], Orr et al. 2000:25 [ref. 24942] as dalli, Shytko 2001:26 [ref. 26410] as dalli, Love et al. 2002:160 [ref. 26216] as dalli, Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:76 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:134 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:58 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes dallii (Eigenmann & Beeson 1894). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: northern California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

darwini, Sebastes Cramer [F.] in Jordan 1896:240 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 6; ref. 2395] Mexillones, Peru. Holotype: MCZ 13841 (1 of 3). Author is F. Cramer. •Synonym of Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kong U. 1985:48 [ref. 11639], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:82 [ref. 22530]). •Synonym of Sebastes oculatus Valenciennes 1833. Current status: Synonym of Sebastes oculatus Valenciennes 1833. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

deani, Sebastodes Starks [E. C.] 1911:178, Pl. 29 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 2) (art. 9); ref. 10108] San Juan Islands, Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): FMNH 52290 [ex CM 545]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:93 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:78 [ref. 12367]. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

decemradiata, Scorpaena Fricke [R.], Golani [D.], Appelbaum-Golani [B.] & Zajonz [U.] 2018:[2] 170, Fig. 1 [Scientia Marina v. 82 (no. 3); ref. 36159] Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Holotype: HUJ 2418. Paratype: HUJ 20671 (1). •Valid as Scorpaena decemradiata Fricke, Golani, Appelbaum-Golani & Zajonz 2018 -- (Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[11] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena decemradiata Fricke, Golani, Appelbaum-Golani & Zajonz 2018. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

dentata, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1874:76 [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 3); ref. 18231] Palau Islands [Pelew Islands]. Syntypes: BMNH 1873.4.3.192-192b (2). •In Parascorpaena -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[4] [ref. 38565]). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

dentatus, Lythrichthys Wada [H.], Kai [Y.] & Motomura [H.] 2021:Figs. [Ichthyological Research v. 68 (no. 3); ref. 38160] Holotype. Paratypes: •Valid as Lythrichthys dentatus Wada, Kai & Motomura 2021. Current status: Valid as Lythrichthys dentatus Wada, Kai & Motomura 2021. Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Habitat: marine.

diabolus, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] (ex Duhamel du Monceau) 1829:166 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Mer du Croisic [northern Bay of Biscay, eastern Atlantic; erroneous, is Indo-West Pacific]. No types known. Non-types: MNHN 0000-6684 (1) New Guinea, 0000-6718 (1) New Guinea, 0000-6719 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:12 [ref. 20738] with types from ref. 998. Available from footnote as, "Aj. Sc. diabolus. Nob., Duham., sect. V, pl. iii, f. 1." Also in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:312 [ref. 998] with source more detailed as "Duhamel, Pêches, 2e part., sect. 5, p. 92, pl. 3, fig. 1" (Duhamel 1778:92 [ref. 30232]). Duhamel's type locality 'Mer du Croisic' corrected by Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:313 [ref. 998] to 'Grand Océan oriental' (Indo-West Pacific) with Indian Ocean, Java, Moluccas and Tahiti as actual localities. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis diabolus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:305 [ref. 6389], Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:474 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:50 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:450 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:21 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:83 [ref. 15987], Kim & Lee 1993:471 [ref. 39487], Randall 1995:111 [ref. 22896], Larson & Williams 1997:353 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:78 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:296 [ref. 24023] [in error -- see McCosker 1998:810 [ref. 24025]], Kuiter 1997:84 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:83 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:98 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:161 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2342 [ref. 24796], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Motomura & Iwatsuki 2000:2 [ref. 24401], Nakabo 2000:575 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:167 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:65 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:575 [ref. 26001], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:19 [ref. 25801], Choi et al. 2003:242, 564 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:145 [ref. 28072], Motomura et al. 2004:94 [ref. 28581], Randall 2005:122 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:331 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:889 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:177 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Motomura 2009:67 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:91 [ref. 31256], Motomura & Causse 2011:51 [ref. 31125], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:233 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:134 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:55 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:103 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:68 [ref. 36871], Kwik & Lim 2020:14 [ref. 38869]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis diabolus (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian, Marquesas and Society islands, north to Korea and southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Elizabeth and Middleton reefs, New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

diaconus, Sebastes Frable [B. W.], Wagman [D. W.], Frierson [T. N.], Aguilar [A.] & Sidlauskas [B. L.] 2015:361, Figs. 1 (A and C), 7A, 8A [Fishery Bulletin v. 113; ref. 33878] 1.8 km west of Seal Rock, Oregon, U.S.A., 44°29'49.38"N, 124°06'30.48"W, depth 20.9 meters. Holotype: OS 18901. Paratypes: CAS, LACM, OS, UW. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Sebastes diaconus Frable, Wagman, Frierson, Aguilar & Sidlauskas 2015 -- (Burton & Lea 2019:58 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes diaconus Frable, Wagman, Frierson, Aguilar & Sidlauskas 2015. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

didymogramma, Holoscorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1944:277, Figs. 214-215 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Saboga, Perlas Islands, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: ANSP 70109. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789, subspecies mystes Jordan & Starks 1895 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1556 [ref. 22830], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610] and H. didymogramma). •Synonym of Scorpaena mystes Jordan & Starks 1895 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena mystes Jordan & Starks 1895. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

diploproa, Sebastichthys Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:79 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Off southern California, U.S.A., 32°44'30"N, 117°23'W, Albatross station 2935, depth 124 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1900.7.11.1 (1); MCZ 27858 (1); NMW 5975 (1); CAS-SU 96 (9), 336 (4), 3491 (5), 3499 (2); USNM 46451 (4), 48238 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:122 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Sebastes diploproa (Gilbert 1890) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:138 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:300 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:185 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:14 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:26 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:162 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:377 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:76 [ref. 37547], Maslenikov et al. 2013:8 [ref. 37947], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:31 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:134 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:58 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes diploproa (Gilbert 1890). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Gulf of Alaska (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

dispar, Scorpaena Longley [W. H.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1940:246, Fig. 12 [Papers Tortugas Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington v. 32; ref. 2822] South of Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A., depth about 40 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 108867. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena dispar Longley & Hildebrand 1940 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:132 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:60 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:435 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:275 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:291 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:98 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:585 [ref. 16204], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:239 [ref. 24550], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1256 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:42 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:134 [ref. 37485], Pinheiro et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34324], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159], Caires et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:604 [ref. 38945]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena dispar Longley & Hildebrand 1940. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: South Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

dubius, Pontinus Steindachner [F.] 1902:124 [36], Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 72 (for 11 July 1901); ref. 10435] Paita, northern Peru. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:280 [ref. 28925]. Originally published as "Pontius dubius n. sp.? (an P. fucirhinus Garm.). Not included in earlier abstract [ref. 14771]. On p. 36 of separate. •Synonym of Pontinus furcirhinus Garman 1899 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1550 [ref. 22830]). •Valid as Pontinus dubius Steindachner 1902 -- (Franke & Acero P. 1996:765 [ref. 22923], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:272 [ref. 24555] with question). Current status: Valid as Pontinus dubius Steindachner 1902. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

durbanensis, Scorpaena Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1909:236 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 3, no. 5); ref. 1650] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: SAM 10009. Paralectotypes: SAM 10010 (2). •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:475 [ref. 5652], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:68 [ref. 25801]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

echinata, Scorpaena Köhler [R.] 1896:478, Pl. 27 (figs. 4-6) [Annales de l'Université de Lyon. Paris [etc.] v. 26; ref. 14612] Bay of Biscay, France, 45°57'N, station 4, 6°21'W, depth 1410 meters. Holotype (unique): UCBL. •Synonym of Trachyscorpia cristulata (Goode & Bean 1896), but a valid subspecies echinata (Köhler 1896) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:49 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:585 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1229 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:679 [ref. 17613], Santos et al. 1997:78 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:117 [ref. 24952], Saldanha & Biscoito 1997:200 [ref. 24962], Ragonese & Giusto 1999:329 [ref. 24423], Motomura et al. 2007:21 [ref. 29137], McCosker 2008:118 [ref. 29639], Bañón et al. 2016:321 [ref. 34397], Poss 2016:2288 [ref. 34610], Bañón & Maño 2021:67 [ref. 38883]). Current status: Synonym of Trachyscorpia cristulata (Goode & Bean 1896). Scorpaenidae: Sebastolobinae. Habitat: marine.

echinatus, Centropogon Macleay [W.] 1881:436 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 5 (pt 3); ref. 17577] Endeavour River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16353-001 [ex MAMU F794]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:449 [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:887 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

eigenmanni, Sebastodes Cramer [F.] in Jordan 1896:239, Pl. 42 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 6; ref. 2395] Monterey, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 4046. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:123 [ref. 12291]. Author is F. Cramer. •Synonym of Sebastes miniatus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Love et al. 2002:146 [ref. 26216]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes miniatus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

elachys, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:114, Fig. 7c [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 9211] North of Puerto Rico, 18°15'N, 67°33'W, Silver Bay station 5192, depth 50 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 198149 [ex UMML 14874]. Paratypes: UF 214872-73 [ex UMML 14872-73] (1, 1); USNM 198151 [ex UMML 14875] (1). Other non-type material: USNM 153127 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena elachys Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:57 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:276 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1257 [ref. 27048], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:43 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena elachys Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) south to Panama. Habitat: marine.

elegans, Sebastes Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1884:205 [37] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 49 (1. Abth.); ref. 4248] Tagawa, Inland Sea of Japan. Holotype (unique): ?NMW 6358. •Synonym of Sebastes oblongus Günther 1877. •Valid as Sebastichthys elegans (Döderlein 1884) -- (Wang et al. 2001:288 [ref. 26566] with authors as Steindachner & Döderlein). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes oblongus Günther 1877. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

ellioti, Pterois Meek [S. E.] 1897:169, Pl. 40 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 1 (no. 8); ref. 17627] Berbera, Somalia [not "West coast of Africa"]. Holotype: FMNH 484. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:71 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Pterois antennata (Bloch 1787) -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:x [ref. 33609], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:24 [ref. 33935], Matsunuma & Motomura 2018:96 [ref. 36416]). Current status: Synonym of Pterois antennata (Bloch 1787). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

elongata, Scorpaena Cadenat [J.] 1943:552, Figs. 1(4), 9 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 13 (nos 1-4); ref. 13043] Cap Blanc, Mauritania, depth about 100 meters. Syntypes: (5) MHNLR P.798 (2). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena elongata Cadenat 1943 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:67 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:579 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1216 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:670 [ref. 17613], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:153 [ref. 25472], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:69 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:32 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:76 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:38 [ref. 36649], Poss 2016:2273 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159], Martins & Carneiro 2018:107 [ref. 36550], Carneiro et al. 2019:230 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Reiner 2019:157 [ref. 38139], Bariche & Fricke 2020:105 [ref. 37515], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519], Golani 2021:35 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:76 [ref. 39014], Yedier & Bostanci 2021:200 [ref. 38796]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena elongata Cadenat 1943. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Namibia, including Madeira, and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Scorpaenodes Cadenat [J.] 1950:665, Fig. [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 21 (no. 6); ref. 12939] Senegal coast, West Africa. Syntypes: (3) IFAN 1176 (1), MNHN 1950-0070 (1) Gorée. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:18 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes elongatus Cadenat 1950 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:91 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:677 [ref. 17613], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Poss 2016:2285 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes elongatus Cadenat 1950. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Sebastes Ayres [W. O.] 1859:26, Fig. 9 (p. 58) [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 2 (1858-1862); ref. 155] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. No types known. Possible syntypes: BMNH 1863.10.9.17-20. Any types at CAS would have been lost in 1906. •Valid as Sebastes elongatus Ayres 1859 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:138 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:302 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:185 [ref. 14674], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:322 [ref. 24939], Orr et al. 2000:23 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:27 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:165 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:367 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:76 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:31 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:134 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:59 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes elongatus Ayres 1859. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: western Gulf of Alaska south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

emblemarius, Helicolenus Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:129, Fig. 9 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 27 (no. 1351); ref. 2527] Okinose, near Misaki, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 7364. Paratypes: USNM 50908 (?1). Additional material: CAS-SU 7415 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:120 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Hozukius emblemarius (Jordan & Starks 1904) -- (Kanayama in Okamura et al. 1982:271, 393 [ref. 8256] as embremarius, Kanayama in Amaoka et al. 1983:153, 212 [ref. 8379] as embremarius, Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:313 [ref. 6441], Ishida & Amaoka 1986:323 [ref. 11443], Nakabo 2000:586 [ref. 25086], Shytko 2001:8 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:586 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2011:42 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al.2014:245 [ref. 33330], Kim et al. 2020:89 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:41 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Hozukius emblemarius (Jordan & Starks 1904). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

emphaeus, Sebastodes Starks [E. C.] 1911:182, Pl. 31 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 2) (art. 9); ref. 10108] San Juan Islands, Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A. Holotype: FMNH 52294 [ex CM 549]. Paratypes: AMNH, FMNH 52295 (5), CAS-SU 21407 (9). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:123 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:78 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Sebastes emphaeus (Starks 1911) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:138 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:304 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:185 [ref. 14674], Eitner et al. 1999:91 [ref. 23702], Orr et al. 2000:24 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:28 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:168 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:369 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:76 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:31 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:134 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:59 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes emphaeus (Starks 1911). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: northern Gulf of Alaska south to northern California (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

englerti, Scorpaenodes Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Allen [G. R.] 1971:525, Figs. 1c, 4 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 37 (no. 19); ref. 893] Tidepools between Hanga Roa & Hanga Piko, Easter Island, southeastern Pacific. Holotype: CAS 24806 [ex BPBM 6780]. Paratypes: BPBM 6778-79 (2, 1); CAS 24807 (3), 24808 (1 c&s); LACM 6560-44 (1); UBC 65-455 (1); USNM 205211 (2). •Valid as Scorpaenodes englerti Eschmeyer & Allen 1971 -- (Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125], Meléndez C. & Cornejo C. 2001:68 [ref. 26163], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Randall 2005:121 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:175 [ref. 30952], Dyer & Westneat 2010:604 [ref. 31446]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes englerti Eschmeyer & Allen 1971. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Easter Island and Isla San Félix (Chile). Habitat: marine.

ensifer, Sebastes Chen [L.-C.] 1971:19, Pl. 2 (fig. B) [Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of California v. 18; ref. 7668] Off La Jolla, California, U.S.A., depth 100 meters. Holotype: SIO 67-295. Paratypes: CAS 17609 [ex SIO 65-149] (1), 26585 [ex SIO 69-149] (1), LACM 3420-21 (1, 1), 22127 (1); SIO 15-206 (1) (ex UCLA W54-382), 15-1884 (1) (ex UCLA W56-262), 48-166 (1) (ex UCLA W49-346), 49-163 (2) (ex UCLA W49-416), 55-97 (2), 57-47 (1), 61-502 (1), 62-690 (1), 63-239 (2), 64-321 (1), 65-106 (3), -113 (2), -149 (3), 67-9 (1), -143 (2), -224 (5), -226 (1), -295 (1), 68-6 (1), -21 (3), 69-29 (1); ZIN 42267 [ex SIO 65-149] (1). •Valid as Sebastes ensifer Chen 1971 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:139 [ref. 9277], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:322 [ref. 24939], Orr et al. 2000:39 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:29 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:170 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:76 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:136 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:59 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes ensifer Chen 1971. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: northern California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

entomelas, Sebastichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:142 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 132); ref. 18351] Deepwater outside of Monterey Bay, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: (5). USNM 27044 (orig. 3, now 2). •Valid as Sebastes entomelas (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:139 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:306 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:185 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:30 [ref. 24942], Musick et al. 2000:14 [ref. 24959], Shytko 2001:29 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:172 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:358 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:76 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:31 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:136 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:59 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes entomelas (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: western Gulf of Alaska south to Pacific coast of northern Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

eos, Sebastodes Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1890:18 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 3; ref. 1256] Point Loma, near San Diego, California, U.S.A., depth 100 fathoms. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1891.5.19.25 (1), CAS (lost in 1906), ? CAS-SU 11991 (1). •Valid as Sebastes eos (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890) -- (Chen 1971:35 [ref. 7668], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:139 [ref. 9277], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:322 [ref. 24939], Orr et al. 2000:38 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:30 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:175 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:76 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:136 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:59 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes eos (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Oregon (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico), including Guadalupe Island (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

ergastulorum, Scorpaena Richardson [J.] 1842:217 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 57); ref. 21246] Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia. Holotype: ? BMNH 2004.2.8.1. •Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1982:438 [ref. 23678], Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:492 [ref. 22532], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). •Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801), but a valid subspecies -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2020:530 [ref. 37777], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[18] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia, from Port Jackson, New South Wales (33°S) to the south coast of Tasmania (43°S) [this subspecies]. Habitat: marine.

erinacea, Scorpaena Garman [S.] 1903:231, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 39 (no. 8); ref. 15030] Suva Reef, Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. Holotype (unique): MCZ 28313. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

erostris, Scorpaena Alcock [A. W.] 1896:302 [2] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 65 (pt 2, No. 3); ref. 91] Off southern Sri Lanka, 6°06'30"N, 81°23'00"E, Investigator station 59, depth 34 or 42 fathoms. Lectotype: ZSI F 12977. Paralectotypes: ZSI F 12978 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:155 [ref. 20743]. On p. 2 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 18 (fig. 6) [ref. 20534]. Lectotype selected by Motomura et al. 2015:530 [ref. 33980]. •Valid as Neomerinthe erostris (Alcock 1896) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308] with possible synonyms, Motomura et al. 2015:530 [ref. 33980], Fricke et al. 2018:130 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273], Psomadakis et al. 2020:359 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe erostris (Alcock 1896). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to French Polynesia, north to Taiwan, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

erythraea, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:316 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Egypt, Red Sea [probably erronous, is Alexandria, Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea]. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-6706 (larger specimen). Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-6706 (1, smaller specimen), ZMB 759 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:12 [ref. 20738], Paepke & Fricke 1992:270 [ref. 19946]. Lectotype designation by Fricke et al. 2018:[6] [ref. 36159]. Discussion of type locality see Fricke et al. 2018:[5] [ref. 36159]. •Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2281 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[4] [ref. 36159], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

eschmeyeri, Phenacoscorpius Parin [N. V.] & Mandrytsa [S. A.] in Mandrytsa 1992:10 [100], Fig. 1 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 32 (no. 4); ref. 20774] Sala y Gomez Ridge, southeastern Pacific, 25°02'S, 90°41'W, depth 630 meters. Holotype (unique): ZIN 49328. On p. 100 of English translation. •Valid as Phenacoscorpius eschmeyeri Parin & Mandrytsa 1992 -- (Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Motomura 2008:778 [ref. 30292], Motomura et al. 2012:146 [ref. 32375], Okamoto et al. 2012:77 [ref. 33660], Wibowo & Motomura 2017:262 [ref. 35599]). Current status: Valid as Phenacoscorpius eschmeyeri Parin & Mandrytsa 1992. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Sala y Gomez Ridge, Nazca Ridge. Habitat: marine.

eschmeyeri, Rhinopias Condé [B.] 1977:19, Figs. 1-2 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 7241] Mahébourg, Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MAN [formerly MZUVN] 10475. •Valid as Rhinopias eschmeyeri Condé 1977 -- (Randall & DiSalvo 1997:1035 [ref. 22982], Fricke 1999:159 [ref. 24106], Randall 2001:6 [ref. 25610], Motomura & Johnson 2006:501 [ref. 28799], Shao et al. 2008:246 [ref. 29952], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:227 [ref. 31980], Prokofiev 2020:31 [27] [ref. 37917]). Current status: Valid as Rhinopias eschmeyeri Condé 1977. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Réunion and Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Seychelles east to Vietnam and New Caledonia, north to southern Japan and Taiwan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

eschmeyeri, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Greenfield [D. W.] 2004:385, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 55 (no. 19); ref. 27899] Rabi Island, northwestern shore, 16°26.701'S, 179°56.261'W, Vanua Levu, Fiji, depth 1-2 meters. Holotype: CAS 218804. Paratypes: AMS I.42980-001 (1); BPBM 33775 (1), 34264 (2), 39423 (1), 39424 (2); CAS 214577 (1), 219133 (2), 219134 (1), 219135 (1); MNHN 2004-1171 (1); NSMT-P 67891 (1); USNM 243332 (1), 259405 (1), 375892 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis eschmeyeri Randall & Greenfield 2004 -- (Allen et al. 2006:889 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis eschmeyeri Randall & Greenfield 2004. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Australia, New Caledonia and Fiji. Habitat: marine.

eschmeyeri, Trachyscorpia (Mesoscorpia) Whitley [G. P.] 1970:245 [Australian Zoologist v. 15 (pt 3); ref. 6601] West coast of South Africa, southeastern Atlantic, Pickle stations 66, 86 and 336, 312, depth 537 and 280 fathoms. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Replacement name for Scorpaena capensis Gilchrist & von Bonde 1924, preoccupied by Scorpaena capensis Gmelin 1789. •Valid as Trachyscorpia eschmeyeri Whitley 1970 -- (Hutchins 2001:28 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:867 [ref. 29078], Motomura et al. 2007:21 [ref. 29137], McCosker 2008:118 [ref. 29639], Johnson & Motomura 2008:498 [ref. 30648], Béarez & Motomura 2010:61 [ref. 30680], Struthers & Motomura 2015:1082 [ref. 34284]). Current status: Valid as Trachyscorpia eschmeyeri Whitley 1970. Scorpaenidae: Sebastolobinae. Distribution: Southern Hemisphere. Habitat: marine.

eulabes, Lythrichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:140, Fig. 11 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 27 (no. 1351); ref. 2527] Off Ose Point, Suruga Bay, Japan, Albatross station 3708, depth 60-70 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 50910. •Synonym of Setarches longimanus (Alcock 1894) -- (Eschmeyer & Collette 1966:356 [ref. 6485]). •Valid as Lythrichthys eulabes Jordan & Starks 1904 -- (Wada et al. 2021:1 [ref. 38160]). Current status: Valid as Lythrichthys eulabes Jordan & Starks 1904. Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Habitat: marine.

evides, Thysanichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Thompson [W. F.] 1914:272, Pl. 32 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 2543] Misaki, Japan. Holotype: FMNH 57082 [ex CM 6019a]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 22611 (5). Type catalog: Henn 1928:93 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:124 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:83 [ref. 12367]. •Probably a senior synonym of Scorpaenodes littoralis Tanaka 1917 -- (Poss et al. 2010:242 [ref. 30744], Larson et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Scorpaenodes evides (Jordan & Thompson 1914) -- (Motomura et al. 2010:71 [ref. 31103], Allen & Erdmann 2012:229 [ref. 31980], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:112 [ref. 36167], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1100 [ref. 34285], Motomura et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:68 [ref. 36871], Kim et al. 2020:93 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:45 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes evides (Jordan & Thompson 1914). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Socotra east to Hawaiian Islands, north to Sea of Japan (Korea, Japan), south to Australia, New Zealand, Kermadec Islands and east to Rapa and French Polynesia [true evides may be restricted to Japan and Taiwan [ref. 31103]]. Habitat: marine.

exsul, Sebastes Chen [L.-C.] 1971:27, Pl. 3 (fig. C) [Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of California v. 18; ref. 7668] Bay of Los Angeles, Gulf of California, Mexico, 2 1/2 miles north of Punta Roja, 28°59'N, 113°25.5'W, depth 110 meters. Holotype: SIO 68-1. Paratypes: SIO 62-241 (7), 68-3 (7). •Valid as Sebastes exsul Chen 1971 -- (Chen 1975:111 [ref. 7413], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1561 [ref. 22830], Thomson et al. 2000:71 [ref. 25640], Shytko 2001:31 [ref. 26410] as exul, Love et al. 2002:177 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes exsul Chen 1971. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

exul, Apistes Gosse [P. H.] 1851:207 [A naturalist's sojourn in Jamaica; ref. 18149] Jamaica. No types known. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

falcata, Ebosia Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Rama-Rao [K. V.] 1978:66, Figs. 1, 3 [Matsya No. 3 [for 1977]; ref. 6386] Somalia, 11°04'N, 51°15'E, depth 76-80 meters. Holotype: USNM 218411. Paratypes: CAS 40766-67 (1, 1); ZSI F7400/2 (1). Additional material: ZMH 5581-82 (1, 21). See Das 2003:377 [ref. 27706] with date as 1979. •Valid as Ebosia falcata Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1978 -- (Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:300 [ref. 33570], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[9] [ref. 33899], Psomadakis et al. 2015:183 [ref. 34104], Naranji & Sujatha 2016:147 [ref. 39318], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 28 [ref. 38321], Psomadakis et al. 2020:358 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Ebosia falcata Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1978. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Somalia east to Myanmar and west coast of Thailand. Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Scorpaena Costa [O. G.] 1842-53:Scorpaena p. 3, Pl. 4 [Fauna del regno di Napoli v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 980] Gulf of Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:83 [ref. 1274] with question, Poss 2016:2281 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fasciatus, Sebastes Girard [C. F.] 1854:146 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] Presidio, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Apparently predates Sebastes fasciatus Storer 1854 (19 Dec.). •Synonym of Sebastes nebulosus Ayres 1854 -- (Love et al. 2002:219 [ref. 26216]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Sebastes nebulosus Ayres 1854. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Sebastes Storer [D. H.] 1854:31 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 5 (1854-1856); ref. 18847] Harbor at Provincetown, Massachusetts, U.S.A. No types known. Apparently appeared later (19 Dec.) than Sebastes fasciatus Girard 1854 (6 Oct.). •Valid as Sebastes fasciatus Storer 1854 -- (Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1224 [ref. 13677], Kenchington 1986:783 [ref. 11433], Robins & Ray 1986:277 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:483 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:186 [ref. 14674], Desrosiers et al. 1999:267 [ref. 24220], Musick et al. 2000:14 [ref. 24959], Klein-MacPhee & Collette in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:334 [ref. 26158], Moore et al. 2003:222 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Møller et al. 2010:51 [ref. 31169], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Afonso et al. 2016:40, 276 [ref. 36199]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes fasciatus Storer 1854. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

fasciolaris, Sebastichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] (ex Lockington) 1880:297 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 150); ref. 10598] California coast, U.S.A. No type known. Apparently an unneeded replacement name for Sebastes fasciatus Girard 1854, stated to be preoccupied by Sebastes fasciatus Storer 1856, but date for Storer needs confirmation. •Synonym of Sebastes nebulosus Ayres 1854 -- (Love et al. 2002:219 [ref. 26216]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes nebulosus Ayres 1854. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

fedorovi, Helicolenus Barsukov [V. V.] 1973:195 [162], Fig. [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 7154] Kinmei Seamount, southern Hawaiian submarine ridge, 35°26'05"N, 171°16'05"E, depth 350 meters. Holotype (unique): ZIN 40875. On p. 162 in English translation. •Valid as Helicolenus fedorovi Barsukov 1973 -- (Barsukov & Borets 1983 [ref. 14645], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:313 [ref. 6441], Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:567, 717 [ref. 8056], Nakabo 2000:584 [ref. 25086], Shytko 2001:8 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:584 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:424 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:325 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Valid as Helicolenus fedorovi Barsukov 1973. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

fernandeziana, Scorpaena Steindachner [F.] 1875:451 [9], Pl. 1 (figs. 1, 1a) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71 (1. Abth.); ref. 4222] Juan Fernández Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. On p. 9 of separate. •Valid as Scorpaena fernandeziana Steindachner 1875 -- (Pequeño 1989:56 [ref. 14125], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:31 [ref. 24590], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906], Meléndez C. & Cornejo C. 2001:68 [ref. 26163], Dyer & Westneat 2010:604 [ref. 31446], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena fernandeziana Steindachner 1875. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Juan Fernández Islands, Desventuradas Islands (Chile). Habitat: marine.

fidjiensis, Setarches Günther [A.] 1878:179 [12] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 2 (nos 7/8/9)(art. 2/22/28); ref. 2010] Off Matuku, Fiji Islands, Challenger station 173, depth 215 fathoms. Holotype (unique): destroyed. On p. 12 of separate. Also appeared as new in Günther 1887:19, Pl. 1 (fig. C) [ref. 2013]. Holotype destroyed by artist -- (Günther 1887:19 (footnote) [ref. 2013]). •Synonym of Setarches guentheri Johnson 1862 -- (Eschmeyer & Collette 1966:356 [ref. 6485], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:678 [ref. 17613], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1264 [ref. 27048], Wada et al. 2020:[3] [ref. 37692]). Current status: Synonym of Setarches guentheri Johnson 1862. Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Habitat: marine.

filamentosa, Hipposcorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1938:72, Fig. 31 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Linao Pt., Davao Gulf, Philippines, 7°04'48"N, 125°39'38"E, Albatross station D.5253, depth 28 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98819. •Apparently valid as Hipposcorpaena filamentosa Fowler 1938 -- (Eschmeyer et al. 1973:305 [ref. 6390]). •Valid as Rhinopias filamentosa (Fowler 1938) -- (Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796]). •Valid as Hipposcorpaena filamentosa Fowler 1938 -- (Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Motomura & Senou 2005:213 [ref. 28253], Allen & Erdmann 2012:224 [ref. 31980], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:24 [ref. 38225]). Current status: Valid as Hipposcorpaena filamentosa Fowler 1938. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa; eastern Indonesia east to Philippines and Papua New Guinea, north to southern Japan, south to Ashmore Islands (off northern Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

filifer, Sebastes Valenciennes [A.] 1840:[21], Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Syntypes: MNHN A-3879 (1, dry), B-2567 (1, dry), B-2568 (1, dry). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:19 [ref. 20738]. Dates to Pl. 2 in 1840, p. 21 published in 1843. •Synonym of Pontinus kuhlii (Bowdich 1825) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:36 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:583 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1213 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:668 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2265 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Synonym of Pontinus kuhlii (Bowdich 1825). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

fimbriata, Scorpaena Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1884:195 [27] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 49 (1. Abth.); ref. 4248] Tokyo, Japan. Syntypes: MZS 1145 (1); NMW (several). Type information (MZS) from Amaoka & Fujii 1999:154 [ref. 26515], who identified MZS 1145 as Scorpaena picta Cuvier 1829. •Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843, but a valid subspecies fimbriata Döderlein 1884 -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:86 [ref. 15964]). •Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Wibowo & Motomura 2019:312 [ref. 36828], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[14] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

flammeus, Sebastodes Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:108, Fig. 21 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 27 (no. 1351); ref. 2527] Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 7365 (poor condition). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:123 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Sebastodes flammeus Jordan & Starks 1904 -- (Kanayama in Amaoka et al. 1983:154, 212 [ref. 8379], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:312 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Sebastes iracundus (Jordan & Starks 1904) -- (Balanov et al. 2004:5 [ref. 27622]). •Valid as Sebastes flammeus (Jordan & Starks 1904) -- (Nakabo 2000:588 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:588 [ref. 26001], Mundy 2005:333 [ref. 28379], Orr & Hawkins 2008:128 [ref. 29591], Parin et al. 2014:215 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:857 [ref. 38925]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes flammeus (Jordan & Starks 1904). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

flavidus, Sebastodes Ayres [W. O.] 1862:209, Fig. 64 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 2; ref. 17944] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Ayres specimens and possible types: BMNH 1863.10.9.1-5 (5), 1863.10.9.6 (1). •Valid as Sebastes flavidus (Ayres 1862) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:140 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:308 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:186 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:29 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:31 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:178 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:359 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:76 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:32 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:136 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:59 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes flavidus (Ayres 1862). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: eastern Aleutian Islands (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of northern Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

floridae, Scorpaenodes Hildebrand [S. F.] in Longley & Hildebrand 1940:251, Fig. 14 [Papers Tortugas Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington v. 32; ref. 2822] South of Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A., depth 45 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 108875. Paratypes: USNM 108876 (1). •Synonym of Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus (Metzelaar 1919) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:86 [ref. 1274]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus (Metzelaar 1919). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

folgori, Scorpaena Postel [E.] & Roux [C.] 1964:167, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 36 (no. 2); ref. 3082] Brava, Cape Verde Islands, depth 180-200 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1963-0600. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:12 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Neomerinthe folgori (Postel & Roux 1964) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:44 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer 1986:468 [ref. 5652], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:667 [ref. 17613], Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:152 [ref. 25472], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Tweddle & Anderson 2008:9 [ref. 29604], Poss 2016:2263 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe folgori (Postel & Roux 1964). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

fowleri, Scorpaena Pietschmann [V.] 1934:100 [1] [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 71 (no. 9) (for 8 Mar. 1934); ref. 16452] Makaua, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Lectotype: NMW 6341. Paralectotypes: NMW 6342-43 (2). On p. 1 of separate (probably published first). Also in Pietschmann 1938:30, Pl. 9 [ref. 17214]. Lectotype selected by Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:297 [ref. 6389]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis fowleri (Pietschmann 1934) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:297 [ref. 6389], Winterbottom et al. 1989:21 [ref. 13251], Myers 1999:98 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2342 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829]). •Valid as Sebastapistes fowleri (Pietschmann 1934) -- (Randall & Poss 2002:57 [ref. 25855], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall 2005:125 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:332 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:178 [ref. 30952], Motomura & Senou 2009:3 [ref. 30176], Motomura et al. 2010:92 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:69 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:237 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:54 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35333], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[33] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes fowleri (Pietschmann 1934). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Comoro Islands, Agalega Islands, Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Maldives east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group and Society Islands, north to Taiwan and Japan, south to Papua New Guinea, Chesterfield Islands and Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

fragilis, Acanthodes Fourmanoir [P.] & Crosnier [A.] 1964:23, Fig. 14 [Cahiers O. R. S. T. O. M. (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer) Série Océanographie No. 6 (1963); ref. 5568] Nosy Be [Nossi-Bé], Mozambique Channel, Madagascar. Syntypes: IRSMNB (3) probably lost. Appeared previously as name only in caption of Fourmanoir 1963:Pl. 2 D [ref. 34925]. •Juvenile, uncertain status. Scorpaenidae. Habitat: marine.

frondosa, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1892:482, Pl. 39 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1891 (pt 4); ref. 14509] Mauritius [Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1891.4.30.3. •Valid as Rhinopias frondosa (Günther 1892) -- (Eschmeyer et al. 1973 [ref. 6390], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:471 [ref. 5652], Randall & DiSalvo 1997:1035 [ref. 22982], Myers 1999:97 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:159 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2333 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:573 [ref. 25086], Randall 2001:6 [ref. 25610], Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:573 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Motomura & Johnson 2006:508 [ref. 28799], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:228 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:133 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Rhinopias frondosa (Günther 1892). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Caroline Islands, north to Philippines and Japan. Habitat: marine.

fucata, Scorpaena Valenciennes [A.] 1846:no p., Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde sur la frégate "la Vénus"; ref. 6165] Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7310. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:13 [ref. 20738]. Genus misspelled Scorpoena by Valenciennes. Dates to publication in plate; corresponding text published as Valenciennes 1855:313 [ref. 4504]. •Synonym of Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1555 [ref. 22830], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

furcirhinus, Pontinus Garman [S.] 1899:51, Pl. 7 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Northeast of Galápagos Islands, Albatross stations 3355, 3367, 3368, 3378, 3387, 3389, 3391, 3397, depth 66-210 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28767-70 (1, 6, 2), 28770 (1), 68368-73 (3, 6, 1, 1, 1, 1); USNM 153608 [ex MCZ 28767] (2), 292825 (1). •Valid as Pontinus furcirhinus Garman 1899 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:82 [ref. 23101], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1550 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:295 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:272 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:73 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus furcirhinus Garman 1899. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of Baja California Sur (Mexico) to northern Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico), Cocos Island (Costa Rica) and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

furneauxi, Scorpaenopsis palmeri Whitley [G. P.] 1959:24 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1957-58; ref. 4730] 11 miles northwest of Pine Peak Island, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS E.2896. Paratypes: IB.3978, IB.3983 (2) •Valid as Scorpaenopsis furneauxi Whitley 1959 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:450 [ref. 12442], Poss 1999:2307 [ref. 24796], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:23 [ref. 25801], Allen et al. 2006:889 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Larson et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis furneauxi Whitley 1959. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Queensland (Australia) endemic. Habitat: marine.

fuscescens, Sparus Houttuyn [M.] 1782:324 [Verhandelingen der Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen, Haarlem v. 20 (pt 2); ref. 2220] Japan. No types known. See also Boeseman 1995:6 [ref. 21811]. •Questionably a senior synonym of Sebastes schlegeli (Hilgendorf 1880) -- (Matsubara 1943:227 [ref. 12961], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:62 [ref. 15964]). •Valid as Sebastodes fuscescens (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Wang et al. 2001:286 [ref. 26566] dated 1872 [sic]) Current status: Valid as Sebastes fuscescens (Houttuyn 1782). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

gaillardae, Scorpaena Roux [C.] 1954:470 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 26 (no. 4); ref. 12469] Marine station at Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1970-0003. •Synonym of Scorpaena stephanica Cadenat 1943 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:66 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:676 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2283 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena stephanica Cadenat 1943. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

galactacma, Sebastapistes Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:496, Fig. 40 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50692. Paratypes: (80) USNM 205645 (2). •Valid as Scorpaena galactacma (Jenkins 1903) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:314 [ref. 6389]). •Valid as Sebastapistes galactacma Jenkins 1903 -- (Myers 1999:100 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2345 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Randall et al. 2002:156 [ref. 26192], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:125 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:332 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:178 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes galactacma Jenkins 1903. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Ogasawara Islands and Caroline Islands east to Hawaiian Islands; Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia) east to Marquesas Islands, Pitcairn Group and Society Islands, south to Rapa; probably antiequatorial. Habitat: marine.

garretti, Taenianotus Günther [A.] 1874:83, Pl. 57 (fig. C) [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 3); ref. 18231] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Taenianotus triacanthus Lacepède 1802 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:285 [ref. 6389], Mundy 2005:333 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Taenianotus triacanthus Lacepède 1802. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

gasta, Scorpaena Motomura [H.], Last [P. R.] & Yearsley [G. K.] 2006:361, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 2006 (no. 3); ref. 28789] Kalbarri, off mouth of Murchison River, 27°30'S, 114°25'E [probably 27°42'24"S, 114°09'14"E], Western Australia, Australia, depth 16-17 meters. Holotype: WAM P.27960-006. Paratypes: AMS I.43480-001 (1); CSIRO H 6186-01 (1); WAM P.26069-002 (1), P.32317-005 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:18 [ref. 30117], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena gasta Motomura, Last & Yearsley 2006 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[11] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena gasta Motomura, Last & Yearsley 2006. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: southwest coast of Australia. Habitat: marine.

geniserra, Pterois Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:366 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Ava coast, Myanmar. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6558. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:8 [ref. 20738]. The name geniserra predates russelii but can be supressed on the basis of Art. 23.9.1 (Allen & Erdmann 2008:137 [ref. 29479]). •Synonym of Pterois russellii Bennett 1831 [after suppression of geniserra] -- (Allen & Erdmann 2008:129 [ref. 29479] as russelii). Current status: Synonym of Pterois russelii Bennett 1831. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

gibbifrons, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1938:58, Fig. 23 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Cabugan Grande Island, vicinity of Surigao Strait, Philippines, 10°27'30"N, 125°18'E, Albatross station D.5482, depth 67 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98900. •Valid as Scorpaena gibbifrons Fowler 1938 -- (Poss 1999:2335 [ref. 24796], Motomura et al. 2005:29 [ref. 28339]). •Belongs in genus Neomerinthe -- (Motomura et al. 2006:367 [ref. 28789]). •Valid as Neomerinthe gibbifrons (Fower 1938) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308]). •Synonym of Neomerinthe erostris (Alcock 1896) -- (Motomura et al. 2015:530 [ref. 33980]). Current status: Synonym of Neomerinthe erostris (Alcock 1896). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Philippines (if valid). Habitat: marine.

gibbosa, Scorpaena Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:192, Pl. 44 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] "America" [erroneous, is Indo-West Pacific]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 768. Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:270 [ref. 19946], Paepke 1999:132 [ref. 24282]. See McCosker 1998:810 [ref. 24025]. •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis barbata (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dor 1984:83 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis gibbosa (Bloch & Schneider 1901) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:474 [ref. 5652], Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:305 [ref. 6389], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:88 [ref. 15964], Paxton et al. 1989:451 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:21 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:573 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:166 [ref. 26476], Fricke 1999:162 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2307 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:24 [ref. 25801], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:26 [ref. 27712], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:145 [ref. 28072], Motomura & Shinohara 2005:300 [ref. 29181], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:65 [ref. 35264], Motomura & Causse 2011:51 [ref. 31125], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Fricke et al. 2018:134 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:28 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis gibbosa (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa to Seychelles, Aldabra, Comoros, Madagascar, Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues (Mascarenes), and Chagos Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

gilberti, Sebastodes Cramer [F.] in Jordan 1896:241, Pl. 43 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 6; ref. 2395] From Monterey, San Francisco market, California, U.S.A. Lectotype: CAS-SU 3893 (drawn specimen). Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 3893 (2 of 3). Additional material or paralectotypes: BMNH 1900.9.29.188 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:123 [ref. 12291]. Author is F. Cramer. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in Jordan 1896:244 [ref. 2395]; also as figured specimen in caption to Pl. 275, p. 3288 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446]. •Synonym of Sebastes dallii (Eigenmann & Beeson 1894) -- (Love et al. 2002:160 [ref. 26216]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes dallii (Eigenmann & Beeson 1894). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

gilchristi, Dendroscorpaena Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:61, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 4; ref. 4112] Off the Tugela River, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 11851. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis gilchristi (Smith 1957) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:474 [ref. 5652], Nakabo et al. 1993:31 [ref. 20716], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:26 [ref. 25801], Motomura & Causse 2011:50 [ref. 31125], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis gilchristi (Smith 1957). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa; western Pacific: ?New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

gillii, Sebastodes Eigenmann [R. S.] 1891:154 [American Naturalist v. 25 (no. 290); ref. 1268] Off Point Loma, near San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: BMNH 1891.5.19.26-27 (2). Spelled gillii in main heading, gilli on p. 155. Authorship given as Eigenmann & Eigenmann by contemporary authors. •Valid as Sebastes gilli (Eigenmann 1891) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:140 [ref. 9277], Orr et al. 2000:41 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:33 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:182 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:76 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:136 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:59 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes gilli (Eigenmann 1891). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: central California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of northern Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

ginsburgi, Scorpaena Gunter [G.] 1942:105, Fig. [Copeia 1942 (no. 2); ref. 13204] 10 miles southeast of Aransas Pass jetties, Texas, U.S.A., depth 10 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 119016. Paratypes: USNM 119015 (1), 119017-18 (1, 1). Additional material: AMNH 15202 (1). •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:239 [ref. 24550], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

glaucus, Sebastes Hilgendorf [F. M.] 1880:172 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1880; ref. 18287] Hokkaido, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZMB 11281. Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:272 [ref. 19946]. •Valid as Sebastes glaucus Hilgendorf 1880 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:310 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:38 [ref. 15964], Panchenko 1996:130 [ref. 24641], Orr et al. 2000:28 [ref. 24942], Nakabo 2000:589 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:26 [ref. 25650], Shytko 2001:33 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:184 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:355 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:589 [ref. 26001], Parin et al. 2002:S61 [ref. 28300], Fedorov et al. 2003:60 [ref. 27579], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:77 [ref. 37547], Shinohara et al. 2011:42 [ref. 31715], Maslenikov et al. 2013:9 [ref. 37947], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Shinohara et al. 2014:245 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:215 [ref. 33547], Tohkairin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 35331], Jeong et al. 2016:283 [ref. 36312], Kells et al. 2016:349 [ref. 35888], Kim et al. 2020:89 [ref. 39118], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:857 [ref. 38925]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes glaucus Hilgendorf 1880. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern and North Pacific: Korea, Japan and Okhotsk Sea north to Bering Sea, east to Aleutian Islands (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

godfreyi, Rhinopias Whitley [G. P.] 1954:60, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Australian Zoologist v. 12 (pt 1); ref. 4720] Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.2977. •Status uncertain -- (see Eschmeyer et al. 1973:306 [ref. 6390]). •Valid as Rhinopias godfreyi Whitley 1954 -- (Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636]). •Mention -- (Chen & Liu 1984:103 [ref. 13451]). •Valid as Pteroidichthys godfreyi (Whitley 1954) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:446 [ref. 12442], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:884 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2015:1 [ref. 33892]). •Synonym of Pteroidichthys amboinensis Bleeker 1856 -- (Motomura & Kanade 2015:499 [ref. 34096]). Current status: Synonym of Pteroidichthys amboinensis Bleeker 1856. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Australia and Papua New Guinea [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

goodei, Sebastichthys Gilbert [C. H.] (ex Eigenmann) 1890:75 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Off southern California, U.S.A., 33°57'N, 119°53'30"W, Albatross station 2949, depth 155 fathoms. Syntypes: (3). Species name in brackets and credited to Eigenmann; footnote says: "In a paper by Dr. Carl H. Eigenmann, received as these sheets are passing through the press, this species is described under the name of Sebastodes goodei. The name proposed by Dr. Gilbert is therefore withdrawn." •In the synonymy of Sebastes goodei (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes goodei (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

goodei, Sebastodes Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1890:12 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 3; ref. 1256] Point Loma, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: BMNH 1891.5.19.28 (1); CAS 1056 (lost in 1906); USNM 41889 (1), 41895 (1). •Valid as Sebastes goodei (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:140 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:277 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:186 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:9 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:34 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:185 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:365 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:77 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:138 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:59 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes goodei (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: eastern Gulf of Alaska (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of Baja California Sur (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

gouphensis, Helicolenus dactylopterus Barsukov [V. V.] 1979:591, Fig. 2 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 19 (no. 4) (art. 117); ref. 9003] Gough Island, southern Atlantic, depth 360 meters. Holotype: ZIN 43192. Paratypes: ZIN 43193 (4). •Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809). Current status: Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Gough Island, South Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

grahami, Lythrichthys Wada [H.], Kai [Y.] & Motomura [H.] 2021:Figs. [Ichthyological Research v. 68 (no. 3); ref. 38160] Holotype. Paratypes: •Valid as Lythrichthys grahami Wada, Kai & Motomura 2021. Current status: Valid as Lythrichthys grahami Wada, Kai & Motomura 2021. Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Habitat: marine.

grandicornis, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:309, Pl. 86 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Martinique Island, West Indies; Puerto Rico; Havana, Cuba; San Domingo. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6681 (1) Dominican Republic, 0000-6689 (1) Puerto Rico, 0000-6900 (1) Martinique; SMF 440 [ex RMNH] (1); ZMB 752 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:13 [ref. 20738], Paepke & Fricke 1992:270 [ref. 19946], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena grandicornis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:118 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:58 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:276 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:66 [ref. 26475], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:238 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:197 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1258 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:44 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:92 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:82 [ref. 38844]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena grandicornis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western and central Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) and Bermuda south to southern Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico; southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena and Ascension islands. Habitat: marine.

grandisquamis, Scorpaena Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:107 [On some new fishes from the Queensland coast; ref. 3289] North West Islet, Capricorn Group, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS E.1418. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. For remarks on types see Imamura & Hoese 2020:[8] [ref. 37793]. •Valid as Scorpaena grandisquamis Ogilby 1910 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:447 [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). •In Parascorpaena -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[4] [ref. 38565]). •Synonym of Parascorpaena mossambica (Peters 1855) -- (Chou & Liao 2022:11 [ref. 39195]). Current status: Synonym of Parascorpaena mossambica (Peters 1855). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

grattanica, Scorpaena Trunov [I. A.] 2006:472, Fig. 2 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 46 (no. 4); ref. 28786] Grattan Bank, near Ascension Island, 9°46'S, 12°48'W, depth 120-170 meters. Holotype (unique): ZIN RAN 52148. Additional material: one not preserved. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena grattanica Trunov 2006 - (Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena grattanica Trunov 2006. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Grattan Bank, near Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

gronovii, Scorpaena Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Gronow) 1792:383 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. Based on Scorpaena capite cavernoso, cirris geminis in maxilla inferiore of Gronow 1754:46, No. 103 [ref. 20783]. See also Scorpaena barbata Bonnaterre 1788. •Questionably a synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). •Nomen nudum -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[4] [ref. 38565]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish.

guadalupae, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1944:429, Figs. 217-218 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Guadalupe Island, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: ANSP 70298. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1554 [ref. 22830], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

guamensis, Scorpaena Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:326 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Lectotype: MNHN 6667. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-6667 (1). Lectotype selected by Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Paulin 1982:448 [ref. 23678], Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Eschmeyer 1986:472 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:50 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:449 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:20 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:81 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:78 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:81 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:97 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:160 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2336 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:583 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Sakai et al. 2001:92 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:583 [ref. 26001], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:39 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:120 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:886 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Motomura 2009:66 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:90 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:66 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:230 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411], Koeda et al. 2016:21 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035], Fricke et al. 2018:133 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:28 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:103 [ref. 36673], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 29 [ref. 38321], Kwik & Lim 2020:13 [ref. 38869]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Wake, Marshall and Marquesas islands, north to southern Japan, south to northwestern Australia, New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia, Norfolk Island, Kermadec Islands, and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

guentheri, Sebastodes Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:102, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 27 (no. 1351); ref. 2527] Wakanoura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, Inland Sea. Holotype: CAS-SU 7372. Paratypes: USNM 50904 (1?). Additional material: CAS-SU 7194 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:123 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Sebastes inermis Cuvier 1829 -- (Choi et al. 2003:560 [ref. 26218] as guntheri Jordan & Starks 1905). •Synonym of Sebastes ventricosus Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:60 [ref. 15964], Kai & Nakabo 2008:252 [ref. 29759]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes ventricosus Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

guentheri, Setarches Johnson [J. Y.] 1862:177, Pl. 23 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1862 (pt 2) (art. 2) (for 10 June 1862); ref. 2357] Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1862.4.22.36. Type catalog: Wada et al. 2020:[3] [ref. 37692]. •Valid as Setarches guentheri Johnson 1862 -- (Eschmeyer & Collette 1966:359 [ref. 6485], Eschmeyer 1969:102 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:584 [ref. 7218], Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:289 [ref. 6389], Kanayama in Okamura et al. 1982:275, 395 [ref. 8256], Kanayama in Amaoka et al. 1983:155, 213 [ref. 8379], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:440 [ref. 14275], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:317 [ref. 6441], Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:571, 719 [ref. 8056], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1228 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer 1986:478 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:50 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:451 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:678 [ref. 17613], Cervigón 1991:294 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:99 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:423 [ref. 23827], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:153 [ref. 25472], Santos et al. 1997:78 [ref. 23531], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:128 [ref. 23963], Allen 1997:78 [ref. 23977], Arruda 1997:117 [ref. 24952], Marques & Saldanha 1998:287 [ref. 23580], Uiblein et al. 1999:64 [ref. 24045], Poss 1999:2347 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:566 [ref. 25086], Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636], Hutchins 2001:28 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:314 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:566 [ref. 26001], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1264 [ref. 27048], Moore et al. 2003:222 [ref. 27076], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Shinohara et al. 2005:425 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:333 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:49 [ref. 28815], Allen et al. 2006:870 [ref. 29078], Randall 2007:180 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:80 [ref. 32988], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:135 [ref. 37485], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1085 [ref. 34285], Poss 2016:2287 [ref. 34610], Kawai et al. 2017:24 [ref. 37786], Fricke et al. 2018:129 [ref. 35805], Carneiro et al. 2019:229 [ref. 37250], Fricke et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36673], Reiner 2019:159 [ref. 38139], Klautau et al. 2020:9 [ref. 37903], Psomadakis et al. 2020:357 [ref. 37272], Robertson et al. 2020:163 [ref. 38098], Wada et al. 2020:[3] [ref. 37692], Kim et al. 2021:114 [ref. 39117], Koeda et al. 2021:6 [ref. 38857]). Current status: Valid as Setarches guentheri Johnson 1862. Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas (including Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, South China Sea, East China Sea), east to Hawaiian Islands and Nazca Ridge, but not in other parts of eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

gunnari, Sebastodes Rendahl [H.] 1924:32 [Arkiv för Zoologi v. 16 (no. 2); ref. 15467] Chihli, Tien-Tsin-Hsien [Tianjin Dagu], Ta-ku, China. Holotype (unique): NRM 10625. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

guttata, Scorpaena Girard [C. F.] 1854:145 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] Monterey, California, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 350. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854 -- (Hiyama in Kumada 1937:56 [ref. 39147], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:132 [ref. 9277], Swift 1986:176 [ref. 20823], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:322 [ref. 24939], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1554 [ref. 22830], Thomson et al. 2000:70 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:73 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:126 [ref. 35888], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159], Burton & Lea 2019:57 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: central California (U.S.A.) south to Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

guyotensis, Hozukius Barsukov [V. V.] & Fedorov [V. V.] 1975:976 [869], Fig. [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 15 (no. 6); ref. 7011] Lyra Guyots [northern Hawaiian Ridge, central Pacific], 36°49'N, 171°26'W. Holotype: ZIN 41196. Paratypes: ZIN 41196 (now 3, with holotype). On p. 869 in English translation. •Valid as Hozukius guyotensis Barsukov & Fedorov 1975 -- (Kanayama in Okamura et al. 1982:271, 393 [ref. 8256], Kanayama in Amaoka et al. 1983:153, 212 [ref. 8379], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:313 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:586 [ref. 25086], Shytko 2001:9 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:586 [ref. 26001], Mundy 2005:325 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Valid as Hozukius guyotensis Barsukov & Fedorov 1975. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Central Pacific: northern Hawaiian Ridge endemic. Habitat: marine.

hageyi, Idiastion McCosker [J. E.] 2008:119, Figs. 4-5 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 59 (no. 3); ref. 29639] Isla Fernandina, Cabo Douglas, 00°17.53'S, 91°38.35'W, Galápagos Islands, depth 522 meters. Holotype (unique): CAS 87916. •Valid as Idiastion hageyi McCosker 2008 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Idiastion hageyi McCosker 2008. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

hakodatis, Sebastodes Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1900:361, Pl. 14 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1213); ref. 2502] Hakodate, Hokkaido, Japan. Holotype: USNM 49394. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6274 (9); ? BMNH 1905.2.4.263 (1, ex SU). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:123 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Sebastes schlegelii Hilgendorf 1880 -- (Parin et al. 2014:220 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:59 [ref. 35138]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes schlegelii Hilgendorf 1880. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

haplodactylus, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1860:117 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Incorrect subsequent spelling of Scorpaena aplodactylus Bleeker 1852. •In the synonymy of Scorpaena aplodactylus Bleeker 1853 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Misspelling. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena aplodactylus Bleeker 1853. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

hassi, Sebastapistes Klausewitz [W.] 1970:72, Fig. 1 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 51 (nos 1/2); ref. 7999] Addu Atoll, Maldives Islands, depth 38 meters. Holotype (unique): SMF 9860. •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis fowleri (Pietschmann 1934) -- (auhors). •Synonym of Sebastapistes fowleri (Pietschmann 1934) -- (Randall & Poss 2002:57 [ref. 25855], Randall 2005:125 [ref. 28239] but as Sebastapistes klausewitz, Motomura & Senou 2009:3 [ref. 30176]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes fowleri (Pietschmann 1934). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

hatizyoensis, Scorpaena Matsubara [K.] 1943:301, Fig. 103 [Transactions Sigenkagaku Kenkyusyo No. 2; ref. 2905] Hatizyô-zima, Japan. Holotype (unique): FAKU 6083. •Valid as Scorpaena hatizyoensis Matsubara 1943 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes mauritiana (Cuvier 1829) -- (Motomura et al. 2014:138 [ref. 33591]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes mauritiana (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

helena, Pontinus Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:528, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 3); ref. 1273] Gulf of Triste, off Venezuela, 11°10'N, 68°08'W, Oregon station 4451, depth 220 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 231728 [ex UMML 16164 and USNM 260470-F3]. Paratypes: UF 216164 [ex UMML 16164] (1). •Valid as Pontinus helena Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:25 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:430 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:421 [ref. 23827], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1246 [ref. 27048]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus helena Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

heltzeni, Sebastes Collett [R.] 1879:10-11 [Forhandlinger i Videnskabs-selskabet i Christiania (for 1879) No. 1; ref. 21044] Helgeland i Nordland [?]. No types known. Listed on p. 10 as "? Sebastes, n. sp." and on p. 11 as "S. heltzeni, n. sp." •Probably a synonym of Sebastes norvegicus (Ascanius 1772). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes norvegicus (Ascanius 1772). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

helvomaculatus, Sebastes Ayres [W. O.] 1859:26, Fig. 8 (p. 57) [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 2 (1858-1862); ref. 155] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Possible syntypes: BMNH 1863.10.9.7-10. Any types at CAS would have been lost in 1906. •Valid as Sebastes helvomaculatus Ayres 1859 -- (Chen 1971:14 [ref. 7668], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:141 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:310 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:186 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:37 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:35 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:187 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:349 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:77 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:32 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:138 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:59 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes helvomaculatus Ayres 1859. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: western Gulf of Alaska south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

hemilepidota, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1938:63, Fig. 26 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Tubig Point, between Samar and Masbate, Philippines, 12°12'35"N, 124°02'48"E, Albatross station D.5392, depth 135 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98884. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena hemilepidota Fowler 1938 -- (Poss 1999:2335 [ref. 24796], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899] as hemilepidotus, Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159], Fricke et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36673]). •Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2019:312 [ref. 36828], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[14] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

hemingwayi, Neomerinthe Fowler [H. W.] 1935:42, Fig. [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 87; ref. 1420] About 70 miles southeast of Cape May, New Jersey, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 63482. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Neomerinthe hemingwayi Fowler 1935 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:41 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:272 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:97 [ref. 23239], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1243 [ref. 27048], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:33 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Motomura et al. 2015:537 [ref. 33980]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe hemingwayi Fowler 1935. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

hemprichi, Dendrochirus Matsunuma [M.], Motomura [H.] & Bogorodsky [S. V.] 2017:[30], Figs. 2a, 6, 17-20 [Ichthyological Research v. 64 (no. 4); ref. 35277] Near Eilat, Gulf of Aqaba, Israel. Holotype: USNM 362229. Paratypes: BPBM, CAS, HUJ, KAUM, MNHN, SAIAB, SMF, USNM. Plus additional non-type specimens. •Valid as Dendrochirus hemprichi Matsunuma, Motomura & Bogorodsky 2017 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:130 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:52 [ref. 36273], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[27] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Valid as Dendrochirus hemprichi Matsunuma, Motomura & Bogorodsky 2017. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East and South Africa to Seychelles and Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

hernandezi, Sebastodes de Buen [F.] 1960:22 [Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (Santiago) v. 55; ref. 19922] Montemar, Valparaíso, Chile. Holotype: EBMC. Paratypes: EBMC (3). •Synonym of Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kong U. 1985:48 [ref. 11639], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:82 [ref. 22530]). •Synonym of Sebastes oculatus Valenciennes 1833. Current status: Synonym of Sebastes oculatus Valenciennes 1833. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

heterurus, Pterois Bleeker [P.] 1856:33 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1; ref. 311] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5872. The species name heterurus is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Parabrachirus heterurus (Bleeker 1856) -- (Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1978:66 [ref. 6386]). •Valid as Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856) -- (Nakabo 2000:567 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:567 [ref. 26001], Allen & Erdmann 2012:219 [ref. 31980], Matsunuma et al. 2013:50 [ref. 33131], Fricke et al. 2018:131 [ref. 35805], Psomadakis et al. 2020:359 [ref. 37272], Matsunuma & Motomura 2021:[6] [ref. 38848]). •Valid as Parapterois heterurus (Bleeker 1856) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:466 [ref. 5652], Chen et al. 1997:168 [ref. 26476], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:128 [ref. 23963], Poss 1999:2326 [ref. 24796], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Choi et al. 2003:242, 559 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Motomura 2004:1 [ref. 27693], Shinohara et al. 2005:424 [ref. 28370], Yoshida et al. 2013:78 [ref. 34464]). Current status: Valid as Parapterois heterurus (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Andaman Sea east to eastern Indonesia and Philippines, north to central Japan, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

hexanema, Sebastes Günther [A.] 1880:40, Pl. 17 (fig. B) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Kai Islands, Challenger station 192, Indonesia, Banda Sea, depth 129 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1879.5.14.230 and 240-241 (3); MNHN 1890-0094 (1); NMI block reg. no. 114.1899 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:19-20 [ref. 20738], Wheeler & O'Riordan 1969:98 [ref. 20752]. •Valid as Pontinus hexanema (Günther 1880) -- (Eschmeyer 1983:1 [ref. 8231]). •Synonym of Pontinus rhodochrous (Günther 1872) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308]). Current status: Synonym of Pontinus rhodochrous (Günther 1872). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

hilgendorfii, Sebastes Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1884:202 [34] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 49 (1. Abth.); ref. 4248] Tokyo, Japan. No types known. Name in synonymy of Sebastes dactylopterus; validated back to first appearance as above by subsequent use as a valid species. •Valid as Helicolenus hilgendorfi (Döderlein 1884) -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:80 [ref. 15964] with authorship as Steindachner & Döderlein, Kim & Lee 1993:469 [ref. 39487], Shinohara et al. 1996:174 [ref. 26605], Nakabo 2000:584 [ref. 25086] with authorship as Steindachner & Döderlein, Shytko 2001:8 [ref. 26410] with authorship as Steindachner & Döderlein, Nakabo 2002:584 [ref. 26001] with authorship as Steindachner & Döderlein, Choi et al. 2003:242, 559 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:424 [ref. 28370], Shinohara et al. 2011:42 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al. 2014:244 [ref. 33330]). •Valid as Helicolenus hilgendorfii (Döderlein 1884) -- (Kanayama in Okamura et al. 1982:271, 392 [ref. 8256], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:313 [ref. 6441], Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:567, 717 [ref. 8056], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:130 [ref. 23963], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Parin et al. 2014:212 [ref. 33547], Motomura et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34709], Miyazaki et al. 2019:123 [ref. 37957], Kim et al. 2020:89 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:41 [ref. 37637], Koeda et al. 2021:5 [ref. 38857]). Current status: Valid as Helicolenus hilgendorfii (Döderlein 1884). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Japan, Korea and Russia. Habitat: marine.

hirsutus, Parascorpaenodes Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:63, Pl. 1 (fig. E), Fig. 5 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 4; ref. 4112] Bazaruto Island, 21°30'S, 35°30'E, Mozambique, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 331. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 388 (2), 389 (1), ?390 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenodes hirsutus (Smith 1957) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:277 [ref. 6389], Dor 1984:83 [ref. 29757], Eschmeyer 1986:472 [ref. 5652], Paxton et al. 1989:449 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:20 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:81 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:81 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:97 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:160 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2337 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:582 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:582 [ref. 26001], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:120 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:328 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:887 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:175 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:66 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:230 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035], Fricke et al. 2018:134 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273], Hoshino & Motomura 2021:[12] [ref. 38377]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes hirsutus (Smith 1957). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), Seychelles and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Marshall Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia) at 35°03'S, New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

histrio, Scorpaena Jenyns [L.] 1840:35, Pl. 8 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Syntypes: BMNH 1917.7.14.73, 1917.7.14.74 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840 -- (Pequeño 1989:56 [ref. 14125] as hystrio, Allen & Robertson 1994:99 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:82 [ref. 23101], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1555 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:290 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:268 [ref. 24555], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:31 [ref. 24590], Sielfeld K. & Vargas F. 2000:33 [ref. 37222], Thomson et al. 2000:70 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:73 [ref. 37547], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico) south to Chile, including Guadalupe Island (Mexico), Gulf of California (Mexico) and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

hopkinsi, Sebastodes Cramer [F.] 1895:594 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 14579] Pacific Grove, California, U.S.A. Lectotype: CAS-SU 3232. Paralectotypes: ?BMNH 1895.10.28.11 (1); CAS-SU 2282 (3), 3112 [ex CAS-SU 3232] (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:123 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established in Jordan 1896:244 [ref. 2395] in caption to Pl. 41 •Valid as Sebastes hopkinsi (Cramer 1895) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:141 [ref. 9277], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:324 [ref. 24939], Orr et al. 2000:31 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:36 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:190 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:77 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:138 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:59 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes hopkinsi (Cramer 1895). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: southern Oregon (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of northern Baja California (Mexico), including Guadalupe Island (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

hubbsi, Sebastichthys Matsubara [K.] 1937:57 [Copeia 1937 (no. 1); ref. 20686] Japan. Syntypes: (44) apparently lost, not at FAKU. Replacement name for Sebastichthys brevispinis Matsubara 1936, preoccupied by Sebastichthys proriger brevispinis Bean 1884. •Valid as Sebastes hubbsi (Matsubara 1937) -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:312 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:51 [ref. 15964], Kim & Lee 1993:465 [ref. 39487], Cheng & Zhou 1997:411 [ref. 26385], Nakabo 2000:594 [ref. 25086], Shimizu 2001:25 [ref. 25799], Shytko 2001:37 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:594 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 560 [ref. 26218], Kim et al. 2020:89 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:42 [ref. 37637]). Replacement Name. Current status: Valid as Sebastes hubbsi (Matsubara 1937). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Japan and southern Korea. Habitat: marine.

hudsoni, Dendrochirus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:202 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Waikiki, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50652. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7467 (2), USFC 2718 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:120 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Dendrochirus barberi (Steindachner 1900) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:275 [ref. 6389], Mundy 2005:324 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:171 [ref. 30952], Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:5 [ref. 32776], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35277], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[27] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Synonym of Dendrochirus barberi (Steindachner 1900). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

ijimae, Sebastodes Jordan [D. S.] & Metz [C. W.] 1913:49, Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 2490] Busan, South Korea. Holotype (unique): FMNH 55437 [ex CM 4172]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:93 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:79 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Sebastes ijimae (Jordan & Metz 1913) -- (Chen & Barsukov 1976:2 [ref. 22762], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:312 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:67 [ref. 15964], Nakabo 2000:593 [ref. 25086], Shytko 2001:37 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:593 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 560 [ref. 26218], Parin et al. 2014:215 [ref. 33547]). •Synonym of Sebastes vulpes Döderlein 1884 -- (Muto et al. 2018:[5] [ref. 35963]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes vulpes Döderlein 1884. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

immaculatus, Scorpaenodes Poss [S. G.] & Collette [B. B.] 1990:543, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 103 (no. 3); ref. 16730] Walters Shoals, western Indian Ocean, 33°11'06"S, 43°51'42"E to 33°11'30"S, 43°51'36"E, depth 40-49 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 307748. •Valid as Scorpaenodes immaculatus Poss & Collette 1990 -- (Collette & Parin 1991:8 [ref. 19110], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes immaculatus Poss & Collette 1990. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

imperialis, Sebastes Cuvier [G.] 1829:167 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Mediterranean Sea. An unneeded replacement name for Scorpaena dactyloptera Delaroche 1809. Also in Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:246 [ref. 998]. •Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:94 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:582 [ref. 7218], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:665 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2261 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

imus, Ectreposebastes Garman [S.] 1899:53, Pls. 8, 9, 71 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Galápagos Islands [ca. 15 kilometers southeast of San Cristóbal Island, eastern Pacific], 0°58'30"S, 89°17'W, Albatross station 3403, depth 384 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28766 (3), USNM 153606 [ex MCZ 28766] (1). •Valid as Ectreposebastes imus Garman 1899 -- (Eschmeyer & Collette 1966:367 [ref. 6485], Eschmeyer 1969:103 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:285 [ref. 6389], Kanayama in Okamura et al. 1982:276, 396 [ref. 8256], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:439 [ref. 14275], Kanayama in Amaoka et al. 1983:155, 213 [ref. 8379], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:317 [ref. 6441], Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:571, 719 [ref. 8056], Scott & Scott 1988:480 [ref. 25518], Paxton et al. 1989:441 [ref. 12442], McAllister 1990:190 [ref. 14674], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:665 [ref. 17613], Mandrytsa 1990:29 [ref. 19834], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:152 [ref. 25472], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1548 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:293 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:267 [ref. 24555], Poss 1999:2314 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:566 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636], Nakabo 2002:566 [ref. 26001], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1239 [ref. 27048], Moore et al. 2003:221 [ref. 27076], Shinohara et al. 2005:424 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:324 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:30 [ref. 28815], Randall 2007:180 [ref. 30952], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Poss 2016:2260 [ref. 34610], Kawai et al. 2017:26 [ref. 37786], Carneiro et al. 2019:229 [ref. 37250], Fricke et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36673], Eduardo et al. 2021:4 [ref. 38817], Romanov et al. 2021:284 [ref. 38989], Eduardo et al. 2022:10 [ref. 39574]). Current status: Valid as Ectreposebastes imus Garman 1899. Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas. Habitat: marine.

inermis, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:311 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0693. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:13 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:138 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:61 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:436 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:275 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:290 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:98 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:66 [ref. 26475], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1259 [ref. 27048], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:821 [ref. 28049], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159], Caires et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:605 [ref. 38945]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) and Bahamas south to northeastern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

inermis, Sebastes Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:346 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Japan. Holotype: ZMB 10553. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:60 [ref. 20738]. See Kai & Nakabo 2008:248 [ref. 29759] for information on the holotype. •Valid as Sebastes inermis Cuvier 1829 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:311 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:58 [ref. 15964], Kim & Lee 1993:460 [ref. 39487], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:130 [ref. 23963], Poss 1999:2307 [ref. 24796], Nagasawa et al. 2000:231 [ref. 24801], Nakabo 2000:592 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2000:177 [ref. 25987], Shimizu 2001:25 [ref. 25799], Shytko 2001:38 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:592 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 560 [ref. 26218], Kai & Nakabo 2002:260 [ref. 26335], Kai et al. 2002:2591 [ref. 26731], Parin et al. 2002:S62 [ref. 28300], Kai & Nakabo 2008:244 [ref. 29759], Kwun et al. 2017:141 [ref. 37287], Kim et al. 2020:91 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:42 [ref. 37637], Yasutake et al. 2021:34 [ref. 38944]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes inermis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Japan and southern Korea. Habitat: marine.

insperatus, Scorpaenopsis Motomura [H.] 2004:546, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2004 (no. 3); ref. 27914] Near end of fuel wharf, east side of Chowder Bay, Sydney Harbour, New South Wales, Australia, 33°50'48"S, 151°15'35"E, depth 14.4 meters. Holotype: AMS I.40868-011. Paratypes: AMS I.40868-030 (1). The species name insperatus is an adjective, and therefore changes its ending to insperata when in the feminine genus Scorpaenopsis. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis insperatus Motomura 2004 -- (Allen et al. 2006:889 [ref. 29066], Motomura & Causse 2011:50 [ref. 31125]). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis insperata Motomura 2004. Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis insperata Motomura 2004. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

insularis, Scorpaenodes Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1971:506, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 37 (no. 17); ref. 894] James Bay, St. Helena Island, South Atlantic. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1969.3.10.9. •Valid as Scorpaena [sic] insularis (Eschmeyer 1971) -- (Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192]). •Valid as Scorpaenodes insularis Eschmeyer 1971 -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:635 [ref. 9166], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:677 [ref. 17613], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155] as Scorpaenoides i., Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Poss 2016:2284 [ref. 34610], Brown et al. 2019:180 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes insularis Eschmeyer 1971. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: St. Paul's Rocks (Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago); southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands. Habitat: marine.

introniger, Sebastichthys Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:81 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Santa Barbara Islands, off southern California, U.S.A., 33°55'30"N, 119°41'30"W, Albatross station 2948, depth 266 fathoms. Syntypes: CAS-SU 11526 (1), USNM 77436-37 (1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:122 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Sebastes aleutianus (Jordan & Evermann 1898) -- (Love et al. 2002:122 [ref. 26216]). •Synonym of Sebastes melanostomus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890) -- (Mecklenburg et al. 2002:383 [ref. 25968]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes melanostomus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

investigatoris, Scorpaenodes Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Rama-Rao [K. V.] 1972:57 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 39 (no. 5); ref. 7611] Arabian Sea off Pakistan, 24°13'N, 65°52'E, depth 93 fathoms. Holotype: CAS 24264. Paratypes: CAS 24265-66 (2, 1); USNM 204030 (1); ZSI 916/1 (1), 917/1 (1). See Das 2003:378 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes investigatoris Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1972 -- (Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Poss et al. 2010:242 [ref. 30744], Psomadakis et al. 2015:184 [ref. 34104], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 29 [ref. 38321]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes investigatoris Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1972. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

iop, Scorpaenopsis Nakabo [T.], Senou [H.] & Masuda [H.] 1993:29, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 40 (no. 1); ref. 20716] Izu Oceanic Park, Futo, Ito City, Shizuoka Prefecture, east coast of Izu Peninsula, Japan, depth 30 meters. Holotype: FAKU 58788. Paratypes: IOPM 2080 (1); NSMT-P 35788 [or 35785] (1); TKPM-P 1305 (1); FAKU 188 (1), 192 (1), 57333 (1), 59113 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis iop Nakabo, Senou & Masuda 1993 -- (Nakabo 2000:575 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:575 [ref. 26001]). •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis cotticeps Fowler 1938 -- (Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:18 [ref. 25801], Motomura et al. 2004:93 [ref. 28581]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis cotticeps Fowler 1938. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

iracundus, Sebastodes Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:107, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 27 (no. 1351); ref. 2527] Kushiro, Hokkaido, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 12716. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:123 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Sebastes iracundus (Jordan & Starks 1904) -- (Kanayama in Amaoka et al. 1983:151, 211, 335 [ref. 8379], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:312 [ref. 6441], Shinohara et al. 1996:175 [ref. 26605], Nakabo 2000:588 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:26 [ref. 25650], Shytko 2001:40 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:588 [ref. 26001], Parin et al. 2002:S62 [ref. 28300], Balanov et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27622], Orr & Hawkins 2008:128 [ref. 29591], Parin et al. 2014:216 [ref. 33547], Miyazaki et al. 2019:123 [ref. 37957]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes iracundus (Jordan & Starks 1904). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Japan, Russia. Habitat: marine.

isthmensis, Scorpaena Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:842, Pl. 80 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Porto Bello, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 81617. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena isthmensis Meek & Hildebrand 1928 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:103 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:54 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:437 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:274 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:285 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Villamizar 1996:40 [ref. 23496], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:67 [ref. 26475], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:198 [ref. 25013], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1260 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34324], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717], Caires et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:606 [ref. 38945], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:82 [ref. 38844]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena isthmensis Meek & Hildebrand 1928. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Panama south to Santa Catarina (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

istriensis, Scorpaena Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 121 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. •In the synonymy of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

itinus, Sebastodes Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:99, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 27 (no. 1351); ref. 2527] Hakodate, Oshima Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 7368. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:123 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Sebastodes itinus Jordan & Starks 1904 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:310 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Sebastes itinus (Jordan & Starks 1904) -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:42 [ref. 15964], Nakabo 2000:590 [ref. 25086], Shytko 2001:41 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:590 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2011:42 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al.2014:245 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:216 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:857 [ref. 38925]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes itinus (Jordan & Starks 1904). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

izensis, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:134, Fig. 10 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 27 (no. 1351); ref. 2527] Suruga Bay, Japan. Holotype: USNM 50909. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7366 (2). Additional material: CAS-SU 7398 (2); USNM 51242 (2), 51266 (1), 51279 (4), 51392 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena izensis Jordan & Starks 1904 -- (Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:563, 715 [ref. 8056], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:83 [ref. 15964], Cheng & Zhou 1997:415 [ref. 26385], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:129 [ref. 23963], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). •Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2019:312 [ref. 36828], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[14] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

jacksoniensis, Scorpaena Steindachner [F.] 1866:50 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe v. 3 (no. 7); ref. 20460] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): NMW 75379. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. Appeared first in the abstract as above, then in Steindachner 1866:438, Pl. 3 (figs. 2-2a) [ref. 4210]; also on p. 15 of separate. •Synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:447 [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:884 [ref. 29066]). •Valid as Scorpaena jacksoniensis Steindachner 1866 -- (Motomura et al. 2011:323 [ref. 31618], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159], Wibowo et al. 2019:308 [ref. 37166], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[12] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena jacksoniensis Steindachner 1866. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southern Queensland to Victoria (east coast of Australia). Habitat: marine.

jenynsi, Sebastodes Abbott [J. F.] 1900:476 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 51 (for 1899); ref. 15632] Valparaíso, Chile. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 11925. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:123 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kong U. 1985:48 [ref. 11639], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:82 [ref. 22530]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

jordani, Pterois Regan [C. T.] 1905:20 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 15 (no. 85) (art. 2); ref. 3624] Inland Sea, Japan. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1905.6.6.265. •Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856) -- (Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27693], Matsunuma et al. 2013:52 [ref. 33131], Matsunuma & Motomura 2021:[6] [ref. 38848]). •Synonym of Parapterois heterurus (Bleeker 1856). Current status: Synonym of Parapterois heterurus (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

jordani, Sebastodes Gilbert [C. H.] 1896:466 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 19 (for 1893) (art. 6); ref. 1628] Coast of California, U.S.A., Albatross station 2935, 3103, 3114, depth 62-124 fathoms. Syntypes: CAS-SU 3607 (1), 3626 (1); USNM 48571 (1), 125616 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:123 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Sebastes jordani (Gilbert 1896) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:141 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:312 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:186 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:10 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:42 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:192 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:362 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:77 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:138 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:60 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes jordani (Gilbert 1896). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: southern British Columbia (Canada) south to Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

joyneri, Sebastes Günther [A.] 1878:485 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 1 (no. 6) (art. 56); ref. 18236] Tokyo, Japan. Syntypes: BMNH 1878.4.5.92-93 (2). •Valid as Sebastes joyneri Günther 1878 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:311 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:54 [ref. 15964], Chen 1985:36 [ref. 6543], Kim & Lee 1993:460 [ref. 39487], Poss 1999:2307 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:591 [ref. 25086], Shimizu 2001:25 [ref. 25799], Shytko 2001:43 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:591 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 561 [ref. 26218], Kim et al. 2020:91 [ref. 39118]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes joyneri Günther 1878. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Korea, Japan and Russia. Habitat: marine.

kagoshimae, Ebosia Oshima [M.] 1956:237, Figs. [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 65 (no. 6); ref. 12218] Offshore of Shibushi, Osumi, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Syntypes: (2). •Synonym of Ebosia bleekeri (Döderlein 1884) -- (Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1978:68 [ref. 6386], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:307 [ref. 33570]). Current status: Synonym of Ebosia bleekeri (Döderlein 1884). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

kagoshimana, Scorpaena Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1884:196 [28] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 49 (1. Abth.); ref. 4248] Kagoshima, Japan. Syntypes: MZS 1144 (1); NMW 76575 (2). Type information (MZS) from Amaoka & Fujii 1999:153 [ref. 26515], who identified MZS 1144 as Scorpaenopsis diabolus (Cuvier 1829). •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis neglecta Heckel 1837 -- (Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:36 [ref. 25801], Motomura et al. 2004:97 [ref. 28581]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis neglecta Heckel 1837. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

kaufmani, Scorpaena Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1952:397 [Philippine Journal of Science v. 80 (no. 4) (for Dec. 1951); ref. 11045] Entrance to Manila Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines, depth 65 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 202511 [ex UW 7239]. Paratypes: USNM 202570 [ex UW 7254] (1). Additional material: (1). Type catalog: Meldrim & Wadley 1968:873 [ref. 31181]. •In genus Neomerinthe -- (Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817]). •Valid as Neomerinthe kaufmani (Herre 1952) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe kaufmani (Herre 1952). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Philippines and Solomon Islands. Habitat: marine.

kawaradae, Sebastodes (Zalopyr) Matsubara [K.] 1934:207 [Journal of the Imperial Fisheries Institute Tokyo v. 30 (no. 3); ref. 13900] Off Miyako, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 101042. •Valid as Sebastes kawaradae (Matsubara 1934) -- (authors). •Synonym of Sebastes aleutianus (Jordan & Evermann 1898) -- (Love et al. 2002:122 [ref. 26216]). •Synonym of Sebastes melanostictus (Matsubara 1934) -- (Orr & Hawkins 2008:126 [ref. 29591]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes melanostictus (Matsubara 1934). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

keelingensis, Scorpaenodes Marshall [N. B.] 1950:199, Pl. 19 (fig. 3) [Bulletin of the Raffles Museum No. 22; ref. 12960] Cocos-Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1949.11.29.659. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes kelloggi (Jenkins 1903) -- (Allen & Smith-Vaniz 1994:3 [ref. 22386], Hoshino & Motomura 2021:[4] [ref. 38377]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes kelloggi (Jenkins 1903). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

kelloggi, Sebastopsis Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:492, Fig. 37 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50694. Paratypes: CAS-SU 23306 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:124 [ref. 12291], Hoshino & Motomura 2021:[4] [ref. 38377]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes kelloggi (Jenkins 1903) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:279 [ref. 6389], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:472 [ref. 5652], Winterbottom et al. 1989:20 [ref. 13251], Myers 1999:97 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:160 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2337 [ref. 24796], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:120 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:329 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:887 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:175 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:230 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035], Fricke et al. 2019:103 [ref. 36673], Akaike et al. 2021:21 [ref. 38809], Hoshino & Motomura 2021:[4] [ref. 38377]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes kelloggi (Jenkins 1903). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa and East Africa, Réunion (Mascarenes) and Agalega Islands east to Hawaiian Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to Kagoshima Prefecture (southern Japan), south to Western Australia, Cape York (Queensland, Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

kellyi, Sebastes fasciatus Litvinenko [N. I.] 1974:18 [ ref. 24532] Eastport, Maine, U.S.A. Holotype: ZIN 43244. Paratypes: ZIN 43245 (16). Original description in 1974 not seen [perhaps not available until 1979]. Also appeared in much more detail in Litvinenko 1979:387:Fig. 1 [ref. 24531]. See McAllister 1990:186 [ref. 14674]. •Synonym of Sebastes fasciatus Storer 1854, but a valid subspecies -- (Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1221 [ref. 13677]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes fasciatus Storer 1854. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

kitai, Ursinoscorpaenopsis Nakabo [T.] & Yamada [U.] 1996:143, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Research v. 43 (no. 2); ref. 22261] East China Sea, 28°15'N, 126°45'E, depth 138 meters. Holotype (unique): FAKU 61187. •Valid as Ursinoscorpaenopsis kitai Nakabo & Yamada 1996 -- (Nakabo 2000:574 [ref. 25086], Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Nakabo 2002:574 [ref. 26001]). Current status: Valid as Ursinoscorpaenopsis kitai Nakabo & Yamada 1996. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: East China Sea. Habitat: marine.

kiyomatsui, Sebastes Kai [Y.] & Nakabo [T.] 2004:5, Figs. 1A, 2A [Ichthyological Research v. 51 (no. 1); ref. 27594] Shingu, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, depth 250 meters. Holotype: FAKU 70124. Paratypes: FAKU 2040 (1), 6611-12 (1, 1), 50062-63 (1, 1), 50087 (1), 70122-23 (1, 1), 78753 (1), 81567 (1), 81627-28 (1, 1). •Valid as Sebastes kiyomatsui Kai & Nakabo 2004. Current status: Valid as Sebastes kiyomatsui Kai & Nakabo 2004. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Pacific coast of southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

klausewitzi, Scorpaena Frøiland [Ø.] in Dor 1984:82 [Checklist of the fishes of the Red Sea. CLOFRES.; ref. 29757] Not available. Described in an unpublished thesis [ref. 33847] as Frøiland 1972, and was intended to be published but the manuscript was withdrawn. Cited in synonymy of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 by Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757]. From Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, based on TAU P.2578. •In the synonymy of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[4] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

kodipungi, Pterois Bleeker [P.] 1852:450 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 16828] Bangka; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia; Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: (11) BMNH 1880.4.21.108 (1) Bleeker specimen; RMNH (about 8 of 11). •Valid as Pterois kodipungi Bleeker 1852 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830]). •Synonym of Pterois russellii Bennett 1831 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2008:129 [ref. 29479] as russelii, Allen & Erdmann 2012:222 [ref. 31980] as russelii). Current status: Synonym of Pterois russelii Bennett 1831. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

koenigii, Scorpaena Bloch [M. E.] 1789:235, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 10; ref. 17256] •In genus Dendrochirus Swainson 1839. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae.

koreanus, Sebastes Kim [I.-S.] & Lee [W.-O.] 1994:409, Figs. 1, 2A [Korean Journal of Zoology v. 37 (no. 3); ref. 21663] Munyae Island, Okdo-myon, Okku-gun, Chollabuk-do, Korea, 35°48'N, 126°27'E, depth 20 meters. Holotype: CUBK 19324. Paratypes: CUBK 18169-73 (5), 19075-77 (3), 19078 (1). •Valid as Sebastes koreanus Kim & Lee 1994 -- (Choi et al. 2003:242, 561 [ref. 26218], Kim et al. 2020:91 [ref. 39118]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes koreanus Kim & Lee 1994. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Korea. Habitat: marine.

kowiensis, Scorpaena Smith [J. L. B.] 1935:224 [Records of the Albany Museum Grahamstown v. 4; ref. 4066] Port Alfred, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 123 [ex AMG]. •Valid as Scorpaena kowienesis Smith 1935 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes nuchalis (Günther 1874) -- (Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1223 [ref. 13677]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes cyanostigma (Bleeker 1856) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:475 [ref. 5652], Randall 2005:125 [ref. 28239]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

koyo, Dendrochirus Matsunuma [M.] & Motomura [H.] 2019:[22], Figs. 11d-e, 15-17 [Ichthyological Research v. 66 (no. 3); ref. 36536] 150 m south of Chichi-jima Island, Ogasawara Islands, Japan, 27°00'06"N, 142°12'01"E, depth 143 meters. Holotype (unique): NSMT-P 114734. •Valid as Dendrochirus koyo Matsunuma & Motomura 2019. Current status: Valid as Dendrochirus koyo Matsunuma & Motomura 2019. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Habitat: marine.

kuhlii, Scorpaena Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:123 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Non-types: SMF 14 (1) from Lowe. •Valid as Pontinus kuhlii (Bowdich 1825) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:35 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:583 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1213 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:668 [ref. 17613], Merella et al. 1998:177 [ref. 23484], Santos et al. 1997:76 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:115 [ref. 24952], Uiblein et al. 1999:64 [ref. 24045], Afonso et al. 1999:71 [ref. 25466], López Abellán et al. 2001:259 [ref. 25935], Pais et al. 2005:143 [ref. 28486], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Poss 2016:2265 [ref. 34610], Carneiro et al. 2019:230 [ref. 37250], Parenti 2019:7 [ref. 36934], Reiner 2019:155 [ref. 38139], Bañón & Maño 2021:68 [ref. 38883], Kovačić et al. 2021:76 [ref. 39014]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus kuhlii (Bowdich 1825). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Mediterranean Sea (rare); eastern Atlantic: Galicia (Spain) south to South Africa, including Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands, and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

kyphos, Idiastion Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:530, Figs. 3-5 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 3); ref. 1273] Southeastern Caribbean Sea, between Venezuela and Grenada, 11°40'N, 62°33'W, Oregon station 5039, depth 320-340 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 231726 [ex USNM 260470-F1 and UMML 16162]. •Valid as Idiastion kyphos Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:53 [ref. 1274], Anderson et al. 1975 [ref. 7056], Ishida & Amaoka 1992:357 [ref. 19515], Mandrytsa 1993:198 [ref. 20724], Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1241 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27192] dated 1964, McCosker 2008:122 [ref. 29639], Okamoto et al. 2012:5 [ref. 32019], Poss 2016:2262 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Valid as Idiastion kyphos Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

lacrimata, Scorpaena Randall [J. E.] & Greenfield [D. W.] 2004:391, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 55 (no. 19); ref. 27899] Tahiti, Society Islands, depth 400 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 31706. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena lacrimata Randall & Greenfield 2004 -- (Motomura et al. 2007:42 [ref. 29012], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[13] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena lacrimata Randall & Greenfield 2004. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: South Pacific: Society Islands. Habitat: marine.

lactomaculata, Scorpaena Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1945:400 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 35 (no. 12); ref. 2141] Near Mumbai, India. Holotype: ZSI. Paratypes: CAS-SU 14661 (1). Originally as lacto-maculata. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis lactomaculata (Herre 1945) -- (Randall 1995:111 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:137 [ref. 23922], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:28 [ref. 25801], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:185 [ref. 34104], Eagderi et al. 2019:128 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:68 [ref. 36871] as cf. lacteomaculata). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis lactomaculata (Herre 1945). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf east to India. Habitat: marine.

laevis, Scorpaena Troschel [F. H.] 1866:206 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 32 (pt. 1); ref. 4465] Cape Verde Islands. Holotype (unique): NMW 5632. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena laevis Troschel 1866 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:71 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:580 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1217 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:671 [ref. 17613], Santos et al. 1997:76 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:115 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:71 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Poss 2016:2274 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37509], Carneiro et al. 2019:231 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:157 [ref. 38139], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena laevis Troschel 1866. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Azores and Madeira south to Gulf of Guinea, including Cape Verde Islands, and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

lahillei, Helicolenus Norman [J. R.] 1937:124, Fig. 68 [Discovery Reports v. 16; ref. 3227] 35°S, 53°W, off the coast of Uruguay. Holotype: BMNH 1935.9.11.6-7 (1 of 2, 172 mm). Paratypes: BMNH 1935.9.11.6-7 (1 of 2, 155 mm). •Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809), but a valid subspecies -- (Eschmeyer 1969:95 [ref. 1274], Inada in Nakamura et al. 1986:178 [ref. 14235], Scott & Scott 1988:480 [ref. 25518], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:88 [ref. 25942], Poss 2016:2261 [ref. 34610]). •Valid as Helicolenus lahillei Norman 1937 -- (Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27192], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800]). Current status: Valid as Helicolenus lahillei Norman 1937. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

laniaria, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:324 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6657. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:13-14 [ref. 20738]. Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308] served as first revisers selecting strongia over laniaria -- both species described in the same publication. •Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

laotale, Sebastapistes Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:376, Fig. 72 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51761. Paratypes: AMS I.7378 (1), BPBM 5329 [ex USNM 51761] (1), CAS-SU 8849 (4), USNM 126358 (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:122 [ref. 12291]. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

latens, Adelosebastes Eschmeyer [W. N.], Abe [T.] & Nakano [S.] 1979:80, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2) [Uo (Japanese Society of Ichthyologists) No. 30; ref. 1275] Emperor Seamount Chain, North Pacific, depth 900-1000 meters and Aleutian Is, depth 687-732 meters. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 54180. •Valid as Adelosebastes latens Eschmeyer, Abe & Nakano 1979 -- (Barsukov et al. 1983 [ref. 14646], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441], Orr et al. 2000:21 [ref. 24942], Nakabo 2000:570 [ref. 25086], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:345 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:570 [ref. 26001], Love et al. 2005:73 [ref. 37547], Mundy 2005:324 [ref. 28379], Maslenikov et al. 2013:8 [ref. 37947]). Current status: Valid as Adelosebastes latens Eschmeyer, Abe & Nakano 1979. Scorpaenidae: Sebastolobinae. Distribution: North Pacific: Emperor Seamounts; Aleutian Islands (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

latus, Sebastichthys (Pteropodus) Matsubara [K.] 1934:208 [Journal of the Imperial Fisheries Institute Tokyo v. 30 (no. 3); ref. 13900] Tokyo fish market ("probably from Tokyo Bay"), Japan. No types at FAKU. •Synonym of Sebastes pachycephalus Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Kai & Nakabo 2013:543 [ref. 32653]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes pachycephalus Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

leda, Pontinus Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1969:38, Fig. 3a [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences No. 79; ref. 1274] South Gulf of Guinea, 3°31'S, 9°53'E, depth 400 meters. Holotype: CAS 24282. Paratypes: CAS 24283 (1), 24284 (1, c&s); USNM 204097 (4). Additional material: CAS 24285-88 (4, 7, 4, 1); USNM 204096 (2). •Valid as Pontinus leda Eschmeyer 1969 -- (Eschmeyer 1986:470 [ref. 5652], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:668 [ref. 17613], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:152 [ref. 25472], Adam et al. 1998:11 [ref. 23610], Motomura et al. 2005:10 [ref. 28289], Poss 2016:2266 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus leda Eschmeyer 1969. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

lengerichi, Helicolenus Norman [J. R.] 1937:125, Fig. 69 [Discovery Reports v. 16; ref. 3227] Juan Fernández Islands, 38°22'S, 73°41'W, Chile. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1935.9.10.22. •Valid as Helicolenus lengerichi Norman 1937 -- (Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:176 [ref. 14235], Dyer & Hoz 1988 [ref. 19194], Pequeño 1989:56 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:267 [ref. 24555], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:31 [ref. 24590]). Current status: Valid as Helicolenus lengerichi Norman 1937. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific and southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

lentiginosus, Sebastes Chen [L.-C.] 1971:25, Pl. 3 (fig. B) [Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of California v. 18; ref. 7668] Tanner Bank, off San Diego, southern California, U.S.A., 32°42'N, 119°08'W, depth 33-60 meters. Holotype: SIO 65-6. Paratypes: CAS 17614 [ex SIO 63-239] (1); LACM 8961-3 (5), 9084-1 (1); SIO 48-105 (1) (ex UCLA W49-354), 48-196 (1), 48-198 (1), 50-103 (1), 54-198 (1), 64-901 (3, head only), 65-6 (3), 65-446 (1), 67-9 (1), 68-258 (1), 68-392 (1). •Valid as Sebastes lentiginosus Chen 1971 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:142 [ref. 9277], Orr et al. 2000:42 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:43 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:194 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:77 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:138 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes lentiginosus Chen 1971. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: central California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico), including Guadalupe Island (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

leonina, Scorpaena Richardson [J.] 1846:216 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Based on drawings, one specimen not examined (see Whitehead 1970:211, Pl. 2b [ref. 11606]). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis leonina Richardson 1846 -- (Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:185 [ref. 25703] [misidentification]). •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis cirrosa (Thunbert 1793) -- (Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:17 [ref. 25801]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis cirrosa (Thunberg 1793). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

levis, Sebastichthys Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1889:129 [6] [West American Scientist v. 6 (no. 48); ref. 1251] Cortez Banks, off San Diego, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 41904. On p. 6 of separate. •Valid as Sebastes levis (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:142 [ref. 9277], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:323 [ref. 24939], Orr et al. 2000:15 [ref. 24942], Musick et al. 2000:14 [ref. 24959], Shytko 2001:44 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:196 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:77 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:140 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:60 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes levis (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Oregon (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico), including Guadalupe Island (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

lineagula, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1955:380, Fig. 2 [Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand v. 83 (pt 2); ref. 12272] Off Suva Point, Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71985. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621]. •Questionable synonym of Sebastapistes bynoensis (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621]). •Synonym of Parascorpaena picta (Cuvier 1829) -- (R. Fricke, pers. comm., Feb. 2021). •In Sebastapistes -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[4] [ref. 38565]). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

littoralis, Sebastella Tanaka [S.] 1917:10 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 29 (no. 339); ref. 4329] Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 7439. •Valid as Scorpaenodes littoralis (Tanaka 1917) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:282 [ref. 6389], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:472 [ref. 5652], Paxton et al. 1989:450 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:168 [ref. 24556], Randall 1995:110 [ref. 22896], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:129 [ref. 23963], Randall et al. 1997:82 [ref. 25919], Poss 1999:2338 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:582 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Shinohara et al. 2000:177 [ref. 25987], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:582 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 564 [ref. 26218], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:121 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:329 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:887 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:175 [ref. 30952], Poss et al. 2010:243 [ref. 30744], Motomura et al. 2010:90 [ref. 31256], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988]). •Synonym of Scorpaenodes evides (Jordan & Thompson 1914) -- (Motomura et al. 2010:71 [ref. 31103], Allen & Erdmann 2012:229 [ref. 31980], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes evides (Jordan & Thompson 1914). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

littoris, Sebastodes Hubbs [C. L.] & Schultz [L. P.] 1933:31, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [University of Washington Publications in Biology v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 2262] Presumably along the coast of Monterey County, south of Point Pinos, California, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 92647. Paratypes: UMMZ 92648 (1). Appeared as Sebastodes littoris with hand corrections in reprints with a separate correction slip mailed out to change name to litoris, but the original spelling probably should stand. •Synonym of Sebastes caurinus Richardson 1844 -- (Love et al. 2002:146 [ref. 26216] as litoris). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes caurinus Richardson 1844. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

longaecrista, Scorpaena Wibowo [K.] & Motomura [H.] 2021:[24], Figs. 11-12 [Ichthyological Research v. 69 (no. 2); ref. 38565] West of Geraldton, Western Australia, Australia, 28°59'24" - 59'48"S, 113°45'54.0" - 46'08.4"E, depth 389 - 407 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 6371-19. Paratypes: (49) CSIRO, KAUM I., NMV, WAM. •Valid as Scorpaena longaecrista Wibowo & Motomura 2021. Current status: Valid as Scorpaena longaecrista Wibowo & Motomura 2021. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: west coast of Australia. Habitat: marine.

longicauda, Pterois (Pteroleptus) Swainson [W.] 1839:264 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Russ. ii. pl. 133 -- which is Russell 1803:Pl. 133 [ref. 13862]. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae.

longicaudalis, Phenacoscorpius Wibowo [K.] & Motomura [H.] 2022:373 [2], Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Research v. 69 (no. 3); ref. 38946] Ashmore Terrace, Western Australia, eastern Indian Ocean, 12°36'S, 123°26'E, depth 403 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H6592-04. Paratypes: (18) CSIRO, KAUM-I, NMV, WAM. •Valid as Phenacoscorpius longicaudalis Wibowo & Motomura 2022. Current status: Valid as Phenacoscorpius longicaudalis Wibowo & Motomura 2022. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: west coast of Australia. Habitat: marine.

longiceps, Lioscorpius Günther [A.] 1880:40, Pl. 17 (fig. C) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Kai Islands, Challenger station 192, Indonesia, Banda Sea, depth 129 fathoms. Lectotype: BMNH 1878.5.14.199. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1879.5.14.193 (1). The paralectotype and Pl. 17 (fig. C) are not this species; Lectotype selected by Eschmeyer & Collette 1966:365 [ref. 6485]. •Valid as Lioscorpius longiceps Günther 1880 -- (Eschmeyer & Collette 1966:365 [ref. 6485], Kanayama in Okamura et al. 1982:275, 395 [ref. 8256], Kanayama in Amaoka et al. 1983:155, 213 [ref. 8379], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:317 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:443 [ref. 12442], Poss 1999:2319 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:566 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:314 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:566 [ref. 26001], Last et al. 2005:11 [ref. 28323], Allen et al. 2006:869 [ref. 29078], Fricke 2015:3 [ref. 33807], Motomura et al. 2016:23 [ref. 35075], Wada & Motomura 2022:[14] [ref. 39042]). Current status: Valid as Lioscorpius longiceps Günther 1880. Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

longicornis, Scorpaena Playfair [R. L.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:47, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1865.2.27.36-38, 1865.3.18.10. •Synonym of Parascorpaena mossambica (Peters 1855) -- (Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Fricke et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34135], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Parascorpaena mossambica (Peters 1855). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

longilineatus, Phenacoscorpius Motomura [H.], Causse [R.] & Struthers [C. D.] 2012:152, Fig. 1 [Species Diversity v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 32376] Norfolk Ridge, New Caledonia, 23°39'00"S, 168°01'01"E, depth 345 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2010-0942. Paratypes: Many at KAUM-I, MNHN, NMNZ. •Valid as Phenacoscorpius longilineatus Motomura, Causse & Struthers 2012 -- (Motomura & Struthers 2015:1094 [ref. 34285], Kawai et al. 2017:26 [ref. 37786], Wibowo & Motomura 2017:261 [ref. 35599]). Current status: Valid as Phenacoscorpius longilineatus Motomura, Causse & Struthers 2012. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: Andaman Sea off Thailand; New Caledonia and New Zealand region. Habitat: marine.

longimanus, Lioscorpius longiceps var. Alcock [A. W.] 1894:no page number, Pl. 10 (fig. 3) [Illustrations of the zoology of the Royal Indian marine surveying steamer Investigator Part 2; ref. 17304] Andaman Sea Investigator station 115, depth 344-402 meters. Holotype (unique): ZSI F13036. Type catalog: Talwar 1977:637 [ref. 26599]. Named on legend page for Pl. 10 (fig. 3); refers back to Lioscorpius longiceps of Alcock 1891:23 [ref. 87]. •Valid as Setarches longimanus (Alcock 1894) -- (Eschmeyer & Collette 1966:356 [ref. 6485], Kanayama in Okamura et al. 1982:276, 395 [ref. 8256], Kanayama in Amaoka et al. 1983:155, 213 [ref. 8379], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:317 [ref. 6441], Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:574, 720 [ref. 8056], Paxton et al. 1989:451 [ref. 12442], Suzuki & Hosokawa 1997:2 [ref. 24370], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:128 [ref. 23963], Poss 1999:2348 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:566 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636], Hutchins 2001:28 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:314 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:566 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Shinohara et al. 2005:425 [ref. 28370], Allen et al. 2006:870 [ref. 29078], Fricke et al. 2009:38 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Shinohara et al. 2011:42 [ref. 31715], Larson et al. 2013:80 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:49 [ref. 33932], Shinohara et al. 2014:246 [ref. 33330], Motomura et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34709], Shin et al. 2016:2 [ref. 36305], Kawai et al. 2017:25 [ref. 37786], Fricke et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36673], Kim et al. 2020:95 [ref. 39118], Psomadakis et al. 2020:357 [ref. 37272], Wada et al. 2020:[21] [ref. 37692]). •Valid as Lythrichthys longimanus (Alcock 1894) -- (Wada et al. 2021:1 [ref. 38160]). Current status: Valid as Lythrichthys longimanus (Alcock 1894). Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Réunion; Myanmar and Andaman Sea east to Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to southern Korea and Japan, south to northwestern Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

longipedicula, Trachyscorpia (Mesoscorpia) Motomura [H.], Last [P. R.] & Yearsley [G. K.] 2007:28, Figs. 1C-D [Zootaxa No. 1466; ref. 29137] South-West Indian Ridge, southwestern Indian Ocean, 39°01'S. 46°31'-32'E, depth 635-970 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 5370-04. Paratypes: CSIRO H 5343-14 (1), H 5343-15 (1), H 5343-16 (1), H 5370-03 (1), H 5798-01 (1), H 5821-04 (1). •Valid as Trachyscorpia longipedicula Motomura, Last & Yearsley 2007 -- (McCosker 2008:118 [ref. 29639], Béarez & Motomura 2010:61 [ref. 30680]). Current status: Valid as Trachyscorpia longipedicula Motomura, Last & Yearsley 2007. Scorpaenidae: Sebastolobinae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

longipinnis, Micropus Jatzow [R.] & Lenz [H.] 1898:505, Pl. 34 (fig. 2) [Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft v. 21; ref. 14685] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. •Synonym of Caracanthus unipinna (Gray 1831) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:481 [ref. 19539]). Current status: Synonym of Caracanthus unipinna (Gray 1831). Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae. Habitat: marine.

longirostris, Phenacoscorpius Motomura [H.] & Last [P. R.] 2009:28, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 2290; ref. 30568] South of Lord Howe Rise, Tasman Sea, 29°113'S, 159°00'E, depth 300 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 6007-14. Paratypes: CSIRO H 6024-04 (1). •Valid as Phenacoscorpius longirostris Motomura & Last 2009 -- (Okamoto et al. 2012:77 [ref. 33660], Wibowo & Motomura 2017:262 [ref. 35599]). Current status: Valid as Phenacoscorpius longirostris Motomura & Last 2009. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Tasman Sea, southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

longispina, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Eschmeyer [W. N.] 2002:29, Pl. IV (figs. B-C) [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 34 (for Dec. 2001); ref. 25801] Eastern coast of Flamand Islet, lagoon side, Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 7 meters. Holotype: BPBM 20148. Paratypes: BPBM 38851 (1); CAS 214203 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 2146 (1), 14361 (1), 52116 (1), 52133 (1), 62353 (2), 63536 (1); USNM 364593 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis longispina Randall & Eschmeyer 2001 -- (Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Naranji & Velamala 2016:87 [ref. 35147], Fricke et al. 2018:135 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis longispina Randall & Eschmeyer 2002. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Philippines and Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Dampier Archipelago (Western Australia), Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

longispinis, Pontinus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:258, Pl. 68 (fig. 246) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] Gulf of Mexico, 28°36'N, 85°33'30"W, Albatross station 2402, depth 111 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 39323 (largest specimen). Paralectotypes: USNM 39322 (1), 39323 (2 of 3). The largest specimen in 39323 (126 mm SL originally) had been regarded as the holotype, and the description was based primarily on it; it was designated lectotype by Eschmeyer 1998:938 [ref. 23416]. •Valid as Pontinus longispinis Goode & Bean 1896 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:25 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:431 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:263 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:97 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1991:282 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:421 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:63 [ref. 26475], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1247 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27192] as longispinnis dated 1897, Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:35 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus longispinis Goode & Bean 1896. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

longispinis, Sebastichthys (Pteropodus) Matsubara [K.] 1934:209 [Journal of the Imperial Fisheries Institute Tokyo v. 30 (no. 3); ref. 13900] Huzan, Tyôsen, Japan. No types at FAKU. •Valid as Sebastes longispinis (Matsubara 1934) -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:313 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:53 [ref. 15964], Kim & Lee 1993:466 [ref. 39487], Nakabo 2000:594 [ref. 25086], Shytko 2001:44 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:594 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 561 [ref. 26218], Kim et al. 2020:91 [ref. 39118]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes longispinis (Matsubara 1934). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Korea, Japan, Russia. Habitat: marine.

longispinis, Sebastiscus Mori [T.] 1955:5, Fig. 4 [Science Reports of the Hyogo University of Agriculture Series Natural Science v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 7764] Near the coast of Kasumi, Hyogo Prefecture, southern Sea of Japan. Holotype: not researched. Paratypes: (1). •Synonym of Sebastes marmoratus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Barsukov & Chen 1978:198 [183] [ref. 7010]). •Synonym of Sebastiscus marmoratus (Cuvier 1829). Current status: Synonym of Sebastiscus marmoratus (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

loppei, Scorpaena Cadenat [J.] 1943:541, Figs. 1(3), 3 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 13 (nos 1-4); ref. 13043] Gulf de Gascogne, depth about 200 meters. Syntypes: (33) MHNLR P.797 (4); MNHN 1947-0002 to 0003 (2), 1887-0305 to 0306 (2), 1887-0307 to 0308 (2), 1887-0310 (1). Type catalog: Aloncle 1968:690 [ref. 20713], Blanc & Hureau 1968:14 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena loppei Cadenat 1943 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:74 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:580 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1217 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:671 [ref. 17613], Uiblein et al. 1999:64 [ref. 24045], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:176 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:32 [ref. 37112], Bañon et al. 2010:15 [ref. 31029], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:38 [ref. 36649], Poss 2016:2275 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Martins & Carneiro 2018:109 [ref. 36550], Carneiro et al. 2019:231 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519], Bañón & Maño 2021:68 [ref. 38883], Golani 2021:36 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:76 [ref. 39014]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena loppei Cadenat 1943. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Western Sahara, including Azores and Madeira. Habitat: marine.

luckei, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1941:87, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 13237] Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: ANSP 69716. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:139 [ref. 9211], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

lunulata, Pterois Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:45, Pl. 19 (figs. 1, 3) [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Nagasaki Bay, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D602 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D603 (1, stuffed), 666 (3); ZMB 799 (1) Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:269 [ref. 19946]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:55 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Pterois lunulata Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:93 [ref. 15964], Kim & Lee 1993:471 [ref. 39487], Chen et al. 1997:166 [ref. 26476] dated 1842, Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:129 [ref. 23963], Poss 1999:2329 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:569 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636], Nakabo 2002:569 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 558 [ref. 26218], Allen et al. 2006:879 [ref. 29002], Allen & Erdmann 2008:128 [ref. 29479], Motomura et al. 2010:89 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Kim et al. 2020:93 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:44 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Pterois lunulata Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vietnam and southern China east to Philippines, north to Sea of Japan (Korea, Japan), south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

lutea, Scorpaena Risso [A.] 1810:190 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:70 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:581 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1221 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:675 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2282 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[22] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maccullochi, Sebastodes Phillipps [W. J.] 1927:127, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute v. 58 (pts 1-2); ref. 15816] Cook Strait, New Zealand (stomach content). Holotype (unique): NMNZ P.340. Type catalog: Hardy 1990:9 [ref. 18942]. •Synonym of Helicolenus percoides (Richardson & Solander 1842) -- (Paulin 1989:319 [ref. 15772]). Current status: Synonym of Helicolenus percoides (Richardson & Solander 1842). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

macdonaldi, Acutomentum Eigenmann [C. H.] & Beeson [C. H.] 1893:669 [American Naturalist v. 27 (no. 319); ref. 1212] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Based on S. proriger Eigenmann and Eigenmann 1890:15 (not of Jordan & Gilbert). •Valid as Sebastes macdonaldi (Eigenmann & Beeson 1893) -- (Chen 1975:130 [ref. 7413], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:142 [ref. 9277], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:323 [ref. 24939], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1562 [ref. 22830], Orr et al. 2000:19 [ref. 24942], Thomson et al. 2000:71 [ref. 25640], Shytko 2001:45 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:199 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:77 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:140 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:60 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes macdonaldi (Eigenmann & Beeson 1893). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: central California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico), including central Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

macrocephalus, Sebastes Sauvage [H.-E.] 1882:169 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 6; ref. 3894] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-4165. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:20 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Pontinus macrocephalus (Sauvage 1882) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:294 [ref. 6389], Kyushin et al. 1977:328 [ref. 19756], Kanayama in Okamura et al. 1982:271, 393 [ref. 8256], Eschmeyer 1983:1 [ref. 8231], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:82 [ref. 15964], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:572 [ref. 27969], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:129 [ref. 23963], Nakabo 2000:577 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:577 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Shinohara et al. 2005:425 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:327 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:172 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2011:64 [ref. 31308], Shinohara et al. 2014:245 [ref. 33330], Koeda et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2021:5 [ref. 38857]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus macrocephalus (Sauvage 1882). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia east to Hawaiian Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

macrochir, Scorpaenopsis Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:29 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 23; ref. 3288] Bulwer Island, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.1544 [ex AFAQ 1305]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis macrochir Ogilby 1910 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:305 [ref. 6389], Paxton et al. 1989:451 [ref. 12442], Myers 1999:98 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2343 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:33 [ref. 25801], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:40 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Motomura et al. 2004:96 [ref. 28581], Randall 2005:122 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:890 [ref. 29066], Motomura & Causse 2011:51 [ref. 31125], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:233 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Larson et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:314 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis macrochir Ogilby 1910. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mauritius (Mascarenes); eastern Indonesia east to Tuamotu Archipelago and Marquesas Islands and Society Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Dampier Archipelago (Western Australia) and Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrochir, Sebastes Günther [A.] 1877:434 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 20 (no. 119) (art. 56); ref. 2009] Inland Sea of Japan; off Enoshima, Japan, 345 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1879.5.14.184 (1), 1879.5.14.664 (1), 1890.2.26.51-52 (2); MNHN 1890-0092 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:20 [ref. 20738]. Also described as new in Günther 1880:65, Pl. 27 [ref. 2011]. •Valid as Sebastolobus macrochir (Günther 1877) -- (Kanayama in Amaoka et al. 1983:153, 213, 279, 336 [ref. 8379], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:89 [ref. 15964], Kim & Lee 1993:471 [ref. 39487], Shinohara & Amaoka 1993:395 [ref. 22466], Shinohara et al. 1996:175 [ref. 26605], Kim & Biryukov 1998:151 [ref. 24671], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:9 [ref. 24670], Orr et al. 2000:21 [ref. 24942], Nakabo 2000:570 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:26 [ref. 25650], Love et al. 2002:119 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:348 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:570 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:243, 564 [ref. 26218], Parin et al. 2002:S64 [ref. 28300], Fedorov et al. 2003:61 [ref. 27579], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:81 [ref. 37547], Maslenikov et al. 2013:10 [ref. 37947], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708], Shinohara et al. 2014:246 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:224 [ref. 33547], Tohkairin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 35331], Kells et al. 2016:349 [ref. 35888], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:859 [ref. 38925]). Current status: Valid as Sebastolobus macrochir (Günther 1877). Scorpaenidae: Sebastolobinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Sea of Japan (Korea, Japan, Russia), Sea of Okhotsk and Kuril Islands north to Bering Sea, east to Aleutian Islands (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

macrolepis, Pontinus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:257, Pl. 69 (fig. 247) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] Off Yucatán, Mexico, 20°59'30"N, 86°23'45"W, Albatross station 235, depth 130 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 39324. •Synonym of Pontinus nematophthalmus (Günther 1860) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:27 [ref. 1274], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754]). Current status: Synonym of Pontinus nematophthalmus (Günther 1860). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

macrophthalma, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1860:102 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Not available, name on specimen mentioned under Sebastes percoides. Nomen Nudum. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae.

macrophthalmus, Sebastes Philippi [R. A.] in Delphin 1899:16 [Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (Santiago) v. 2; ref. 17393] Name only, not available. •In the synonymy of Sebastes oculatus Valenciennes 1833. Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Sebastes oculatus Valenciennes 1833. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae.

macrura, Pterois Alcock [A. W.] 1896:303 [3], Pl. 18 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 65 (pt 2, No. 3); ref. 91] Malabar Coast off Calicut, Investigator station 123, depth 45 fathoms. Lectotype: ZSI 13828. Paralectotypes: ?BMNH 1900.1.21.1 (1), ZSI F13823-27 (5). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:155 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:42 [ref. 22148]. On p. 3 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 18 (fig. 4) [ref. 20534]. Lectotype selected by Matsunuma & Motomura 2021:[21] [ref. 38848]. •Valid as Parapterois macrura (Alcock 1896) -- (Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Motomura 2004:1 [ref. 27693], Matsunuma et al. 2013:50 [ref. 33131], Psomadakis et al. 2015:183 [ref. 34104], Matsunuma & Motomura 2021:[18] [ref. 38848]). Current status: Valid as Parapterois macrura (Alcock 1896). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Somalia and southern Oman east to Pakistan and southern India. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Scorpaena Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:3 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly an unpublished work. See also Scorpaena maculata Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Graells 1887. •In the synonymy of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Scorpaena Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Graells 1887:177 [Revista de los Progresos de las Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Madrid v. 22 (no. 3); ref. 30438] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. See also Scorpaena maculata Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817. •In the synonymy of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Micropus Gray [J. E.] 1831:20 [Zoological Miscellany [No. 1]; ref. 1881] Hao Island, Tuamotu Islands, French Polynesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1969.11.3.1. •Valid as Caracanthus maculatus (Gray 1831) -- (Nakabo in Masuda et al. 1984:318 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:458 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:85 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:85 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:102 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2353 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:603 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:603 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:30 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Shinohara & Imamura 2004:64 [ref. 28198], Randall 2005:130 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:920 [ref. 28997], Randall 2007:181 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2014:49 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2019:100 [ref. 36673], Wada et al. 2021:38 [ref. 38521]). Current status: Valid as Caracanthus maculatus (Gray 1831). Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Christmas and Cocos-Keeling islands and Indonesia east to Marshall and Tuamotu islands, north to Ryukyu Islands and Amami Islands (southern Japan), south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Sebastes Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:343 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4044 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:20 [ref. 20738]. •Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:95 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer 1986:477 [ref. 5652], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:665 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2261 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

maculipinnis, Parascorpaena Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:57, Fig. 2; Pl. 2 (fig. A) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 4; ref. 4112] Bazaruto Island, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 335. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 391-396 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1). •Synonym of Parascorpaena mcadamsi (Fowler 1938) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:469 [ref. 5652]). •Valid as Scorpaena maculipinnis (Smith 1957) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Parascorpaena maculipinnis Smith 1957 -- (Nakabo 2000:578 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:578 [ref. 26001], Allen et al. 2006:882 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34135], Fricke et al. 2018:131 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Parascorpaena maculipinnis Smith 1957. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: East Africa and Madagascar; Ryukyu Islands and southern Japan; northern Australia. Probably more widespread. Habitat: marine.

madagascariense, Crossoderma Guichenot [A.] 1869:195, Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 5 (fasc. 3); ref. 1952] Tuléar, Madagascar. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5656 (9). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:26 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Caracanthus madagascariensis (Guichenot 1869) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:481 [ref. 19539], Winterbottom et al. 1989:22 [ref. 13251], Fricke 1999:1676 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:38 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:129 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:28 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Caracanthus madagascariensis (Guichenot 1869). Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Sodwana Bay (South Africa) and East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Maldives and Chagos Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

maderensis, Helicolenus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:250, Pl. 68 (fig. 244) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] Gulf Stream, 37°25'N, 74°18'W, Fish Hawk station 897, depth 158 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 26627. Paralectotypes: ? BMNH 1896.2.10.15 (1); USNM 26723 (17), 28754 (2), 28827 (1), 28847 (?), 28754 (4), 28954 (4), 28957 (4), 28980 (23), 28998 (8), 29050 (1), 29060 (1), 31649 (6), 31658 (5), 31871 (2, lost), 31874, 32805, and others at USNM. Lectotype selected by Ginsburg 1953:35 [ref. 1807]. •Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809), but a valid subspecies -- (McAllister 1990:184 [ref. 14674]). •Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:94 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:582 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1212 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:666 [ref. 17613], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1240 [ref. 27048], Poss 2016:2261 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

maderensis, Sebastus Lowe [R. T.] 1841:36 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1840 (pt. 8, no. 89); ref. 2830] Off Madeira, eastern Atlantic. No types known. Listed in passing under Scorpaena ustulata without distinguishing features, apparently not available. Nomen Nudum. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

madurensis, Scorpaena Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:463 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Madeira. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6682 [ex BMNH] (4), 0000-6683 [ex BMNH] (4). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:14-15 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. Original spelling usually corrected to maderensis; that spelling can be retained to maintain current usage. •Valid as Sebastapistes maderensis (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Scorpaena maderensis Valenciennes 1833 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:76 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:580 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1218 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:672 [ref. 17613], Santos et al. 1997:77 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:115 [ref. 24952], Vacchi et al. 1999:326 [ref. 24369], Cardona & Elices 2000:36 [ref. 25633], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:69 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:32 [ref. 37112], Motomura et al. 2005:14 [ref. 28289], Fricke et al. 2007:76 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:38 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Poss 2016:2276 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Carneiro et al. 2019:231 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Encarnação et al. 2019:3 [ref. 37002], Bariche & Fricke 2020:106 [ref. 37515], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519] as madrensis, Golani 2021:36 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:76 [ref. 39014], Yedier & Bostanci 2021:200 [ref. 38796]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena maderensis Valenciennes 1833. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Senegal, including Azores, Madeira, Canary and Cape Verde islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

magentae, Sebastodes Tortonese [E.] 1939:350 [174], Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino. (Ser. 3) v. 47 (no. 100); ref. 4414] Yokohama, Japan. Holotype (unique): MZUT 3295. Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:143 [ref. 21559]. On p. 174 of separate. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

mahe, Scorpaena Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:259, 278 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Mahé, Seychelles. No types known. •In Pterois -- (Allen & Erdmann 2008:137 [ref. 29479]). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae.

malabarica, Scorpaena Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:194 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] South America and India. Syntypes: ZMB 15310 (1, dry, lost) no locality. Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:270 [ref. 19946] with a holotype, Paepke 1999:132 [ref. 24282]. •Possibly the same as Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809). Current status: Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

maliger, Sebastichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:322 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 157); ref. 10589] Around the Farallones, off San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Syntypes and non-types: (4) ANSP 12128 (1); MNHN A-3365 [ex USNM] (1); MSNG 8324 (1); RMNH 11679 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 27091 (3, lost), 27208 (2); ZMB 11729 [ex USNM 27208] (1); ZMUB 1070 [ex USNM 27208] (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:23 [ref. 20738], Frøiland 1979:149 [ref. 21547], Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621], Paepke & Fricke 1992:274 [ref. 19946]. •Valid as Sebastes maliger (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:142 [ref. 9277], Love & Lea 1977:78 [ref. 24067], Matarese et al. 1989:277 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:186 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:32 [ref. 24942], Musick et al. 2000:15 [ref. 24959], Shytko 2001:45 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:201 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:353 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:77 [ref. 37547], Maslenikov et al. 2013:9 [ref. 37947], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:32 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:140 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:60 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes maliger (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Gulf of Alaska (U.S.A.) south to southern California (U.S.A.), Habitat: marine.

marinus, Sebastes See Perca norvegica Ascanius 1772. Misapplied new combination of Perca marina Linnaeus 1758 for Sebastes norvegicus (Ascanius 1772). Perca marina Linnaeus 1758 was based on a serranid. Current status: Synonym of Sebastes norvegicus (Ascanius 1772). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae.

marleyi, Setarches Fowler [H. W.] 1935:398, Figs. 28-29 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 87; ref. 1421] Off Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: ANSP 63797. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621], Wada et al. 2020:[3] [ref. 37692]. •Synonym of Setarches guentheri Johnson 1862 -- (Eschmeyer & Collette 1966:359 [ref. 6485], Eschmeyer 1986:478 [ref. 5652], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:678 [ref. 17613], Wada et al. 2020:[3] [ref. 37692]). Current status: Synonym of Setarches guentheri Johnson 1862. Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Habitat: marine.

marmorata, Scorpaena Parkinson [S.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Tahiti, Society Islands. Name only. Nomen Nudum. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

marmorata, Scorpaena Parkinson [S.] in Bleeker 1876:37 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Amsterdam) v. 16 (art. 2); ref. 12248] Not available, name mentioned in passing under Scorpaenopsis diabolus. Nomen Nudum. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

marmoratus, Scorpaenopsis von Bonde [C.] 1923:30, Pl. 7 [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 3 (art. 1); ref. 521] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 386, depth 38 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI]. •Questionably a synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Uncertain as Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marmoratus, Sebastes Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:345 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] No locality [=Japan]. No types known. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:60 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Sebastes marmoratus Cuvier 1829 -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:22 [ref. 15964], Shytko 2001:45 [ref. 26410]). •Valid as Sebastiscus marmoratus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:312 [ref. 6441], Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:563, 715 [ref. 8056], Kim & Lee 1993:467 [ref. 39487], Kuiter 1993:121 [ref. 23929], Cheng & Zhou 1997:412 [ref. 26385], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:131 [ref. 23963], Poss 1999:2307 [ref. 24796], Mizuno et al. 1999:7 [ref. 25311], Nakabo 2000:585 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:66 [ref. 25480], Shinohara et al. 2000:177 [ref. 25987], Katoh & Tokimura 2001:247 [ref. 25542], Shimizu 2001:25 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:585 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:243, 565 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:425 [ref. 28370], Allen et al. 2006:867 [ref. 29078], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:74 [ref. 36460], Kim et al. 2020:93 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:43 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Sebastiscus marmoratus (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vietnam east to Philippines, north to Korea and Japan; one record from Sydney Harbour (introduced). Habitat: marine.

massiliensis, Cottus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:24, x [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Marseille, France. No types known. Authorship and type locality see Fricke 2008:24 [ref. 30182]. Gmelin's (1789:1213 [ref. 18139]) use of this name apparently refers to this species, although Forsskål not mentioned. •Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:83 [ref. 1274] with question, Blanc & Hureau 1973:579 [ref. 7218], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Fricke 2008:24 [ref. 30182], Poss 2016:2281 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

matsubarae, Sebastes Hilgendorf [F. M.] 1880:170 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1880; ref. 18287] Hondo and Hokkaido, Japan. Syntypes: ZMB 8145 (1, dry), 11279 (1, dry), 11280 (1, dry). Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:272 [ref. 19946]. Named after the male ichthyologist Matsubara, so some authors consider the name should be matsubarai -- see Orr & Hawkins 2008:128, footnote [ref. 29591]. Here we consider the name correctly formed as it was Latinized and then an "e" added (Art. 31.1.1) [WNE, 12 Mar. 2012]. •Synonym of Sebastes aleutianus (Jordan & Evermann 1898) -- (Love et al. 2002:122 [ref. 26216]). •Valid as Sebastes matsubarai Hilgendorf 1880 -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:35 [ref. 15964], Shytko 2001:47 [ref. 26410], Orr & Hawkins 2008:128 [ref. 29591], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:857 [ref. 38925]). •Valid as Sebastes matsubarae Hilgendorf 1880 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:311 [ref. 6441], Shinohara et al. 1996:175 [ref. 26605], Nakabo 2000:586 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:586 [ref. 26001], Parin et al. 2002:S62 [ref. 28300], Shinohara et al. 2011:42 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al.2014:245 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:216 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes matsubarae Hilgendorf 1880. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

mauritiana, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:322 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5711. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:15 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Sebastapistes mauritiana (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:476 [ref. 5652], Randall et al. 1997:504 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:100 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:163 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2345 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268] as maruitiana, Nakabo 2000:579 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:579 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:126 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:891 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:237 [ref. 31980], Motomura et al. 2014:138 [ref. 33591], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2018:136 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:28 [ref. 36883], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[33] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes mauritiana (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Wake Atoll and Pitcairn Group, Japan, south to New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

mcadamsi, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1938:60, Fig. 24 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Jolo Light, vicinity of Jolo, Philippines [Sulu Archipelago, Sulawesi Sea], 6°03'45"N, 120°57'E, Albatross station D.5174, depth 20 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 98904. Paratypes: (a series) USNM 99013 (1), 133068 (1). •Valid as Parascorpaena mcadamsi (Fowler 1938) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:469 [ref. 5652], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:503 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:97 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:156 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2326 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:578 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:578 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:118 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:882 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2011:63 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:225 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:50 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34135], Koeda et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:131 [ref. 35805], Akaike et al. 2021:20 [ref. 38809], Chou & Liao 2022:8 [ref. 39195]). Current status: Valid as Parascorpaena mcadamsi (Fowler 1938). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa, Comoros and Réunion east to Marshall Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to Kagoshima Prefecture (southern Japan), south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Society Islands. Habitat: marine.

mccoskeri, Phenacoscorpius Wibowo [K.] & Motomura [H.] 2017:262, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4323 (no. 2); ref. 35599] Off Darwin Island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, eastern Pacific, 01°41'N, 91°59'W, depth 515 meters. Holotype: CAS 86551. Paratypes: CAS, KAUM. •Valid as Phenacoscorpius mccoskeri Wibowo & Motomura 2017. Current status: Valid as Phenacoscorpius mccoskeri Wibowo & Motomura 2017. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

megalepis, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1938:56, Fig. 22 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Vicinity of Hong Kong, China Sea, 21°54'N, 114°46'E, Albatross station D.5305, depth 37 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 98897. Paratypes: (several) USNM. •Valid as Scorpaena megalepis Fowler 1938 -- (Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728]). •Valid as Sebastapistes megalepis (Fowler 1932) -- (Chen et al. 1997:165 [ref. 26476] dated 1932). •Valid as Neomerinthe megalepis (Fowler 1938) -- (Poss 1999:2322 [ref. 24796], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Motomura et al. 2011:60, 61 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32988], Fricke 2015:3 [ref. 33807], Fricke et al. 2015:3 [ref. 33930]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe megalepis (Fowler 1938). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

megalops, Phenacoscorpius Fowler [H. W.] 1938:70, Fig. 30 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] 27 miles southeast of Bagatao Island Light, between Burias and Luzon, Philippines [Burias Pass, Sibuyan Sea, western Pacific], 12°54'40"N, 123°20'30"E, Albatross station D.5387, depth 209 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 98903. Paratypes: CAS-SU 40198-200 [ex USNM 136466-68] (2, 1, 1); USNM 136370-86 (0, 5, 1, 3, 3, 2, 2, 5, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), 136466-68 (0, 0, 0); ZSI [ex USNM 136370] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:120 [ref. 12291]. Some paratypes represent different species (see Motomura 2009:776, 778 [ref. 30292]). •Valid as Phenacoscorpius megalops Fowler 1938 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:293 [ref. 6389], Paulin 1982:442 [ref. 23678], Paulin et al. 1989:168 [ref. 24556], Poss 1999:2328 [ref. 24796], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Mundy 2005:326 [ref. 28379], Motomura 2008:776 [ref. 30292], Motomura & Last 2009:27 [ref. 30568], Motomura et al. 2011:64 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Okamoto et al. 2012:77 [ref. 33660], Fricke et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33930], Wibowo & Motomura 2017:262 [ref. 35599], Fricke et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Phenacoscorpius megalops Fowler 1938. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western and central Pacific: Indonesia east to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

megastoma, Scorpaena Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:127, Pl. 1 (fig. 7) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (Série 2) v. 1; ref. 3880] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4069. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:15 [ref. 20738]. •Synonym of Sebastapistes mauritiana (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:476 [ref. 5652], Fricke 1999:164 [ref. 24106], Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2014:138 [ref. 33591]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes mauritiana (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

melanops, Sebastes Girard [C. F.] 1856:135 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 8; ref. 1809] Cape Flattery, Washington and Astoria, Oregon, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 342 (2). •Valid as Sebastes melanops Girard 1856 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:143 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:314 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:188 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:27 [ref. 24942], Musick et al. 2000:15 [ref. 24959], Shytko 2001:48 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:204 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:361 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:77 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Kai et al. 2013:175 [ref. 33093], Imamura 2013:175 [ref. 33093], Frable et al. 2015:373 [ref. 33878], Pietsch & Orr 2015:32 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:140 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:60 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes melanops Girard 1856. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northern Pacific: northern Japan and Sea of Okhotsk north to Aleutian Islands (U.S.A.), then south to Pacific coast of northern Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

melanosema, Sebastes Lea [R. N.] & Fitch [J. E.] 1979:4, Figs. 1-2 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 320; ref. 8698] Submarine canyon off San Pablo Point, Baja California, Mexico, 27°12.9'N, 114°30.5'W, depth 183 meters. Holotype: CAS 27631. Paratypes: LACM 33538-1 (1), 36965-1 (1). •Valid as Sebastes melanosema Lea & Fitch 1979 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:143 [ref. 9277], Orr et al. 2000:19 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:48 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:207 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:77 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:140 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes melanosema Lea & Fitch 1979. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: central Oregon (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

melanostictus, Sebastodes (Zalopyr) Matsubara [K.] 1934:206 [Journal of the Imperial Fisheries Institute Tokyo v. 30 (no. 3); ref. 13900] Kazusa Province, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 101043. •Synonym of Sebastes aleutianus (Jordan & Evermann 1898) -- (Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:25 [ref. 25650], Love et al. 2002:122 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:381 [ref. 25968]). •Valid as Sebastes melanostictus (Matsubara 1934) -- (Orr & Hawkins 2008:126 [ref. 29591], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:218 [ref. 33547], Pietsch & Orr 2015:29 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:142 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:60 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes melanostictus (Matsubara 1934). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: North Pacific: Japan north to Bering Sea, eastern Pacific south to southern California (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

melanostomus, Sebastodes Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1890:17 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 3; ref. 1256] Off Point Loma, near San Diego, California, U.S.A., depth 100 fathoms. Holotype (unique): lost in 1906 if at CAS. •Valid as Sebastes melanostomus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:143 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:316 [ref. 26885], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:324 [ref. 24939], Orr et al. 2000:17 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:49 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:208 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:383 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Orr & Hawkins 2008:128 [ref. 29591], Love et al. 2005:78 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:142 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:60 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes melanostomus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: northern British Columbia (Canada) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico), juveniles straying to southern Baja California Sur (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

melasma, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:109, Fig. 6c [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 9211] Off Brazil, 2°10'S, 41°33'W, Oregon station 4243, depth 36 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 198154. Paratypes: UF 213330 [ex UMML 13330] (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena melasma Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:55 [ref. 1274], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1238 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Motomura 2004:821 [ref. 28049], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Caires et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:607 [ref. 38945]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena melasma Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

mellissii, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1868:228, Pl. 19 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868 (pt 2) (art. 4) (for 26 Mar. 1868); ref. 1991] Saint Helena Island, Southern central Atlantic (15°58'S, 5°43'W). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.10.8.6. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena mellissii Günther 1868 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:79 [ref. 1274], Edwards & Glass 1987:634 [ref. 9166], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:672 [ref. 17613], Trunov 2006:472 [ref. 28786], Poss 2016:2277 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Brown et al. 2019:179 [ref. 36444], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena mellissii Günther 1868. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena endemic. Habitat: marine.

mentella, Sebastes Travin [V. I.] 1951:743 [3], Fig. 1b [Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Ser. A (Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'URSS), Leningrad new series, v. 77; ref. 12925] Medvezhinskii Banks (Bear Island Banks), Barents Sea, depth 200+ meters. Syntypes: (100) whereabouts unknown. On p. 3 of English translation. •Valid as Sebastes mentella Travin 1951 -- (Blanc & Hureau 1973:584 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1226 [ref. 13677], Kenchington 1986:783 [ref. 11433], Robins & Ray 1986:277 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:483 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:188 [ref. 14674], Ishida in Okamura et al. 1995:152 [ref. 22531], Desrosiers et al. 1999:267 [ref. 24220], Parin et al. 2002:S62 [ref. 28300], Moore et al. 2003:222 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Møller et al. 2010:51 [ref. 31169], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:121 [ref. 31212], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Dolgov 2013:918 [ref. 33112], Parin et al. 2014:217 [ref. 33547], Afonso et al. 2016:40, 276 [ref. 36199], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:175 [ref. 36370], Carneiro et al. 2019:229 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes mentella Travin 1951. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: North Atlantic and adjacent Arctic Ocean, including Barents Sea, Spitsbergen. Habitat: marine.

mercatoris, Scorpaena Delsman [H. C.] 1941:74, Fig. 11 [Mémoires du Musée royal d'histoire naturelle de Belgique (Ser. 2) No. 21; ref. 13171] Cay Sal Bank, Bahamas, depth 5-7 fathoms. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 57. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:24 [ref. 20755]. •Questionably a synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:139 [ref. 9211], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Pontinus Bean [T. H.] 1912:125 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 25; ref. 232] Bermuda. Holotype (unique): USNM 74113. •Synonym of Pontinus castor Poey 1860 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:30 [ref. 1274], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:196 [ref. 25013], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1248 [ref. 27048]). Current status: Synonym of Pontinus castor Poey 1860. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Scorpaena Gunter [G.] 1948:162, Pl. 2 [Copeia 1948 (no. 3); ref. 13055] Eastern Pacific [erroneously as off Englewood, Florida, U.S.A.]. Holotype (unique): UMMZ 110161. •Synonym of the eastern Pacific Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854 -- (Eschmeyer & Bailey 1970 [ref. 21186], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1554 [ref. 22830], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

microphthalmus, Helicolenus Norman [J. R.] 1935:612, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1935 (pt 3); ref. 13914] Western North Pacific. Holotype: BMNH 1925.3.31.1. Paratypes: BMNH 1926.2.2.1 (1). •Synonym of Sebastiscus marmoratus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Wheeler & Eschmeyer 1968 [ref. 21201] with locality not as Saltburn, Yorkshire, England, 30 fms.). Current status: Synonym of Sebastiscus marmoratus (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

miles, Scorpaena Bennett [J. W.] 1828:unnum. p., Pl. 9 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon First Edition; ref. 16785] South coast of Sri Lanka [eastern Indian Ocean]. No types known. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:159 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. See Kochzius et al. 2003:401 [ref. 27290]. See Hare & Whitfield 2004:2 [ref. 27631]. •Synonym of Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:86 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Pterois miles (Bennett 1828) -- (Schultz 1986:687 [ref. 22245], Eschmeyer 1986:467 [ref. 5652], Winterbottom et al. 1989:20 [ref. 13251], Golani & Sonin 1992:167 [ref. 20428], Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:43-44 [ref. 21456], Goren & Dor 1994:21 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:108 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:136 [ref. 23922], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Fricke 1999:158 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2330 [ref. 24796], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:26 [ref. 27712], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:144 [ref. 28072], Golani 2005:32 [ref. 37112], Randall 2005:117 [ref. 28239], Allen & Erdmann 2008:128 [ref. 29479], Freshwater et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30268], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213], Motomura 2009:65 [ref. 30463], Lasso-Alcalá et al. 2011:575 [ref. 31520], Betancur-R. et al. 2011:1 [ref. 32977], Allen & Erdmann 2012:221[ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Matsunuma et al. 2017:333 [ref. 35034], Wilcox et al. 2017:1, 10 [ref. 35525] with hybrids in the Atlantic, Ali et al. 2018:316 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:132 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:28 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:127 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:68 [ref. 36871], Bariche & Fricke 2020:144 [ref. 37515], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 28 [ref. 38321], Kwik & Lim 2020:16 [ref. 38869], Psomadakis et al. 2020:360 [ref. 37272], Golani 2021:35 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:76 [ref. 39014]). Current status: Valid as Pterois miles (Bennett 1828). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Singapore and Indonesia; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant); possibly invasive in the Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

miles, Scorpaena Richardson [J.] 1842:18 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 55); ref. 21245] Unknown locality. No types known. Most likely a typographical error for Scorpaena militaris Richardson 1842. •Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442] as papillosus, Allen et al. 2006:886 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). •In the synonymy of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801), subspecies ergastulorum Richardson 1842 -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2020:543 [ref. 37777]). Misspelling. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

militaris, Scorpaena Richardson [J.] 1842:90 (71) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 3 (pt 1) (art. 5); ref. 13097] Tasmania. Syntypes: (2). •Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801) [with authors as Bloch & Schneider] -- (Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442] as papillosus, Allen et al. 2006:886 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). •Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801), subspecies ergastulorum Richardson 1842 -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2020:530 [ref. 37777], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[18] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

miniatus, Sebastichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:70 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 125); ref. 10596] Santa Barbara and Monterey, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN A-3268 [ex USNM] (1); RMNH 11719 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 26965 (orig. 17, now 3); ZMB 11710 [ex USNM 26965] (1); ZMUC [ex USNM 26965] (?); ZMUB 1062 [ex USNM 26965] (?). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:23 [ref. 20738], Frøiland 1979:149 [ref. 21547], Paepke & Fricke 1992:274 [ref. 19946]. •Valid as Sebastes miniatus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:144 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:318 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:188 [ref. 14674], O'Connell et al. 1992:173 [ref. 23104], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:323 [ref. 24939], Orr et al. 2000:18 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:49 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:210 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:372 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:78 [ref. 37547], Hyde et al. 2008:1122 [ref. 32697], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:32 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:142 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:60 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes miniatus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Prince William Sound (Alaska, U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

minor, Hypomacrus Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:178 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 12; ref. 4120] Bazaruto Island, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 320. Paratypes: (29) SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 405-410 (1, 1, 3, 2, 7, 2), 412-413 (2, 15). •Valid as Hypomacrus minor Smith 1958 -- (Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636]). •Valid as Scorpaenodes minor (Smith 1958) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:472 [ref. 5652], Myers 1999:97 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:161 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2338 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:581 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:581 [ref. 26001], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:121 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:887 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2009:84 [ref. 30328], Poss et al. 2010:242 [ref. 30744], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:231 [ref. 31980], Motomura et al. 2016:326 [ref. 35035]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes minor (Smith 1958). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands and Tonga, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia, Austral Islands, and Society Islands. Habitat: marine.

minor, Sebastes Barsukov [V. V.] 1972:630 [577], Fig. 1 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 20613] Peter the Great Bay, northeast of Cape Gamov, 3 miles from shore. Holotype: ZIN 40673. Paratypes: ZIN 40674 (1), 40675 (1); plus literature information. On p. 577 in English translation. •Valid as Sebastes minor Barsukov 1972 -- (Sheiko 1983:18 [ref. 37041], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:310 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:49 [ref. 15964], Kim & Lee 1993:458 [ref. 39487], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:9 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:590 [ref. 25086], Shytko 2001:50 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:590 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 561 [ref. 26218], Parin et al. 2002:S62 [ref. 28300], Ilyinskii et al. 2004:193 [ref. 27724], Parin et al. 2014:217 [ref. 33547], Kim et al. 2020:91 [ref. 39118], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:857 [ref. 38925]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes minor Barsukov 1972. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Sea of Japan (Korea, Russia). Habitat: marine.

minutus, Sebastes Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:348 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Molucca Islands; Marianas Islands; Society Islands. Lectotype: MNHN 6667. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-6667 (1) Guam, 0000-6668 (2) Tahiti, 0000-6669 (2) Bora Bora, 0000-6670 (1) Waigiou; RMNH 657 [ex MNHN] (1) Bora Bora; SMF 1473 [ex MNHN in 1830] (2). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:20-21 [ref. 20738]. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quioy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:66 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

minutus, Taenianotes Marion de Procé [P.-M.] 1822:132 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris [Sér. 3] [v. 9] (for 1822); ref. 17601] Manila Bay, Philippines. No types known. Original name should have been Taenianotus. Apparently an overlooked available name. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

miostoma, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1877:435 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 20 (no. 119) (art. 56); ref. 2009] Yokohama (market), Japan. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.235. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. Also described as new in Günther 1880:65 [ref. 2011]. •Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843, but a valid subspecies -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:86 [ref. 15964]). •Valid as Scorpaena miostoma Günther 1877 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Kim & Lee 1993:469 [ref. 39487], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:129 [ref. 23963], Shimizu & Hatooka 1997:3 [ref. 24377], Nakabo 2000:580 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:580 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 565 [ref. 26218], Motomura et al. 2005:866 [ref. 28254], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Wibowo et al. 2019:308 [ref. 37166], Kim et al. 2020:93 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:44 [ref. 37637], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[13] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena miostoma Günther 1877. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: northern South China Sea north to southern Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

mitzukurii, Sebastodes Cramer [F.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:1831 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2444] Tokyo, Japan. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Spelled mitsukurii in Jordan et al. 1913:237 [ref. 6448] and by subsequent authors. •Synonym of Sebastes oblongus Günther 1877 -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:64 [ref. 15964], Parin et al. 2014:219 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes oblongus Günther 1877. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

mombasae, Pteropterus Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:80, Fig. 7; Pl. 6 (fig. D) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 5; ref. 12168] Reef near Mombasa, Kenya, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 117. •Valid as Pterois mombasae (Smith 1957) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:467 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:48 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:446 [ref. 12442], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:219 [ref. 24016], Randall 1995:109 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:76 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:90 [ref. 25488], Poss 1999:2330 [ref. 24796], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Allen et al. 2006:879 [ref. 29002], Allen & Erdmann 2008:128 [ref. 29479], Motomura 2009:65 [ref. 30463], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:98 [ref. 31717], Matsunuma et al. 2011:4 [ref. 32398], Allen & Erdmann 2012:221[ref. 31980], Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:172 [ref. 33130], Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:[2] 328 [ref. 33609], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[25] [ref. 33935], Psomadakis et al. 2015:184 [ref. 34104], Matsunuma et al. 2017:333 [ref. 35034], Fricke et al. 2018:132 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:69 [ref. 36871], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 28 [ref. 38321]). Current status: Valid as Pterois mombasae (Smith 1957). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indian Ocean: East and South Africa, Socotra and Madagascar east to western Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

moseri, Sebastes Eitner [B. J.] in Eitner, Kimbrell & Vetter 1999:86, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1999 (no. 1); ref. 23702] About 68 kilometers from outermost buoy of San Diego Harbor, 32°38.0'N, 117°57.5'W, California, U.S.A., depth 128-183 meters. Holotype (unique): SIO 95-33. •Valid as Sebastes moseri Eitner 1999 -- (Orr et al. 2000:40 [ref. 24942], Love et al. 2002:213 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:78 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:142 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes moseri Eitner 1999. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of northern Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

mossambica, Scorpaena Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:434 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Ibo, 12°S, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: ZMB 772. Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:271 [ref. 19946]. Also described as new in Peters 1855:241 [ref. 13448]. •Valid as Parascorpaena mossambica (Peters 1855) -- (Dor 1984:81 [ref. 29757], Eschmeyer 1986:469 [ref. 5652], Randall et al. 1990:79 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:21 [ref. 25356], Randall et al. 1997:79 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:97 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2327 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:577 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:164 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:63 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:577 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:118 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:883 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2010:89 [ref. 31256], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:64 [ref. 35264], Motomura et al. 2011:63 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:225 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34709], Fricke et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34135], Fricke et al. 2018:131 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273], Chou & Liao 2022:9 [ref. 39195]). Current status: Valid as Parascorpaena mossambica (Peters 1855). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East Africa east to western Indonesia and Australia. Habitat: marine.

mouchezi, Sebastes Sauvage [H.-E.] 1875:988 [Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences v. 81; ref. 18662] St. Paul Island, southern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9509. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:21 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Helicolenus mouchezi (Sauvage 1875) -- (Eschmeyer & Hureau 1971:577 [ref. 21187], Collette & Parin 1991:8 [ref. 19110], Andrew et al. 1995:17 [ref. 38009], Trunov 1999:465 [ref. 24579]). Current status: Valid as Helicolenus mouchezi (Sauvage 1875). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Southern-central Atlantic: Tristan da Cunga Group, Gough Island; southern Indian Ocean: Saint-Paul Island. Habitat: marine.

moultoni, Scorpaena Whitley [G. P.] 1961:9, Fig. 1 [North Queensland Naturalist v. 29 (no. 127); ref. 9390] North of Wilson Island, Capricorn Group, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.5062. •Synonym of Parascorpaena mcadamsi (Fowler 1938) -- (Allen et al. 2006:883 [ref. 29066]). •Valid as Scorpaena moultoni Whitley 1961 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Parascorpaena moultoni (Whitley 1961) -- (Motomura et al. 2011:63 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34135], Tsuno et al. 2022:79 [ref. 39111]). Current status: Valid as Parascorpaena moultoni (Whitley 1961). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Kochi Prefecture (Japan); northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

muciparus, Sebastes Alcock [A. W.] 1889:298, Pl. 22 (fig. 3) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 58 (pt 2, no. 3); ref. 84] 26 miles north by east of Golpalpur, Investigator station 42, depth 23 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F12432. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:155 [ref. 20743] but corrected by Talwar 1977:367 [ref. 20565], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:43 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 18 (fig. 5) [ref. 20534]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes muciparus (Alcock 1889) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:4 [ref. 7813], Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1972:59 [ref. 7611], Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Poss et al. 2010:242 [ref. 30744], Psomadakis et al. 2015:185 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes muciparus (Alcock 1889). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

multicolor, Scorpaena Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Not available, name mentioned in passing in synonymy of Scorpaenopsis diabolus (Cuvier 1829); from Java, Indonesia. Nomen Nudum. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

multicolor, Scorpaena Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1876:37 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Amsterdam) v. 16 (art. 2); ref. 12248] Not available, name mentioned in passing in synonymy of Scorpaenopsis diabolus (Cuvier 1829). Nomen Nudum. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

muricata, Pterois Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:363 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Red Sea; Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6597 (1) Red Sea, 0000-6598 (1) Réunion I. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:8-9 [ref. 20738]. •Synonym of Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:86 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Pterois miles (Bennett 1828) -- (Schultz 1986:687 [ref. 22245], Fricke 1999:158 [ref. 24106], Allen & Erdmann 2008:129 [ref. 29479], Matsunuma et al. 2017:333 [ref. 35034]). •Valid as Pterois muricata Cuvier 1829 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830]). Current status: Synonym of Pterois miles (Bennett 1828). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Red Sea: Saudi Arabia and Réunion [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

mystes, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:491, Pl. 52 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: ?CAS-SU [old no.] 2919 (missing). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.81 (1) from Jordan; CAS-SU 2980 (1), 11601 (1), 11616-17 (1, 1), 18083 (2); USNM 47450 (1); ZMB 14150 [ex CAS-SU 2919] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291], Paepke & Fricke 1992:271 [ref. 19946], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 277, p. 3288 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789, but a valid subspecies -- (Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:100 [ref. 22193], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1556 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:271 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:239 [ref. 24550]). •Valid as Scorpaena mystes Jordan & Starks 1895 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:82 [ref. 23101], Franke & Acero P. 1996:766 [ref. 22923], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:291 [ref. 24023], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:198 [ref. 25013], Thomson et al. 2000:69 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:73 [ref. 37547], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:126 [ref. 35888], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena mystes Jordan & Starks 1895. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Chile, including Gulf of California (Mexico) and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

mystinus, Sebastichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1881:455 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 173) [v. for 1880]; ref. 12598] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 27085. Paralectotypes: ANSP 12119 (1, missing); MNHN A-286 [ex USNM] (1); MSNG 8327 (1); MTD F 174 [ex USNM] (1); RMNH-PISC 11530 [ex USNM 26971] (1); USNM 26971 (1), ?27031 (1, but not this species), 27085 (3), 427237 (1); ZMUC P791064 [ex USNM 27031] (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:346 [ref. 10350], Blanc & Hureau 1968:23 [ref. 20738], Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621], Zarske 2003:31 [ref. 27474]. Replacement name for Sebastodes melanops Ayres (not Girard). Lectotype selected by Frable et al. 2015:370 [ref. 33878]. •Valid as Sebastes mystinus (Jordan & Gilbert 1881) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:144 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:320 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:188 [ref. 14674], Moreno 1993:4 [ref. 25511], Orr et al. 2000:27 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:51 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:215 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:360 [ref. 25968], Cope 2004:332 [ref. 27699], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:78 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Frable et al. 2015:367 [ref. 33878], Pietsch & Orr 2015:33 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:144 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:61 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes mystinus (Jordan & Gilbert 1881). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: southeastern Alaska (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of northern Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

naevosa, Neomerinthe Motomura [H.], Béarez [P.] & Causse [R.] 2011:56, Figs. 1-2 [Cybium v. 35 (no. 1); ref. 31308] Hiva Oa Island, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia, 9°43'59"S, 135°41'00"W, depth 107-108 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2010-0952. Paratypes: Many at AMS, CSIRO, MNHN. •Valid as Neomerinthe naevosa Motomura, Béarez & Causse 2011 -- (Motomura et al. 2015:537 [ref. 33980]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe naevosa Motomura, Béarez & Causse 2011. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. Habitat: marine.

nasicornua, Scorpaena Fricke [R.] & Zhukov [M. Yu.] 2020:118, Figs. 1-3 [Cahiers de Biologie Marine v. 61 (no. 1); ref. 37314] Gulf of Aden, northwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ZIN 56300. •Valid as Scorpaena nasicornua Fricke & Zhukov 2020 -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[14] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena nasicornua Fricke & Zhukov 2020. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Gulf of Aden, northwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Pterois von Bonde [C.] 1923:32, Pl. 8 [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 3 (art. 1); ref. 521] KwaZulu-Natal coast, 29°26'30"S, 31°25'40"E, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 169, depth 29 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 802. Type information: Winterbottom 1974:8 [ref. 19544]. •Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:466 [ref. 5652] as heterurus, Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27693]). •Synonym of Parapterois nigripinnis (von Bonde 1923) -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2021:[22] [ref. 38848]). Current status: Synonym of Parapterois nigripinnis (von Bonde 1923). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Scorpaena Regan [C. T.] 1906:5, Pl. 5 [Annals of the Natal Government Museum v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 3628] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1905.6.8.49. •Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:70 [ref. 1274] with question, Eschmeyer 1986:471 [ref. 5652], Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Poss 2016:2282 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[22] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nebris, Phenacoscorpius Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:523, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 3); ref. 1273] Peninsula de Guajira, Venezuela, 12°46'N, 70°59'W, Oregon station 4396, depth 190 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 231727 [ex 260470-F2 and ex UMML 14358]. Paratypes: UF 216163 [ex UMML 16163] (2). •Valid as Phenacoscorpius nebris Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:52 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:272 [ref. 23100], Mandrytsa 1992:13 [ref. 20774], Mandrytsa 1993:200 [ref. 20724], Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1244 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:34 [ref. 28815], Motomura 2008:779 [ref. 30292], Wibowo & Motomura 2017:261 [ref. 35599], Carneiro et al. 2019:230 [ref. 37250], Wibowo & Motomura 2022:379 [ref. 38946]). Current status: Valid as Phenacoscorpius nebris Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

nebulosus, Phenacoscorpius Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:177, Pl. 8 (fig. K) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 12; ref. 4120] Bazaruto (21°30'S), South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 324. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 414 (1). •Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:476 [ref. 5652], Randall 2005:126 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

nebulosus, Sebastes Ayres [W. O.] 1854:178 [The Pacific [newspaper] v. 3 and 4 (thru no. 6); ref. 157] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Ayres specimens and possible types: BMNH 1863.10.9.29-34 (5), 1863.10.9.35-36 (2). Appeared first as above on 15 Sept.; then in Ayres 1854:5 [ref. 18923] and Ayres 1855:96 [ref. 31481]. •Valid as Sebastes nebulosus Ayres 1854 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:145 [ref. 9277], McAllister 1990:188 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:32 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:52 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:219 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:352 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:78 [ref. 37547], Maslenikov et al. 2013:9 [ref. 37947], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:33 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:144 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:61 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes nebulosus Ayres 1854. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Gulf of Alaska (U.S.A.) south to southern California (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

neglecta, Scorpaena Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:43, Pl. 17 (fig. 4) [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D619 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D618, D620-623 (5, stuffed). Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:24 [ref. 12876], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. Lectotype designation by Wibowo & Motomura 2019:325 [ref. 36828]. •Valid as Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:330 [ref. 19756], Kanayama in Okamura et al. 1982:273, 394 [ref. 8256], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:565, 716 [ref. 8056], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:83 [ref. 15964] as neglecta neglecta, Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442], Kim & Lee 1993:469 [ref. 39487], Chen et al. 1997:165 [ref. 26476] dated 1844, Cheng & Zhou 1997:414 [ref. 26385], Nakabo 2000:580 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:580 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 565 [ref. 26218], Takahashi et al. 2003:19 [ref. 27520], Motomura et al. 2005:866 [ref. 28254], Shinohara et al. 2005:425 [ref. 28370], Fricke et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33932], Shinohara et al.2014:245 [ref. 33330], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Miyazaki et al. 2019:123 [ref. 37957], Wibowo & Motomura 2019:312 [ref. 36828], Wibowo et al. 2019:308 [ref. 37166], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214], Kim et al. 2020:93 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:45 [ref. 37637], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[14] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Philippines east to Papua New Guinea, north to Korea and central Japan, south to northern Western Australia and southern New South Wales (Australia) Habitat: marine.

neglecta, Scorpaenopsis Heckel [J. J.] 1837:159 [Annalen des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte v. 2 (no. 1) (for 1840); ref. 2079] Sea of East Indies. No types known. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis neglecta Heckel 1837 (often dated 1839 or 1840) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:305 [ref. 6389], Kyushin et al. 1982:270 [ref. 19754], Paxton et al. 1989:451 [ref. 12442], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:130 [ref. 23963], Poss 1999:2307 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:575 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:36 [ref. 25801], Nakabo 2002:575 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Motomura et al. 2004:97 [ref. 28581], Allen et al. 2006:890 [ref. 29066], Motomura 2009:67 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:91 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura & Causse 2011:51 [ref. 31125], Allen & Erdmann 2012:234 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Larson et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:80 [ref. 34464], Koeda et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35490], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:77 [ref. 36460], Psomadakis et al. 2020:361 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:45 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis neglecta Heckel 1837. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: India, Myanmar and Andaman Sea east to Philippines and Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia), north to southern Sea of Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

nematophthalmus, Sebastes Günther [A.] 1860:99 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Caribbean Sea. Lectotype: BMNH 2007.11.9.1. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1840.12.12.39 (1, stuffed) [not this species]. Lectotype selected by Ginsburg 1953:51 [ref. 1807]. Second syntype (paralectotype) is from the Indian Ocean and a different species (see Eschmeyer 1969:28 [ref. 1274], Fricke 1999:157 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Pontinus nematophthalmus (Günther 1860) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:27 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:273 [ref. 23100] as nematopthalmus, Cervigón 1992:421 [ref. 23827], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1248 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Klautau et al. 2020:9 [ref. 37903], Robertson et al. 2020:161 [ref. 38098]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus nematophthalmus (Günther 1860). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

nesogallica, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:315 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0774 (1), 0000-6671 (1). Non-types?: ZMB 754 (1), 755 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:15-16 [ref. 20738], Paepke & Fricke 1992:271 [ref. 19946]. •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis gibbosa (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:474 [ref. 5652], Fricke 1999:162 [ref. 24106], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:24 [ref. 25801], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis gibbosa (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

nielseni, Sebastapistes Smith [J. L. B.] 1964:298, Pl. 30 (fig. C) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn v. 126; ref. 3444] Off Durban, South Africa, 29°56'S, 31°19'E, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 405 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P79192. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:80 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Neomerinthe nielseni (Smith 1964) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:469 [ref. 5652], Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847] (not this species per ref. 31308), Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817]). •Valid as Neoscorpaena nielseni (Smith 1964) -- (Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Motomura et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2015:537 [ref. 33980] genus needs evaluation, Fricke et al. 2018:131 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Neoscorpaena nielseni (Smith 1964). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Southern Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Réunion. Habitat: marine.

niger, Pontinus Fourmanoir [P.] 1971:42, Fig. 6 [Cahiers O. R. S. T. O. M. (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer) Série Océanographie v. 8 (no. 3) (1970); ref. 871] Pacific, 9°56'S, 141°52'W, depth 0-1200 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1970-0034. •Synonym of Ectreposebastes imus Garman 1899 -- (Collette & Uyeno 1972 [ref. 21055]). •Valid as Ectreposebastes niger (Fourmanoir 1971) -- (Paulin 1982:439 [ref. 23678], Paulin et al. 1989:168 [ref. 24556], Mandrytsa 1990:29 [ref. 19834], Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636], Allen et al. 2006:869 [ref. 29078], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1084 [ref. 34285], Romanov et al. 2021:286 [ref. 38989]). Current status: Valid as Ectreposebastes niger (Fourmanoir 1971). Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, Saya de Malha Bank and La Pérouse Seamount (La Réunion, Mascarenes) east to Marquesas Islands. Habitat: marine.

nigerimum, Pontinus Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1983:3, Fig. 1 [The J.L.B Smith Institute of Ichthyology Special Publication No. 28; ref. 8231] Off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 146 meters. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 11132. •Valid as Pontinus nigerimum Eschmeyer 1983 -- (Eschmeyer 1986:470 [ref. 5652], Adam et al. 1998:11 [ref. 23610], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495] as cf. nigerimum, Motomura et al. 2011:64 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2018:132 [ref. 35805], Ajina et al. 2021:2 [ref. 38736]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus nigerimum Eschmeyer 1983. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: South Africa to Madagascar and Réunion; Andaman Islands (India). Habitat: marine.

nigricans, Sebastodes Schmidt [P. Yu.] 1930:461 [Proceedings of the 4th Pacific Science Congress, Java, 1929 v. 3 (Biol. Pap.); ref. 3941] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZIN 22686. Appeared first as above with brief characterization (and misspelled nigricaus); more complete description in Schmidt 1931:97, Fig. 13 [ref. 16332] as Sebastodes (Acumentum) nigricans. Kai & Nakabo 2013:551 [ref. 32653] regard nigrocaus as valid [but nigricans has been used for 56 species of fishes, and nigricaus for zero; therefore nigricaus is regarded as a type-setting error]. •Apparently a synonym of Sebastes pachycephalus Temminck & Schlegel 1843. •Synonym of Sebastes pachycephalus Temminck & Schlegel 1843, but a valid subspecies -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:76 [ref. 15964], Nakabo 2000:595 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:595 [ref. 26001], Kai et al. 2011:333 [ref. 31619]). •Valid as Sebastes nigricans (Schmidt 1930) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:409 [ref. 26385] dated 1931, Shytko 2001:52 [ref. 26410]). •Synonym of Sebastes pachycephalus Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Kai et al. 2011:340 [ref. 31619], Kai & Nakabo 2013:543 [ref. 32653], Parin et al. 2014:219 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes pachycephalus Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

nigripinnis, Pterois Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1904:2, Pl. 20 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 3; ref. 1646] 2.5 miles off Umhlanga River mouth, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 22-26 fathoms. Syntypes: (3) SAM 11855 (3). Other material (same data as syntypes): BMNH 1903.12.31.6 (1) (lectotype of Matsunuma & Motomura 2021), 1930.1.14.3 (1) Lectotype selected by Matsunuma & Motomura 2021:[23] [ref. 38848] as BMNH 1903.12.31.6 (1) (but specimen did not belong to syntype series, which only included the 3 specimens of SAM 11855). •Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:466 [ref. 5652] as heterurus, Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27693], Matsunuma et al. 2013:52 [ref. 33131]). •Valid as Parapterois nigripinnis (von Bonde 1923) -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2021:[22] [ref. 38848]). Current status: Valid as Parapterois nigripinnis (von Bonde 1923). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Mozambique south to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

nigrocinctus, Sebastes Ayres [W. O.] 1859:25 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 2 (1858-1862); ref. 155] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Possible syntypes: BMNH 1863.10.9.27 (1). Any types at CAS would have been lost in 1906. •Valid as Sebastes nigrocinctus Ayres 1859 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:145 [ref. 9277], McAllister 1990:188 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:36 [ref. 24942], Musick et al. 2000:15 [ref. 24959], Shytko 2001:53 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:222 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:350 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:78 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:33 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:144 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:61 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes nigrocinctus Ayres 1859. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Aleutian Islands (U.S.A.) south to southern California (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

nigromaculatus, Sebastes Günther [A.] 1873:377 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 12 (no. 71); ref. 18198] Chefoo, Shantung Province, China. Syntypes: BMNH 1873.9.23.2-3 (2). •Synonym of Sebastes schlegelii Hilgendorf 1880 -- (Parin et al. 2014:220 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:59 [ref. 35138]). Nomen Oblitum. Current status: Synonym of Sebastes schlegelii Hilgendorf 1880. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

nigropunctatus, Sebastes Günther [A.] 1868:227 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868 (pt 2) (art. 4) (for 26 Mar. 1868); ref. 1991] St. Helena Island, South Atlantic (15°58'S, 5°43'W). Syntypes: BMNH 1867.10.8.4-5 (2). •Valid as Pontinus nigropunctatus (Günther 1868) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:40 [ref. 1274], Edwards & Glass 1987:634 [ref. 9166], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:669 [ref. 17613], Trunov 2006:475 [ref. 28786], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Poss 2016:2267 [ref. 34610], Brown et al. 2019:179 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus nigropunctatus (Günther 1868). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago; southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands, Bonaparte and Grattan seamounts. Habitat: marine.

nivifer, Sebastapistes Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1905:791, Fig. 10 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 28 (no. 1407); ref. 2495] Bais, Negros Oriental Province, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 51954 [or 52053]. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

nivosus, Sebastes Hilgendorf [F. M.] 1880:171 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1880; ref. 18287] Hokkaido, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZMB 11273. •Valid as Sebastes nivosus Hilgendorf 1880 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:312 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:73 [ref. 15964], Cheng & Zhou 1997:410 [ref. 26385], Nakabo 2000:594 [ref. 25086], Shytko 2001:53 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:594 [ref. 26001], Kai et al. 2013:272 [ref. 35112], Parin et al. 2014:218 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:857 [ref. 38925] with question, Dyldin et al. 2021:56 [ref. 38804] with question). Current status: Valid as Sebastes nivosus Hilgendorf 1880. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

normani, Scorpaena Cadenat [J.] 1943:539, Fig. 2 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 13 (nos 1-4); ref. 13043] Coast of Mauritania, depth 90-100 meters. Syntypes: (17) MNHN B-2548 (2). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:16 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. Based in part on Scorpaena canariensis of Norman 1935. •Valid as Scorpaena normani Cadenat 1943 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:62 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:672 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2278 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Reiner 2019:158 [ref. 38139], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena normani Cadenat 1943. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola, including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

noronhai, Pteropelor Fowler [H. W.] 1938:78, Fig. 34 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Vicinity of Hong Kong, China Sea, 21°33'00"N, 116°13'00"E, Albatross station D.5310, depth 100 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 98892. Paratypes: USNM 99009 (1). •Status uncertain -- (see Eschmeyer et al. 1973:305-306 [ref. 6390]). •Valid as Pteropelor noronhai Fowler 1938 -- (Chen & Liu 1984:101 [ref. 13451], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Mandrytsa 2002:567 [ref. 26272]). •Valid as Pteroidichthys noronhai (Fowler 1938) -- (Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2015:1 [ref. 33892], Motomura & Kanade 2015:492 [ref. 34096]). Current status: Valid as Pteroidichthys noronhai (Fowler 1938). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: China Sea, Japan, Vietnam, Philippines, western Australia, Vanuatu east to Wallis and Futuna Islands. Habitat: marine.

norvegica, Perca Ascanius [P.] 1772:7, Pl. 16 [Icones rerum naturalium, ou figures enluminées d'histoire naturelle du Nord; ref. 5115] Norway. No types known. Originally Perca (Norvegica). Replaces Sebastes marinus (Linnaeus 1758), which was based on a serranid. See Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:xxj, 327 [ref. 998]. Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:238-240 [ref. 20707] pointed out that the sources for the species description in 1758 were referable to Serranus. •Synonym of Sebastes marinus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Blanc & Hureau 1973:583 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1225 [ref. 13677], Robins & Ray 1986:277 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:483 [ref. 25518], Ishida in Okamura et al. 1995:151 [ref. 22531], Parin et al. 2002:S62 [ref. 28300], Fricke 2007:25 [ref. 30577], Møller et al. 2010:51 [ref. 31169]). •Valid as Sebastes norvegicus (Ascanius 1772) -- (McAllister 1990:188 [ref. 14674], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:121 [ref. 31212], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:218 [ref. 33547], Afonso et al. 2016:40, 276 [ref. 36199], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:177 [ref. 36370], Carneiro et al. 2019:229 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes norvegicus (Ascanius 1772). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: North Atlantic (including northern North Sea, western Baltic Sea, Barents Sea). Habitat: marine.

norwegica, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:327 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Greenland. No types known. Regarded as independent of Perca norvegica Ascanius 1772, but a junior synonym of it (see Parenti 2003:500 [ref. 27322]). •Synonym of Sebastes norvegicus (Ascanius 1772) -- (Parenti 2003:500 [ref. 27322], Parin et al. 2014:218 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes norvegicus (Ascanius 1772). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

notata, Scorpaena Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:33 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicilia [Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea]. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:27 [ref. 3595]. •Valid as Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:81 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:581 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1219 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:673 [ref. 17613], Santos et al. 1997:77 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:116 [ref. 24952], Caputo & Sorice 1999:81 [ref. 25260], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:69 [ref. 26753], Parin et al. 2002:S64 [ref. 28300], Golani 2005:33 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:77 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:79 [ref. 30517], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:39 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:224 [ref. 33547], Poss 2016:2279 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Martins & Carneiro 2018:110 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:232 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:101 [ref. 37117], Bariche & Fricke 2020:106 [ref. 37515], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519], Bañón & Maño 2021:68 [ref. 38883], Golani 2021:36 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:76 [ref. 39014], Stefanov 2021:56 [ref. 38389], Yedier & Bostanci 2021:200 [ref. 38796]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Senegal, including Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

notius, Sebastes Chen [L.-C.] 1971:22, Pl. 2 (fig. C) [Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of California v. 18; ref. 7668] Eastern Pacific, Guadalupe Island, Mexico, 29°09.4'N, 117°16'W, depth 240 meters. Holotype: SIO 67-75. Paratypes: SIO 64-29 (2). •Valid as Sebastes notius Chen 1971 -- (Léon-Castro et al. 1993:324 [ref. 24939], Orr et al. 2000:43 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:54 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:224 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:78 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes notius Chen 1971. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico), and Guadalupe Island (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

novaeguineae, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:320 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6676. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:16 [ref. 20738]. Originally as Novae-guineae. •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1995:112 [ref. 22896], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:68 [ref. 25801] once as novaguineae, Motomura et al. 2011:69 [ref. 31308]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

nuchalis, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1874:76 [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 3); ref. 18231] Raratonga Island, Cook Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1871.9.13.232. •Valid as Sebastapistes nuchalis (Günther 1874) -- (Blanc & Hureau 1973:585 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1223 [ref. 13677]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829) -- (Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:126 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

nudus, Sebastes (Murasoius) pachycephalus form Matsubara [K.] 1943:239 [Transactions Sigenkagaku Kenkyusyo No. 2; ref. 2905] Hakodate, Oshima Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan. Holotype: Imp. Fish. Inst. no. 352. Paratypes: (13). Called a form but treated as a subspecies, so regarded as available. Barsukov 2003 selected nudus as valid over Chalcogrammus. •Apparently a synonym of Sebastes pachycephalus Temminck & Schlegel 1843. •Synonym of Sebastes pachycephalus Temminck & Schlegel 1843, but a valid subspecies -- (Nakabo 2000:595 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:595 [ref. 26001]). •Treated chalcogrammus and nudus as a valid species separate from S. pachycephalus, but no first reviser action taken -- (Kai et al. 2011:340 [ref. 31619]). •Valid as Sebastes nudus Matsubara 1943 -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:77 [ref. 15964], Shytko 2001:54 [ref. 26410], Yoshiaki & Nakabo 2013:551 [ref. 32653], Kim et al. 2020:91 [ref. 39118]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes nudus Matsubara 1943. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Korea, Japan, Russia. Habitat: marine.

nuttingi, Scorpaena Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1924:39, Pl. 1 [University of Iowa Studies in Natural History v. 10 (no. 4); ref. 15444] Carlisle Bay, Barbados, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MSUI (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

oblongus, Sebastes Günther [A.] 1877:435 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 20 (no. 119) (art. 56); ref. 2009] Inland Sea of Japan (market of Yokohama), Japan. ? BMNH 1878.4.5.68. Also described as new in Günther 1880:64, Pl. 28 [ref. 2011]. •Valid as Sebastes oblongus Günther 1877 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:312 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:64 [ref. 15964], Kim & Lee 1993:463 [ref. 39487], Nakabo 2000:593 [ref. 25086], Shytko 2001:54 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:593 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 561 [ref. 26218], Parin et al. 2014:218 [ref. 33547], Kim et al. 2020:91 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:42 [ref. 37637]), Current status: Valid as Sebastes oblongus Günther 1877. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Japan, Korea and Russian coast of Sea of Japan. Habitat: marine.

obtusa, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Eschmeyer [W. N.] 2002:37, Fig. 10 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 34 (for Dec. 2001); ref. 25801] Observation Island, Sulu Archipelago, Tawitawi Group, Philippines, depth 16.5 meters. Holotype: USNM 169475. Paratypes: CAS 54231 (1), 213340 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis obtusa Randall & Eschmeyer 2002 -- (Allen et al. 2006:890 [ref. 29066], Motomura & Shinohara 2005:296 [ref. 29181], Motomura & Causse 2011:51 [ref. 31125], Motomura et al. 2011:100 [ref. 31717], Allen & Erdmann 2012:234 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:103 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:361 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis obtusa Randall & Eschmeyer 2002. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar and central Indonesia east to Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

occipitalis, Scorpaena Poey [F.] 1860:171 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 13894 (4), 13897 (2); USNM 153576 [ex MCZ 13894] (1), 153577 [ex MCZ 13897] (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:206 [ref. 22926] with MCZ 13894 as types and largest as the holotype. •Synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:138 [ref. 9211], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Sebastes Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier 1836-49:23, Fig. 3 [Le règne animal distribué d'après son organisation; ref. 4980] Coast of Chile. Original not seen; perhaps same as Sebastes oculata Cuvier 1833. •Synonym of Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789) -- (Lloris & Rucabado 1991:81 [ref. 22530]). •Synonym of Sebastes oculatus Valenciennes 1833. Current status: Synonym of Sebastes oculatus Valenciennes 1833. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

oculata, Sebastes Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:466 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Valparaíso, Chile. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6655. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:21 [ref. 20738]. •Synonym of Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kong U. 1985:48 [ref. 11639], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:81 [ref. 22530]). •Valid as Sebastes oculatus Valenciennes 1833 -- (Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:180 [ref. 14235], Rocha-Olivares et al. 1999:410 [ref. 27839], Anderson et al. 2005:28 [ref. 28396], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Venerus et al. 2013 [ref. 32720], Nión et al. 2016:45 [ref. 35565] with author as Cuvier, Kim et al. 2021:112 [ref. 39117]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes oculatus Valenciennes 1833. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific, southwestern Atlantic: including Falkland Islands. Habitat: marine.

oglinus, Kantapus Smith [J. L. B.] 1947:817 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 11) v. 13 (no. 108) (art. 77); ref. 4073] Inhaca Island, Delagoa Bay, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 314. •Synonym of Sebastapistes tristis -- (Frøiland 1972:358 [ref. 30490], Dor 1984:85 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Scorpaena oglinus (Smith 1947) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:476 [ref. 5652], Randall 2005:126 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:326 [ref. 28867], Allen et al. 2006:891 [ref. 29066], Golani & Fricke 2018:56 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

onaria, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1900:365, Pl. 16 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1213); ref. 2502] Misaki, Japan. Holotype: USNM 49405. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6275 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena onaria Jordan & Snyder 1900 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Kim & Lee 1993:469 [ref. 39487], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:129 [ref. 23963], Nakabo 2000:580 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:580 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 566 [ref. 26218], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Motomura et al. 2005:865 [ref. 28254], Shinohara et al. 2005:425 [ref. 28370], Motomura et al. 2007:42 [ref. 29012], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066], Motomura & Peristiwady 2010:127 [ref. 31100], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:66 [ref. 31308], Shinohara et al. 2014:245 [ref. 33330], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1098 [ref. 34285], Koeda et al. 2016:21 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Wibowo et al. 2019:308 [ref. 37166], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214], Kim et al. 2020:93 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:45 [ref. 37637], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[14] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena onaria Jordan & Snyder 1900. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western and central Pacific: Andaman Sea; Taiwan to southern Korea and Japan; northern Western Australia to Queensland (eastern Australia), east to New Caledonia and northern New Zealand, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

orgila, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Allen [G. R.] 1971:517, Figs. 1a, 2 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 37 (no. 19); ref. 893] Off Ahu Akapu, Easter Island, southeastern Pacific, depth 70 feet. Holotype: CAS 24809 [ex BPBM 6770]. Paratypes: BPBM 6771-72 (1, 1), 6774 (1), 6776-77 (1, 1); CAS 24810-11 (2, 1); LACM 31198-1 [ex UBC 65-421] (1); UBC 65-438 (1), 65-439 (1), 65-457 (1); USNM 205209 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena orgila Eschmeyer & Allen 1971 -- (Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Motomura et al. 2011:330 [ref. 31618], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[18] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena orgila Eschmeyer & Allen 1971. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Easter Island endemic. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Eschmeyer [W. N.] 2002:41, Pls. V (figs. B-C), XI (fig. C) [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 34 (for Dec. 2001); ref. 25801] Oshima, 31°31.9'N, 131°23.5'E, Mietsu, Nango, Miyazaki, Japan, depth less than 8 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 60913. Paratypes: AMS I.40743-001 (1); BPBM 35164 (1), 35252 (1), 35341 (1), 38850 (1); CAS 214202 (1); MNHN 2001-458 (1); MUFS 14065 (1), 154096 (1), 16338 (1), 16392 (1); USNM 364592 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis orientalis Randall & Eschmeyer 2002 -- (Motomura et al. 2004:97 [ref. 28581], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Koeda et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36969]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis orientalis Randall & Eschmeyer 2002. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Taiwan to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

osheri, Trachyscorpia McCosker [J. E.] 2008:114, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 59 (no. 3); ref. 29639] Isla Darwin, 1°42.05'N, 92°00.02'W, Galápagos Islands, depth 515 meters. Holotype: CAS 86509. Paratypes: CAS 86504 (1) •Valid as Trachyscorpia osheri McCosker 2008 -- (Béarez & Motomura 2010:61 [ref. 30680], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Trachyscorpia osheri McCosker 2008. Scorpaenidae: Sebastolobinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

ovalis, Sebastodes Ayres [W. O.] 1862:209, Fig. 65 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 2; ref. 17944] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Ayres specimen and possible type: BMNH 1863.10.9.22 (1). •Valid as Sebastes ovalis (Ayres 1862) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:145 [ref. 9277], Nichol et al. 1989:173 [ref. 23108], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:323 [ref. 24939], Orr et al. 2000:30 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:56 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:225 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:78 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:144 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:61 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes ovalis (Ayres 1862). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: northern Washington (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

owstoni, Sebastodes Jordan [D. S.] & Thompson [W. F.] 1914:270, Pl. 31 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 2543] Aomori, Japan. Holotype: FMNH 57088 [ex CM 6026 or 6025]. Paratypes: FMNH 57092 [ex CM 6030a-c] (3), CAS-SU 23208 (5), USNM 119342 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:93 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:124 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:79 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Sebastes owstoni (Jordan & Thompson 1914) -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:310 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:41 [ref. 15964], Kim & Lee 1993:456 [ref. 39487], Shinohara et al. 1996:175 [ref. 26605], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:9 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:587 [ref. 25086], Shytko 2001:56 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:587 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 561 [ref. 26218], Parin et al. 2002:S62 [ref. 28300], Yagishita et al. 2007:198 [ref. 29235], Shinohara et al. 2011:42 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al.2014:245 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:219 [ref. 33547], Kim et al. 2020:91 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:42 [ref. 37637], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:857 [ref. 38925], Dyldin et al. 2021:56 [ref. 38804]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes owstoni (Jordan & Thompson 1914). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Japan, Korea and Russian coast of Sea of Japan. Habitat: marine.

oxycephalus, Scorpaena Bleeker [P.] 1849:7 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [5]; ref. 16881] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 5865. Lectotype established by Dor 1984:19 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis oxycephala (Bleeker 1849) -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:21 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:83 [ref. 15987], Baranes & Golani 1993:306 [ref. 22372], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:86 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:83 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:98 [ref. 23965], Motomura & Iwatsuki 2000:3 [ref. 24401], Poss 1999:2343 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:576 [ref. 25086], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:169 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Nakabo 2002:576 [ref. 26001], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:45 [ref. 25801], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Motomura et al. 2004:99 [ref. 28581], Randall 2005:123 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:890 [ref. 29066], Motomura 2009:68 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:235 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932], Naranji & Kandula 2016:2 [ref. 39572], Golani & Fricke 2018:55 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:128 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:68 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:361 [ref. 37272]). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis oxycephalus (Bleeker 1849) -- (Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Paxton et al. 1989:451 [ref. 12442], Eschmeyer 1986:474 [ref. 5652], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis oxycephalus (Bleeker 1849). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Palau and New Guinea, north to Philippines, southern Japan, south to Timor Sea (northern Australia). Habitat: marine.

pachycephalus, Sebastes Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:47, Pl. 20 (fig. 3) [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D566 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D563-565 (3, stuffed), 654 (1), 655 (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:56 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Sebastes pachycephalus Temminck & Schlegel 1843, subspecies pachycephalus Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:75 [ref. 15964], Nakabo 2000:595 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:595 [ref. 26001]). •Valid as Sebastes pachycephalus Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:312 [ref. 6441], Kim & Lee 1993:464 [ref. 39487], Cheng & Zhou 1997:408 [ref. 26385], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:130 [ref. 23963], Poss 1999:2307 [ref. 24796], Shytko 2001:56 [ref. 26410] as pachicephalus, Choi et al. 2003:242, 562 [ref. 26218], Kai et al. 2011:340 [ref. 31619], Kai & Nakabo 2013:542 [ref. 32653], Parin et al. 2014:219 [ref. 33547], Kim et al. 2020:91 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:42 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes pachycephalus Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: East China Sea (China) to Japan, Korea and Russian coast of Sea of Japan. Habitat: marine.

pacificum, Idiastion Ishida [M.] & Amaoka [K.] 1992:357, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 38 (no. 4); ref. 19515] Kyushu-Palau Ridge, 26°11.5'N, 135°45.4'E to 26°04.7'N, 135°50.4'E, depth 355-375 meters. Holotype (unique): BSKU 31153. •Valid as Idiastion pacificum Ishida & Amaoka 1992 -- (Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:571 [ref. 25086], Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Nakabo 2002:571 [ref. 26001], McCosker 2008:122 [ref. 29639], Okamoto et al. 2012:2 [ref. 32019], Koeda et al. 2021:5 [ref. 38857]). Current status: Valid as Idiastion pacificum Ishida & Amaoka 1992. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Kyushu-Palau Ridge and Kyoto Seamount, central North Pacific: 35°343.00'N, 171°34.50'E - 35°34.90'N, 171°38.60'E. Habitat: marine.

pallidimacula, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1938:61, Fig. 25 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Uanivan Island, Pujada Bay and vicinity, Philippines, 6°50'45"N, 126°14'38"E, Albatross station D.5241, depth 215 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98889. •Valid as Scorpaena pallidimacula Fowler 1938 -- (Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728]). •Valid as Neomerinthe pallidimacula (Fowler 1938) -- (Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2016:110 [ref. 35079]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe pallidimacula (Fowler 1938). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pallidus, Macroscorpius Fowler [H. W.] 1938:76, Fig. 33 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Point Tagolo Light, northern Mindanao and vicinity, Philippines, 8°48'N, 123°31'E, Albatross station D.5518, depth 200 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 98890. Paratypes: SU 40201 (3); USNM 98989-96 (4, 2, 1, 6, 14, 14, 15, 1, 3, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1), 113004 (18, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:120 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Lioscorpius longiceps Günther 1880 -- (Eschmeyer & Collette 1966:365 [ref. 6485]). Current status: Synonym of Lioscorpius longiceps Günther 1880. Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Habitat: marine.

palmeri, Scorpaenopsis Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:27 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 23; ref. 3288] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.1528. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis palmeri Ogilby 1910 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:451 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:68 [ref. 25801], Allen et al. 2006:891 [ref. 29066]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

pannosa, Scorpaena Cramer [F.] in Gilbert 1897:446, Pl. 52 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 19 (no. 1115); ref. 1629] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 47573. Author is F. Cramer. •Synonym of Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1555 [ref. 22830]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

papillosus, Synanceia Schneider [J. G.] & Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:196 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Matatuahu Point, Tawharanui Peninsula, Hauraki Gulf, North Auckland, North Island, New Zealand, 36°23'S, 174°49'E, depth 0 - 5 meters [New Zealand]. Neotype: NMNZ P.028043. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]. Name attributable to Schneider, description taken from Forster manuscript (reproduced in Lichtenstein 1844:128-130 [ref. 17531] as "Scorpaena cottoides"). Genus spelled Synanceja on p. 195 but corrected in Corrigenda. Neotype designated by Wibowo & Motomura 2020:543 [ref. 37777]. •Valid as Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1982:438 [ref. 23678], Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:168 [ref. 24556] as papillosus, Paulin & Roberts 1992:137 [ref. 24625], Kuiter 1993:120 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:491 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:86 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Motomura et al. 2005:29 [ref. 28339], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066] with authors as Boch & Schneider, Johnson & Motomura 2008:488 [ref. 30648], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1099 [ref. 34285], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159], Wibowo & Motomura 2020:528 [ref. 37777], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[19] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southeastern Australia, from Port Jackson, New South Wales (33°S) to the south coast of Tasmania (43°S) [subspecies ergastulorum], and [subspecies papillosa]: New Zealand, from the Three Kings Islands (34°S) to the Camp-bell Plateau and Auckland Islands (48°S). Habitat: marine.

papuensis, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:321 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6701. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:16 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis papuensis (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall et al. 1997:504 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:98 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2307 [ref. 24796], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:48 [ref. 25801], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:40 [ref. 27510], Motomura et al. 2004:100 [ref. 28581], Randall 2005:123 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:890 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:235 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Fricke et al. 2014:53 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2019:103 [ref. 36673], Sonoyama et al. 2020:45 [ref. 37637], Tsuno et al. 2022:82 [ref. 39111]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis papuensis (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia east to Society Islands, north to southern Sea of Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

paradoxus, Sebastes (Mebarus) Matsubara [K.] 1943:198, Fig. 71 [Transactions Sigenkagaku Kenkyusyo No. 2; ref. 2905] Huzan fish market, Japan. Holotype (unique): FAKU 101045 [ex IFI = FAKU 6386]. •Possible synonym of Sebastes wakiyai (Matsubara 1934). Current status: Uncertain as Sebastes wakiyai (Matsubara 1934). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

parmatus, Setarches Goode [G. B.] 1881:480 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 177); ref. 1833] Gulf Stream off Rhode Island, U.S.A., 39°57'N, 70°56'W, Fish Hawk station 876, depth 120 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 26084 [not 28084]. Type catalog: Wada et al. 2020:[3] [ref. 37692]. •Synonym of Setarches guentheri Johnson 1862 -- (Eschmeyer & Collette 1966:359 [ref. 6485], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:678 [ref. 17613], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1264 [ref. 27048], Wada et al. 2020:[3] [ref. 37692]). Current status: Synonym of Setarches guentheri Johnson 1862. Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Habitat: marine.

parvipinnis, Scorpaena Garrett [A.] 1864:105 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 3; ref. 18276] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS [destroyed in 1906 fire]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes parvipinnis (Garrett 1864) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:280 [ref. 6389], Dor 1984:83 [ref. 29757] as parvipinis, Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:473 [ref. 5652], Paxton et al. 1989:450 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:20 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:82 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:82 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:98 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:161 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2339 [ref. 24796], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:581 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:167 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:581 [ref. 26001], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:40 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:121 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:329 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:887 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:175 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:40 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:23 [ref. 30748], Motomura et al. 2010:90 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:231 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:21 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:28 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes parvipinnis (Garrett 1864). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Marquesas Islands and Society Islands, north to Taiwan and southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island, and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

parvus, Scorpaena De la Blanchère [H.] 1868:621 [La Pêche et les Poissons; ref. 36060] Probably a misspelling of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus, not an original description. Misspelling. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

parvus, Sebastes ruber var. Ayres [W. O.] 1854:182 [The Pacific [newspaper] v. 3 and 4 (thru no. 6); ref. 157] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. No types known. Appeared first as above on 22 Sept.; then in Ayres 1854:7 [ref. 18923]. •Synonym of Sebastes auriculatus Girard 1854. Current status: Synonym of Sebastes auriculatus Girard 1854. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

pascuensis, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Allen [G. R.] 1971:523, Figs. 1b, 3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 37 (no. 19); ref. 893] Offshore between Hanga Roa and Hanga Piko, Easter Island, southeastern Pacific, depth 10-15 feet. Holotype: CAS 24812 [ex BPBM 6783]. Paratypes: BPBM 6782 (3), 6784 (5); CAS 24813 (3), 24814 (1 c&s), 24815-16 (1, 3); LACM 6560-14 (6); UBC 65-417 (1), 65-451 (4); USNM 205210 (2). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena pascuensis Eschmeyer & Allen 1971 -- (Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). •In Sebastapistes -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[4] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes pascuensis (Eschmeyer & Allen 1971). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Easter Island endemic. Habitat: marine.

patriacha, Scorpaena Berthelot [S.] (ex Valenciennes) 1840:120 [De la pêche dur la côte occidentale d'Afrique; ref. 30346] Not available, name only. Source given as 'Val.' (A. Valenciennes) from Canary Islands. •In the synonymy of Scorpaena canariensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena canariensis (Sauvage 1878). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

patui, Scorpaena Curtiss [A.] 1938:113 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

paucispinis, Sebastes Ayres [W. O.] 1854:178 [The Pacific [newspaper] v. 3 and 4 (thru no. 6); ref. 157] California, U.S.A. Ayres specimens and possible types: BMNH 1863.10.9.11-12 (2). Appeared first as above on 15 Sept. with genus misspelled as Asebastes; then in genus Sebastes by Ayres 1854:6 [ref. 18923] and Ayres 1855:94 [ref. 31481]. •Valid as Sebastes paucispinis Ayres 1854 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:145 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:322 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:189 [ref. 14674], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:324 [ref. 24939], Orr et al. 2000:10 [ref. 24942], Musick et al. 2000:15 [ref. 24959], Love et al. 2002:228 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:364 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:78 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:33 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:146 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:61 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes paucispinis Ayres 1854. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: western Gulf of Alaska south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

paucispinosus, Sebastes (Acutomentum) Matsubara [K.] 1943:216 [Transactions Sigenkagaku Kenkyusyo No. 2; ref. 2905] Kesennuma, near Hukusima, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): FAKU 101044. •Synonym of Sebastes alutus (Gilbert 1890) -- (Ishida & Amaoka 1989:129 [ref. 12865], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:25 [ref. 25650], Shytko 2001:58 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:124 [ref. 26216], Parin et al. 2002:S61 [ref. 28300], Parin et al. 2014:213 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes alutus (Gilbert 1890). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

paucispinula, Pterois Matsunuma [M.] & Motomura [H.] 2014:[3] 329, Figs. 2-3, 11a [Ichthyological Research v. 62 (no. 3); ref. 33609] Kashiwa-jima Island, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: KBKU 61062. Paratypes: AMS, BSKU, CMNH-ZF, FAKU, KAUM-I, KPM-NI, MNHN, NSMT-P, KSHS, SMF, URM-P, USNM. •Valid as Pterois paucispinula Matsunuma & Motomura 2014 -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[25] [ref. 33935], Matsunuma & Motomura 2018:110 [ref. 36416]). Current status: Valid as Pterois paucispinula Matsunuma & Motomura 2014. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: South China Sea and Philippines east to Society Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia, Solomon Islands and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Habitat: marine.

pavlenkoi, Sebastodes Wales [J. H.] 1930:11 [Copeia 1930 (no. 1); ref. 26047] Cape Povorotnyi, Peter the Great Bay, Russia, Sea of Japan. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Replacement for Sebastodes ruber Pavlenko 1910, secondarily preoccupied by Sebastes ruber Ayres 1854. •Synonym of Sebastes owstoni (Jordan & Thompson 1914) -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:41 [ref. 15964], Parin et al. 2002:S62 [ref. 28300], Parin et al. 2014:219 [ref. 33547]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Sebastes owstoni (Jordan & Thompson 1914). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

pavo, Ebosia Schmidt [P. Yu.] 1931:109, Figs. 18-19 [Transactions of the Pacific Committee of the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. v. 2; ref. 16332] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype: ZIN 22720 (1 of 2, 269 mm). Paratypes: ZIN 22720 (1 of 2, 184 mm). •Synonym of Parabrachirus heterurus (Bleeker 1856) -- (Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1978:66 [ref. 6386]). •Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856) -- (Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27693], Matsunuma & Motomura 2021:[8] [ref. 38848]). •Synonym of Parapterois heterurus (Bleeker 1856). Current status: Synonym of Parapterois heterurus (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

peduncularis, Sebastes Chen [L.-C.] 1975:127, Fig. 2e [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 40 (no. 6); ref. 7413] Midway between southern tip of Tiburon Island and Angel de La Guarda Island, 28°55'N, 112°50.5'W, Gulf of California, midwater over 440-450 meters. Holotype: LACM 8818-6. Paratypes: LACM 8818-11 (1). •Valid as Sebastes peduncularis Chen 1975 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1548 [ref. 22830], Shytko 2001:60 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:232 [ref. 26216] with validity questioned, Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes peduncularis Chen 1975. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

pelagicus, Cyprinus Mohr [N.] 1786:84 [Førsog til en Islandsk naturhistorie, med adskillige oekonomiske samt andre anmaetkninger... Kjøbenhavn.; ref. 17781] Iceland. No types known. Not an original description, perhaps the same as Cyprinus pelagicus Linnaeus 1760:320 [ref. 13326]. Current status: Synonym of Sebastes norvegicus (Ascanius 1772). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae.

pele, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Randall [J. E.] 1975:320, Figs. 24, 25a [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 40 (no. 11); ref. 6389] North coast of Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, 21°40'N, 158°08'W, depth 176-202 meters. Holotype: USNM 214046. Paratypes: ANSP 130800 (1); BPBM 29363 [ex BPBM 4350] (1), 13635 (1), 17247 (2); CAS 15707 (1), 30236-39 (1, 2, 3, 1); USNM 214042-45 (1, 1, 2, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena pele Eschmeyer & Randall 1975 -- (Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Mundy 2005:328 [ref. 28379], Motomura et al. 2007:42 [ref. 29012], Randall 2007:174 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). •Synonym of Scorpaena onaria Jordan & Snyder 1900 -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[15] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena onaria Jordan & Snyder 1900. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

pepo, Scorpaena Motomura [H.], Poss [S. G.] & Shao [K.-T.] 2007:36, Figs. 1, 2A [Zoological Studies v. 46 (no. 1); ref. 29012] Off northeastern coast of Taiwan, Taipei fish market, depth about 200 meters (market purchase). Holotype: ASIZP 65020. Paratypes: AMS I.43631-001 (1); ASIZP 65021 (1); NTUM 4555 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:40 [ref. 31432], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena pepo Motomura, Poss & Shao 2007 -- (Motomura et al. 2009:139 [ref. 30729], Ho & Shao 2011:40 [ref. 31432], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[19] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena pepo Motomura, Poss & Shao 2007. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Taiwan to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

percoides, Sebastes Richardson [J.] & Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1842:384 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 59) (art. 42); ref. 21247] Off Cape Kidnapper and at Motuaro, Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand. No types known. Based on description from drawing by Richardson and quoted description by Solander; authorship suggested here is Richardson & Solander. Main heading is Sebastes percoides, with Scorpaena percoides on p. 385. It is expected that there are undescribed species of Helicolenus in the Australian/New Zealand region. •Valid as Helicolenus percoides (Richardson & Solander 1842) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:442 [ref. 12442], Paulin 1989:319 [ref. 15772], Paulin et al. 1989:168 [ref. 24556], Ishida in Amaoka et al. 1990:233 [ref. 16024], Paulin & Roberts 1992:136 [ref. 24625], Kuiter 1993:120 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:481 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847] as cf. percoides, Allen et al. 2006:867 [ref. 29078], Johnson & Motomura 2008:497 [ref. 30648], Struthers & Motomura 2015:1080 [ref. 34284]). Current status: Valid as Helicolenus percoides (Richardson & Solander 1842). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Australia and New Zealand region. Habitat: marine.

perplexa, Sebastapistes Motomura [H.], Aizawa [M.] & Endo [H.] 2014:135, Figs. 1-2 [Species Diversity 19; ref. 33591] Hirane off Hasama, Tateyama, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, 34°58'42"N, 137°47'33"E, depth 15 meters. Holotype: CMNH-ZF 15719. Paratypes: BSKU, CMNH-ZF, FAKU, KAUM-I, KPM-NI, NSMT-P. •Valid as Sebastapistes perplexa Motomura, Aizawa & Endo 2014. Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes perplexa Motomura, Aizawa & Endo 2014. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Pacific coast of Japan. Habitat: marine.

peruana, Scorpaena Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:445, Fig. 86 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Hawaiian Islands [not Peru]. Holotype: USNM 83346. Paratypes: USNM 83001 (1), 121957 (2). •Synonym of Scorpaena ballieui Sauvage 1875 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:318 [ref. 6389]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes ballieui (Sauvage 1875). •In Sebastapistes -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[4] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes ballieui (Sauvage 1875). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

petricola, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:107, Fig. 6b [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 9211] Off Brazil, 1°59'S, 42°05'W, Oregon station 4239, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 198150 [ex UMML 13336]. Paratypes: UF 212311 [ex UMML 12311] (1), 213328 [ex UMML 13328] (1), 213332 [ex UMML 13332] (7); USNM 198152 [ex UMML 13337] (2); plus additional material (12). •Valid as Scorpaena petricola Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:55 [ref. 1274], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1238 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Caires et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:608 [ref. 38945]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena petricola Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

phillipsi, Sebastodes Fitch [J. E.] 1964:526, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1964 (no. 3); ref. 1882] 3 miles southwest of East Light, Santa Catalina Island, California, U.S.A. Holotype: CAS 27026 (dry). Paratypes: CAS 27027 (1), 27028 (1, dry); SIO 15-211 (1) (ex UCLA W63-160), 63-251-53(A) (2); CAS-SU 62096 (2); USNM 197614 (1). •Valid as Sebastes phillipsi (Fitch 1964) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:146 [ref. 9277], Orr et al. 2000:15 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:60 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:233 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:78 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:146 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:61 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes phillipsi (Fitch 1964). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: California (U.AS.A.) endemic. Habitat: marine.

phorcus, Scorpaena Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:117 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Apparently an incorrect subsequent spelling of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Misspelling. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

picta, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:321 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6707. Types: ?RMNH 5859 (3), ?SMF 309 [ex RMNH in 1829] (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:16-17 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Scorpaena picta Cuvier 1829 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:574 [ref. 27969] with authors as Cuvier & Valenciennes, Larson & Williams 1997:353 [ref. 23967], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847]). •Valid as Parascorpaena picta (Cuvier 1829) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:50 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:78 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:503 [ref. 25919], Poss 1999:2327 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Allen et al. 2006:883 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2009:51 [ref. 30319], Allen & Erdmann 2012:226 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34135], Kwik & Lim 2020:12 [ref. 38869], Psomadakis et al. 2020:359 [ref. 37272], Chou & Liao 2022:11 [ref. 39195]). Current status: Valid as Parascorpaena picta (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Sri Lanka and Myanmar east to Philippines and Fiji, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

pinniger, Sebastosomus Gill [T. N.] 1864:147 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 16 (no. 3); ref. 1696] California, U.S.A. No types known. Based on Sebastodes rosaceus of Ayres (not Girard). •Valid as Sebastes pinniger (Gill 1864) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:146 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:324 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:189 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:18 [ref. 24942], Musick et al. 2000:15 [ref. 24959], Shytko 2001:60 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:234 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:371 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:79 [ref. 37547], Maslenikov et al. 2013:9 [ref. 37947], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:33 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:146 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:61 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes pinniger (Gill 1864). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Gulf of Alaska (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of northern Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

plebeia, Scorpaena Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1842:214 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 57); ref. 21246] Tolaga, New Zealand [not Australia]. No type known. Based on a Solander manuscript. •Questionably a synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842 -- (Paulin 1982:439 [ref. 23678]). •Incertae sedis -- (Allen et al. 2006:892 [ref. 29066]). •Synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842 -- (Motomura et al. 2011:318 [ref. 31618], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[10] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

plumieri, Scorpaena Bloch [M. E.] 1789:234, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 10; ref. 17256] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. •Valid as Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 [sometimes as subspecies plumieri] -- (Eschmeyer 1965:121 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:59 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:438 [ref. 14275] as plumierii, Swift 1986:176 [ref. 20823], Robins & Ray 1986:275 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:634 [ref. 9166], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Cervigón 1991:287 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:98 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:585 [ref. 16204], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:292 [ref. 24023], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:271 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:238 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:198 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1261 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:46 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], García-Hernández et al. 2009:92 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34324], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Brown et al. 2019:180 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:232 [ref. 37250], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214], Robertson et al. 2020:161 [ref. 38098], Caires et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:609 [ref. 38945], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:82 [ref. 38844]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands. Habitat: marine.

pluralis, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Eschmeyer [W. N.] 2002:50, Fig. 12 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 34 (for Dec. 2001); ref. 25801] Laysan, northwestern Hawaiian Islands, depth 110 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 22431. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis pluralis Randall & Eschmeyer 2002 -- (Mundy 2005:331 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:178 [ref. 30952], Motomura & Causse 2011:50 [ref. 31125]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis pluralis Randall & Eschmeyer 2002. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.) endemic. Habitat: marine.

pollux, Pontinus Poey [F.] 1860:174 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Pontinus castor Poey 1860 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:30 [ref. 1274], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1245 [ref. 27048]). Current status: Synonym of Pontinus castor Poey 1860. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

polylepis, Scorpaena Bleeker [P.] 1851:173 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 16895] Western Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 5855 (32 mm). Paralectotypes: RMNH 35642 (ex 5855) (1), SMNS 10633 (1). Syntypes: AMS B. 8267 (1), RMNH 5855 (10, some syntypes), SMNS 10633 (4). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:19 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:58 [ref. 29864]. Lectotype selected by Motomura et al. 2016:347 [ref. 34411]. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Allen et al. 2006:887 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

polyprion, Scorpaena Bleeker [P.] 1849:7 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [5]; ref. 16881] Boleling, northern Bali, and Tappanoli, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: ?NMW 21518-20 (3), RMNH 5849 (1 or more of 4). •In Parascorpaena -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[4] [ref. 38565]). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

polyspinis, Sebastodes Taranetz [A. Ya.] & Moiseev [P. A.] in Taranetz 1933:69 [Bulletin of the Far Eastern Branch of the Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R. 1933 (nos 1-2-3); ref. 15743] Near the Pribilof Islands, east coast of Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Holotype: ZIN 25013. Paratypes: (4) not at ZIN. •Valid as Sebastes polyspinis (Taranetz & Moiseev 1933) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:146 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:278 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:189 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:22 [ref. 24942], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:26 [ref. 25650], Shytko 2001:62 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:237 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:363 [ref. 25968], Clausen & Heifetz 2002:1 [ref. 27819], Parin et al. 2002:S63 [ref. 28300], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:79 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:220 [ref. 33547], Kells et al. 2016:146 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes polyspinis (Taranetz & Moiseev 1933). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: North Pacific: Kuril Islands north to Bering Sea, then south to northern British Columbia (Canada). Habitat: marine.

porcus, Scorpaena Linnaeus [C.] 1758:266 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea; Atlantic. Possible syntypes: NRM 22 (21), 23 (1), 123 (1). Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:232-233 [ref. 20707] who regard only LP 23a as porcus of current authors. •Valid as Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Herrera 1896:63 [ref. 39336], Eschmeyer 1969:83 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:579 [ref. 7218], Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1220 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Santos et al. 1997:77 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:116 [ref. 24952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:757 [ref. 24702], Reshetnikov 1998:149 [ref. 23570], Caputo & Sorice 1999:81 [ref. 25260], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:70 [ref. 26753], Parin et al. 2002:S64 [ref. 28300], Golani 2005:33 [ref. 37112], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:184 [ref. 28369], Fricke et al. 2007:77 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:79 [ref. 30517], Fricke 2008:24 [ref. 30182], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:38 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:225 [ref. 33547], Poss 2016:2281 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[4] [ref. 36159], Martins & Carneiro 2018:108 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:232 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:107 [ref. 37515], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519], Abliazov et al. 2021:9 [ref. 38576], Bañón & Maño 2021:68 [ref. 38883], Golani 2021:36 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:76 [ref. 39014], Yedier & Bostanci 2021:200 [ref. 38796]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Morocco, including Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

poseidon, Parascorpaena Chou [T.-K.] & Liao [T.-Y.] 2022:2, Figs. 1-4A [Zoological Studies v. 61: 9; ref. 39195] Sizihwan, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 22°37'26"N, 120°15'44"E. Holotype: NMMB P035691. Paratypes: ASIZP, DOS, NMMB. •Valid as Parascorpaena poseidon Chou & Liao 2022. Current status: Valid as Parascorpaena poseidon Chou & Liao 2022. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: southwestern Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

possi, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Eschmeyer [W. N.] 2002:54, Pl. VII (figs. B-D), XII (A-C) [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 34 (for Dec. 2001); ref. 25801] Pitcairn Island, 25°4'S, 130°6'E, southern side off McCoy, South Pacific, depth 23-26 meters. Holotype: BPBM 16770. Paratypes: ANSP 177970 (1); ASIZT 60749 (2); BPBM 10336 (1), 15450 (1), 12309 (2), 29332 (1); CAS 54120 (1), 54196 (3), 54199 (1), 54220 (1), 54224 (1), 54228 (1); FMNH 109196 (1); LACM 55927-1 (1); MNHN 2001-1052 (1); NSMT-P 61030 (1); ROM 72492 (7); USNM 364997 (1). Additional paratypes at AMS, BMNH 2001.5.2.37-39 (3), BPBM, CAS, ROM, SAIAB [formerly RUSI], SMF, USNM, and WAM. Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:17 [ref. 30117], Ho & Shao 2011:41 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis possi Randall & Eschmeyer 2002 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495] dated 2001, Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:41 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Randall & Greenfield 2004:385 [ref. 27899], Motomura et al. 2004:102 [ref. 28581], Randall 2005:123 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Ho & Shao 2011:41 [ref. 31432], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:235 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Larson et al. 2013:83 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:53 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:135 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:55 [ref. 36273], Kwik & Lim 2020:14 [ref. 38869], Psomadakis et al. 2020:362 [ref. 37272], Tsuno et al. 2022:85 [ref. 39111]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis possi Randall & Eschmeyer 2002. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Comoros and Madagascar east to Caroline and Marquesas Islands, north to Kochi Prefecture (Japan), south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

pristigenys, Hoplosebastes Fowler [H. W.] 1938:52, Fig. 19 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Vicinity of Hong Kong, China Sea, 21°54'N, 114°46'E, Albatross station D.5305, depth 37 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98898. Matsubara 1943:269 questionably places as a synonym of Hoplosebastes armatus Schmidt 1929. •Mention -- (Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507]). Current status: Uncertain as Hoplosebastes armatus Schmidt 1929. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

procurva, Neomerinthe Chen [L.-C.] 1981:54, Figs. 22, 49 [Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum (Taipei) v. 34 (nos 1/2); ref. 8619] Off Ta-chi [Daxi], northeastern Taiwan. Holotype: CAS 47306. Paratypes: CAS 42141 (19); SDSU 77-7 (1); SIO 80-212 (5), 80-223 (2). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:40 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Neomerinthe procurva Chen 1981 -- (Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728], Poss 1999:2323 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:571 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:571 [ref. 26001], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Allen et al. 2006:882 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308], Ho & Shao 2011:40 [ref. 31432], Yoshida et al. 2013:78 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe procurva Chen 1981. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), south to northern Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

prognathus, Sebastodes Tortonese [E.] 1942:245 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia e di Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino (Ser. 4) v. 49 (no. 129) (for 1941-1942); ref. 13187] Valparaíso, Chile. •Synonym of Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kong U. 1985:48 [ref. 11639], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:82 [ref. 22530]). •Synonym of Sebastes oculatus Valenciennes 1833. Current status: Synonym of Sebastes oculatus Valenciennes 1833. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

proriger, Sebastichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:327 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 161); ref. 18353] Monterey Bay and the Farallone Islands, California, U.S.A. (obtained in San Francisco market). Syntypes: (8 plus 6) MNHN A-3233 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 26980 (3), 27105 (4). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:24 [ref. 20738]. •Valid as Sebastes proriger (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:147 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:326 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:189 [ref. 14674], Eitner et al. 1999:91 [ref. 23702], Orr et al. 2000:8 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:63 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:239 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:373 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:79 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:34 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:146 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:61 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes proriger (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: southeastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

purpureus, Sebastichthys chrysomelas Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1889:130 [8] [West American Scientist v. 6 (no. 48); ref. 1251] Cortez Banks, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: (2). On p. 8 of separate. •Synonym of Sebastes chrysomelas (Jordan & Gilbert 1881) -- (Love et al. 2002:142 [ref. 26216]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes chrysomelas (Jordan & Gilbert 1881). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

pusilla, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Eschmeyer [W. N.] 2002:60, Pl. VIII (fig. A). [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 34 (for Dec. 2001); ref. 25801] Sentinelle de l'Est, northwestern side, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands, depth 17 meters. Holotype: BPBM 11130. Paratypes: CAS 214037 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis pusilla Randall & Eschmeyer 2002 -- (Randall 2005:124 [ref. 28239], Motomura & Causse 2011:50 [ref. 31125], Motomura et al. 2011:68 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis pusilla Randall & Eschmeyer 2002. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: South Pacific: Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) endemic. Habitat: marine.

quadrispinosus, Scorpaenodes Greenfield [D. W.] & Matsuura [K.] 2002:973, Figs. 1-2A [Copeia 2002 (no. 4); ref. 26507] Barrier reef off Suva, Viti Levu, Fiji, depth 4.6-6.4 meters. Holotype: CAS 214498. Paratypes: BPBM 38826-27 (1, 1); FMNH 110236 (1); USNM 367135 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenodes quadrispinosus Greenfield & Matsuura 2002 -- (Randall 2005:121 [ref. 28239], Motomura et al. 2010:18 [ref. 30748], Motomura et al. 2010:91 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:231 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes quadrispinosus Greenfield & Matsuura 2002. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean (Christmas Island and Australia) and Western North Pacific: Papua New Guinea north to Ryukyu Islands, east to Micronesia, Marshall Islands and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

quiescens, Scorpaenopsis Seale [A.] 1906:80, Fig. 2 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): BPBM 1352. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

radiata, Pterois Cuvier [G.] (ex Parkinson) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:369 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific. Neotype: FMNH 23176. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:60 [ref. 20738]. Based on drawing by Parkinson (Sydney Parkinson, ca. 1745-1771, British natural history artist on Cook's first voyage) in Banks Library. •Valid as Pteropterus radiatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636]). •Valid as Pterois radiata Cuvier 1829 -- (Dor 1984:86 [ref. 29757], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:467 [ref. 5652], Goren & Dor 1994:21 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:109 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:101 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2331 [ref. 24796], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:569 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:165 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:569 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:116 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:879 [ref. 29002], Allen & Erdmann 2008:128 [ref. 29479], Motomura 2009:66 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:89 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:221 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33932], Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:344 [ref. 33609], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[10] [ref. 33935], Koeda et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:133 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273], Suresh et al. 2018:173 [ref. 36495], Eagderi et al. 2019:128 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:69 [ref. 36871], Kwik & Lim 2020:15 [ref. 38869]). Current status: Valid as Pterois radiata Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Comoros and Madagascar east to Marshall, Line and Marquesas islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

ramaraoi, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Eschmeyer [W. N.] 2002:64, Pls. VIII (Figs B-), XII (fig. D) [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 34 (for Dec. 2001); ref. 25801] Off Hikkaduwa, 1/2 mile offshore, Sri Lanka, depth 10-12 meters. Holotype: BPBM 27202. Paratypes: AMS I.40819-001 (1); ANSP 177971 (3); ASIZP 60750 (1); BMNH 2001.5.2.35 (1); BPBM 18629 (2), 22107 (1), 26694 (1), 27201 (1); CAS 31474 (3), 54153 (1), 54157 (4), 54168 (16), 54189 (3), 54193 (3), 54195 (16); FMNH 23205 (1); MNHN 2001-1051 (1); NSMT-P 61029 (6); ROM 72491 (10); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 63482 (3); CAS-SU 27871 (1); USNM 364995 (7), ?WAM P.31778-001 (5). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:17 [ref. 30117], Ho & Shao 2011:41 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis ramaraoi Randall & Eschmeyer 2002 -- (Motomura 2002:237 [ref. 26559], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:41 [ref. 27510], Motomura et al. 2004:103 [ref. 28581], Randall 2005:124 [ref. 28239], Motomura 2009:68 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:92 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Ho & Shao 2011:41 [ref. 31432], Motomura et al. 2011:69 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:236 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Psomadakis et al. 2015:185 [ref. 34104], Naranji & Velamala 2016:87 [ref. 35147], Motomura et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35490], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:77 [ref. 36460], Kwik & Lim 2020:15 [ref. 38869], Psomadakis et al. 2020:362 [ref. 37272], Tsuno et al. 2022:85 [ref. 39111]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis ramaraoi Randall & Eschmeyer 2002. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan, Sri Lanka and India east to Philippines, Palau and Papua New Guinea, north to Kochi Prefecture (Japan), south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

rarotongae, Iracundus signifer Whitley [G. P.] 1965:114 [Australian Zoologist v. 13 (pt 2); ref. 9267] Cook Islands. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.5226. •Synonym of Iracundus signifer Jordan & Evermann 1903 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:287 [ref. 6389]). Current status: Synonym of Iracundus signifer Jordan & Evermann 1903. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

rascacio, Scorpaena Poey [F.] 1860:169 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 13889 (1), 13947-49 (1, 2, 1), 13957 (1); USNM 153578 [ex MCZ 13950] (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:206 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

rascasio, Scorpoena Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:7 [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. No types known. Based on the 'Rascacio' of Parra 1787:34, Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [ref. 6840] which Castelnau treated as valid; apparently Castelnau's treatment can stand as an available name with authorship as Castelnau 1855. Later described by Poey 1860 as Scorpaena rascacio. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

rascassa, Scorpaena Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:275 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Mediterranean Sea and other seas. Unnecessary replacement name for Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blanc & Hureau 1973:579 [ref. 7218], Poss 2016:2281 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rastrelliger, Sebastichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:296 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 150); ref. 10598] Point Conception to Santa Catalina Island, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 12130 (1); MNHN A-3207 [ex USNM] (1); MSNG 8330 (1 not found in 1995); USNM 26908 (4), 27033 (1, not found in 1985), 27102 (2); RMNH 11910 [ex USNM] (1); ZMB 11509 [ex USNM 26908] (1); ZMUB 1067 [ ex USNM 26908] (1); ZMUC [ex USNM 26908] (?). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:346 [ref. 10350], Blanc & Hureau 1968:24 [ref. 20738], Frøiland 1979:149 [ref. 21547], Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621], Paepke & Fricke 1992:274 [ref. 19946]. •Valid as Sebastes rastrelliger (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:147 [ref. 9277], Moreno 1993:8 [ref. 25511], Shytko 2001:64 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:240 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:115 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:79 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:148 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:61 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes rastrelliger (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Washington (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

rathbuni, Pontinus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:255, Pl. 68 (fig. 245) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] Off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, U.S.A., 35°39'N, 74°52'W, Albatross station 2298, depth 80 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 39325. •Valid as Pontinus rathbuni Goode & Bean 1896 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:32 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:432 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:273 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:97 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:421 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:584 [ref. 16204], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:63 [ref. 26475], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1249 [ref. 27048], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:36 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:131 [ref. 37485], Pinheiro et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34324], Klautau et al. 2020:9 [ref. 37903], Moral-Flores et al. 2021:264 [ref. 39286]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus rathbuni Goode & Bean 1896. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Virginia (U.S.A.) south to Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, postlarvae straying north to Newfoundland (Canada). Habitat: marine.

rawakensis, Scorpaena Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:325 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Waigeo [Waigiou], Indonesia; Rawak Island, Bismarck Archipelago. lost. Reversal of precedence selecting Scorpaenodes parvipinnis (Garrett 1864) over Scorpaena rawakensis Quoy & Gaimard 1824 by reversal of precedence [ref. 35035]. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes parvipinnis (Garrett 1864) -- (Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes parvipinnis (Garrett 1864). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

rebel, Pterois Montrouzier [X.] 1857:432 [154] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] On p. 154 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy; Woodlark I., South Pacific. Nomen Nudum. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae.

reedi, Sebastodes Westrheim [S. J.] & Tsuyuki [H.] 1967:1946, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada v. 24 (no. 9); ref. 19158] 10 miles west of Cape Palmerston off northwestern Vancouver Island, 50°37.1'N, 128°34'W, British Columbia, Canada, depth 94 fathoms. Holotype: UBC 66-140. Paratypes: (several) 66-139 (5), 66-141 to 142 (2, 1); ? BMNH 1968.2.9.1-4 (4), 1968.2.9.5-8 (4), 1968.2.9.9 (1), 1968.2.9.10-11 (2), 1968.2.9.12 (1). Additional material: NMC 66-269 (4), 273 (1), 283 (3), 288 (4); UBC 65-794 (24), 75-790 (10). •Valid as Sebastes reedi (Westrheim & Tsuyuki 1967) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:147 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:328 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:189 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:9 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:64 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:242 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:374 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:79 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:349 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes reedi (Westrheim & Tsuyuki 1967). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: southeastern Gulf of Alaska (U.S.A.) south to northern California (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

regina, Scorpaena Wibowo [K.], Johnson [J. W.] & Motomura [H.] 2019:297, Figs. 1, 3 [Zootaxa 4706 (no. 2); ref. 37166] Tangalooma Wrecks, Moreton Bay, Queensland, 27°10'S, 153°22'E, depth 3 - 9 meters. Holotype: QM I. 37447. Paratypes: AMS, CSIRO, KAUM, QM. •Valid as Scorpaena regina Wibowo, Johnson & Motomura 2019 -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[22] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena regina Wibowo, Johnson & Motomura 2019. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: East coast of Queensland (from Palm to Stradbroke Islands), eastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

regulus, Sebastes Ekström [C. U.] in Fries, Ekström & Sundevall 1837:no p., Pl. 49 [Skandinaviens fiskar; ref. 18073] Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

remigera, Scorpaena Gilbert [C. H.] & Cramer [F.] 1897:418, Pl. 40 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 19 (no. 1114); ref. 1635] Off Hawaiian Islands, 21°09'N, 157°53'W, Albatross station 3476, depth 298 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 47726. Paratypes: CAS-SU 4917 (1), USNM 75828 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291], Wada et al. 2020:[3] [ref. 37692]. •Synonym of Setarches guentheri Johnson 1862 -- (Eschmeyer & Collette 1966:359 [ref. 6485], Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:289 [ref. 6389], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:678 [ref. 17613], Mundy 2005:333 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:178 [ref. 30952], Wada et al. 2020:[3] [ref. 37692]). Current status: Synonym of Setarches guentheri Johnson 1862. Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Habitat: marine.

rhodochloris, Sebastichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:144 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 132); ref. 18351] Monterey Bay, California, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 26967. Paralectotypes: (many) MNHN A-3352 [ex USNM] (1); ?RMNH 11709 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 27106 (1), 164523 (1), 203835 (7); ZMB 11730 [ex USNM 26967] (1); ZMUB 1058 [ex USNM 26967] (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:24 [ref. 20738], Frøiland 1979:149 [ref. 21547], Paepke & Fricke 1992:274 [ref. 19946]. Lectotype selected by Chen 1971:16 [ref. 7668]. •Synonym of Sebastes helvomaculatus Ayres 1859 -- (Chen 1971:14 [ref. 7668], Love et al. 2002:187 [ref. 26216]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes helvomaculatus Ayres 1859. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

rhodochrous, Sebastes Günther [A.] 1872:659 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871 (pt 3) (art. 1) (for 21 Nov. 1871); ref. 1997] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1871.7.20.52 (1). •Valid as Pontinus rhodochrous (Günther 1872) -- (Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Randall et al. 2005:119 [ref. 28745], Randall 2007:173 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Fricke 2015:4 [ref. 33807]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus rhodochrous (Günther 1872). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

rosaceus, Sebastes Girard [C. F.] 1854:146 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] San Diego, California, U.S.A. See Mecklenburg et al. 2002:339 [ref. 25968] •Valid as Sebastes rosaceus Girard 1854 -- (Chen 1971:11 [ref. 7668], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:148 [ref. 9277], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:323 [ref. 24939], Orr et al. 2000:38 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:65 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:243 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Anderson et al. 2005:28 [ref. 28396], Love et al. 2005:79 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:34 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:148 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:62 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes rosaceus Girard 1854. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: northern Washington (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

rosea, Scorpaena Day [F.] 1868:703 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 3); ref. 14045] Madras, India. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1868.5.14.3. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis rosea (Day 1868) -- (Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1995:112 [ref. 22896], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:68 [ref. 25801]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

rosenblatti, Sebastes Chen [L.-C.] 1971:31, Pl. 4 (fig. B) [Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of California v. 18; ref. 7668] La Jolla Submarine Canyon, off La Jolla, California, U.S.A., depth 110 meters. Holotype: SIO 69-223. Paratypes: BMNH 1980.9.5.39 (1), SIO (orig. 37 lots, 96). •Valid as Sebastes rosenblatti Chen 1971 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:148 [ref. 9277], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:323 [ref. 24939], Orr et al. 2000:39 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:65 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:246 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:79 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:148 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:62 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes rosenblatti Chen 1971. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: northern California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

rotunda, Neomerinthe Chen [L.-C.] 1981:53, Figs. 22, 47 [Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum (Taipei) v. 34 (nos 1/2); ref. 8619] Off Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Holotype: CAS 42139. Paratypes: CAS 42140 (1), 42155 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:40 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Neomerinthe rotunda Chen 1981 -- (Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728], Poss 1999:2323 [ref. 24796], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Motomura et al. 2011:60, 61 [ref. 31308] as possible a synonym of N. erostris, Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Ho & Shao 2011:40 [ref. 31432], Yoshida et al. 2013:78 [ref. 34464]). •Synonym of Neomerinthe erostris (Alcock 1896) -- (Motomura et al. 2015:530 [ref. 33980]). Current status: Synonym of Neomerinthe erostris (Alcock 1896). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: western Pacific (Taiwan, Chesterfield Islands, New Caledonia, Vanuatu) to French Polynesia and to western Indian Ocean (Madagascar, Réunion) (if valid). Habitat: marine.

rubellio, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Gunn [J. A., Jr.] 1898:344 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 50; ref. 10630] Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 4291. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scorpaena maderensis Valenciennes 1833 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:76 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:672 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2276 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena maderensis Valenciennes 1833. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ruber, Holocentrus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1814:18 [Précis des découvertes et travaux somiologiques de Mr. C. S. Rafinesque-Schmaltz; ref. 3582] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809) -- (Parenti 2019:112 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

ruber, Sebastes Ayres [W. O.] 1854:182 [The Pacific [newspaper] v. 3 and 4 (thru no. 6); ref. 157] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: BMNH 1863.10.9.23-26 (4). Appeared first as above on 22 Sept.; then in Ayres 1854:7 [ref. 18923] and Ayres 1855:97 [ref. 31481]. •An older name for Sebastes ruberrimus (Cramer 1895) -- (Love et al. 2002:250 [ref. 26216]). •Although ruber has occasionally been recognized as valid, we favor continued usage of ruberrimus based on prevailing usage. Current status: Synonym of Sebastes ruberrimus (Cramer 1895). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

ruber, Sebastodes Pavlenko [M. N.] 1910:19, Fig. 1 [Trudy Obshchestva Estestvoispytatelej Imperatorskom' Kazanskom' Universiteti, Kazan v. 42 (no. 2); ref. 3393] Cape Povorotnyi, Peter the Great Bay, Russia, Sea of Japan. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Sebastes by Sebastes ruber Ayres 1854. •Synonym of Sebastes owstoni (Jordan & Thompson 1914) -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:41 [ref. 15964], Parin et al. 2014:219 [ref. 33547]). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Sebastes owstoni (Jordan & Thompson 1914). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

ruberrimus, Sebastolobus Cramer [F.] 1895:597, Pls. 62, 63, 69 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 14579] Based on Sebastodes ruber Jordan & Gilbert (not Ayres) 1883 [ref. 2476]. •Valid as Sebastes ruberrimus (Cramer 1895) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:148 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:279 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:189 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24942], Musick et al. 2000:15 [ref. 24959], Shytko 2001:66 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:248 [ref. 26216] with remarks, Mecklenburg et al. 2002:380 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:79 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:34 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:148 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:62 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes ruberrimus (Cramer 1895). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Aleutian Islands (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of northern Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

rubrimarginatus, Scorpaenopsis Fricke [R.], Durville [P.] & Mulochau [T.] 2013:208, Figs. 1-4 [Cybium v. 37 (no. 3); ref. 32769] Off Saint-Gilles, La Réunion, 21°03’23’’S, 55°13’04’’E, depth 80 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 2012-0401. The gender of rubrimarginata in feminine. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis rubrimarginata Fricke, Durville & Mulochau 2013. Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis rubrimarginata Fricke, Durville & Mulochau 2013. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Réunion. Habitat: marine.

rubrivinctus, Scorpaenodes Poss [S. G.], McCosker [J. E.] & Baldwin [C. C.] 2010:237, Figs. 1-3, 4A, 11-12 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 61 (no. 2); ref. 30744] San Cristobal I., seamount south-east of San Cristobal I., 01°06'24"S, 89°07'02"W, depth 203 m. Holotype: CAS 90384. Paratypes: CAS 86511 (2), 86524 (1), 86532 (1), 201883 (1); USNM 396088 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenodes rubrivinctus Poss, McCosker & Baldwin 2010 -- (Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes rubrivinctus Poss, McCosker & Baldwin 2010. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos and Cocos islands. Habitat: marine.

rubrivinctus, Sebastichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:291 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 150); ref. 10598] Reef in Santa Barbara Channel and at Monterey, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 26919 (1), 26989 (5). •Valid as Sebastes rubrivinctus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Rosenblatt & Chen 1972:32 [ref. 11481], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:149 [ref. 9277], Orr et al. 2000:35 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:67 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:251 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:351 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:79 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:148 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:62 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes rubrivinctus (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Oregon (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

rubropunctata, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:324 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMB 766. Paralectotypes: ZMB 765 (5, poor condition, 1 lost), 766 (1). Plus additional non-type material: ZMB 772 (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:271 [ref. 19946]. Originally as rubro-punctata. Lectotype selected by Motomura et al. 2016:347 [ref. 34411]. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Motomura et al. 2016:346 [ref. 34411], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

rufescens, Helicolenus Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:631, Fig. 246 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Vicinity of Kauai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 4133, depth 41-165 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51628. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8619 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:120 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Neomerinthe rufescens (Gilbert 1905) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:313 [ref. 6389], Poss & Duhamel 1991:101 [ref. 15728], Zajonz & Klausewitz 2002:1485 [ref. 26817], Mundy 2005:326 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:172 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2011:60, 61 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2015:537 [ref. 33980]). Current status: Valid as Neomerinthe rufescens (Gilbert 1905). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Atoll. Habitat: marine.

rufinanus, Sebastes Lea [R. N.] & Fitch [J. E.] 1972:423, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1972 (no. 3); ref. 7625] 1.6 miles southeast of Pyramid Head, San Clemente Island, California, U.S.A, 32°47.8'N, 118°20'W, dead at surface. Holotype: LACM 31906-1. Paratypes: CAS 27154 (1). •Valid as Sebastes rufinanus Lea & Fitch 1972 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:149 [ref. 9277], Eitner et al. 1999:91 [ref. 23702], Orr et al. 2000:11 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:68 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:254 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:79 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:150 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes rufinanus Lea & Fitch 1972. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) endemic. Habitat: marine.

rufus, Sebastodes Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1890:13 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 3; ref. 1256] Point Loma, near San Diego, California, U.S.A., depth 100 fathoms. Syntypes: (2) ?BMNH 1891.5.19.33 (1) from Eigenmann, USNM 41900 (1). •Valid as Sebastes rufus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:149 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:330 [ref. 26885], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:324 [ref. 24939], Eitner et al. 1999:91 [ref. 23702], Orr et al. 2000:22 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:68 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:255 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:80 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:150 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:62 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes rufus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern British Columbia (Canada) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico), including Guadalupe Island (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

rupestris, Sebastichthys Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:76 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Off Santa Barbara Island, U.S.A., 33°58'N, 119°30'45"W, Albatross station 2946, depth 150 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 48241. Paralectotypes: (5) USNM 48242 (1), 125022 [ex USBF 439] (orig. 3, now 2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:122 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established by Jordan & Evermann 1898:1813 [ref. 2444]. •Synonym of Sebastes melanostomus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890) -- (Love et al. 2002:209 [ref. 26216]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes melanostomus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

russelii, Pterois Bennett [E. T.] (ex Russell) 1831:128 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 16790] India [Coromandel coast, India, eastern Indian Ocean]. No types preserved. Based on the 'Kodipungi' in "Russel [P. Russell], Coromandel Fishes, no. 133." Named for Russell (mispelled as Russel), here not considered as an inadvertent error, therefore spelling russelii retained. •Valid as Pterois russelli Bennett 1831 -- (Eschmeyer 1986:467 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:48 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:446 [ref. 12442], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:219 [ref. 24016], Goren & Dor 1994:21 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:110 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:573 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:76 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:90 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:503 [ref. 25919], Mishra et al. 1999:85 [ref. 25315], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847]). •Valid as Pterois russellii Bennett 1831 -- (Dor 1984:86 [ref. 29757], Carpenter et al. 1997:136 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:167 [ref. 26476], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:241 [ref. 24754], Poss 1999:2331 [ref. 24796], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Allen & Erdmann 2012:222 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32988], Ali et al. 2018:316 [ref. 36183], Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2018:76 [ref. 36460]). •Valid as Pterois russelii Bennett 1831 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:144 [ref. 28072], Allen et al. 2006:880 [ref. 29002], Allen & Erdmann 2008:128 [ref. 29479], Yoshida et al. 2013:79 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:184 [ref. 34104], Matsunuma et al. 2017:334 [ref. 35034], Motomura et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35490], Wilcox et al. 2017:1 [ref. 35525], Fricke et al. 2018:133 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:128 [ref. 37020], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 28 [ref. 38321], Kwik & Lim 2020:16 [ref. 38869], Psomadakis et al. 2020:360 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Pterois russelii Bennett 1831. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Philippines, north to Vietnam and southern China, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

russelli, Scorpaenodes Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1928:189, Fig. [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 15836] Bizoton Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti, West Indies, depth 12 feet. Holotype (unique): USNM 170573 [ex NYZS 7207]. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes caribbaeus Meek & Hildebrand 1928 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:88 [ref. 1274]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes caribbaeus Meek & Hildebrand 1928. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

russula, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:165 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Off Pacific coast of Colombia, depth 33 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1900.9.29.189 (1) from Jordan; NMW 8864 (1); CAS-SU 384 (4); USNM 41138 (1), 41140 (1), 41146 (1), 41154 (1) 41160 (1), 41191 (1), 41208-09 (1, 1), 41366 (1), 41379 (1), 41487-88 (1, 1), 205651 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena russula Jordan & Bollman 1890 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:100 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:82 [ref. 23101], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1557 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:268 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:238 [ref. 24550], Thomson et al. 2000:70 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:821 [ref. 28049], Love et al. 2005:73 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:402 [ref. 34894], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena russula Jordan & Bollman 1890. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico) south to northern Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

sanguineus, Holocentrus Faber [F.] 1829:126 [Naturgeschichte der Fische Islands; ref. 13329] Iceland. See Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:xij, xxj, 327 [ref. 998] who refer to this species. This is North Atlantic species of Sebastes; there are no types. We suggest suppression of this name. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

sasakii, Sebastodes Tanaka [S.] 1916:258 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 28 (no. 333); ref. 15078] Off Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, depth 120 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZUMT (lost). •Synonym of Sebastes itinus (Jordan & Starks 1904). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes itinus (Jordan & Starks 1904). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

sausaulele, Dendrochirus Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:378, Pl. 52 (fig. 1) [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51760 (1 of 2). Paratypes: CAS-SU 8673 (2), USNM 51760 (1 of 2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:120 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Dendrochirus zebra (Cuvier 1829) -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:5 [ref. 32776], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[41] [ref. 35277], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[16] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Synonym of Dendrochirus zebra (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

saxicola, Sebastichthys Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:78 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Santa Barbara Islands, southern California, several Albatross stations, depth 44-155 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 27857 (1); CAS-SU 310 (5), ?3632 (2), ?3493 (8), ?3599 (3), ?3631 (3); USNM 46447 (4), 46506 (2), 47081-83 (1, 1, 1), 47086-87 (1, 1), 47089 (1), 47099-100 (1, 1), 47174 (1); BMNH 1896.2.10.10 (1, ex USNM 46448). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:122 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Sebastes saxicola (Gilbert 1890) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:150 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:332 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:189 [ref. 14674], Eitner et al. 1999:91 [ref. 23702], Orr et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:68 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:258 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:378 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:80 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:34 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:150 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:62 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes saxicola (Gilbert 1890). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: eastern Gulf of Alaska (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

saya, Ebosia Matsunuma [M.] & Motomura [H.] 2014:294, Figs. 1-2, 3a-c, 4a, 10a-c [Ichthyological Research v. 62 (no. 3); ref. 33570] Saya de Malha Bank, western Indian Ocean, 10°30'S, 61°10'E, depth 110-115 meters. Holotype: USNM 307910. Paratypes: HUMZ, KAUM-I, LACM, USNM. •Valid as Ebosia saya Matsunuma & Motomura 2014 -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[9] [ref. 33899]). Current status: Valid as Ebosia saya Matsunuma & Motomura 2014. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Saya de Malha Bank. Habitat: marine.

scaber, Sebastes Ramsay [E. P.] & Ogilby [J. D.] 1886:577 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 10 (pt 4); ref. 18597] Shark Reef, Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: AMS B.8450-51 (2). New South Wales is apparently in error for a warmer water location. •Valid as Scorpaenodes scaber (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886) -- (Dor 1984:83 [ref. 29757], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441] as scabra, Allen & Swainston 1988:50 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:450 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:21 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:82 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:119 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356] dated 1866, Allen 1997:78 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:88 [ref. 25488], Poss 1999:2339 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:583 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:583 [ref. 26001], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:40 [ref. 27510], Randall 2005:120 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:888 [ref. 29066], Shao et al. 2008:246 [ref. 29952], Motomura et al. 2010:90 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2016:358 [ref. 34411] as a valid species in southeastern Australia, Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 29 [ref. 38321]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes scaber (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Marshall and Society Islands, north to Taiwan and Japan, south to New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia and Rapa, and Society Islands. Species limited to southern Australia (Motomura et al. 2016:358 [ref. 34411] but needs investigation). Habitat: brackish, marine.

scarpaena, Scorpaena Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 121 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Nomen Nudum. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

schlegelii, Sebastes Hilgendorf [F. M.] 1880:171 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1880; ref. 18287] Tokyo and Hakodate, Japan. Syntypes: ?RMNH 652 (3); ZMB 7571 (1, missing), 10612-14 (2, 1, 3). Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:272-273 [ref. 19946]. •Valid as Sebastes schlegeli Hilgendorf 1880 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984: [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:62 [ref. 15964], Kim & Lee 1993:461 [ref. 39487], Cheng & Zhou 1997:407 [ref. 26385], Kim 1997:398 [ref. 24032], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:9 [ref. 24670], Mizuno et al. 1999:7 [ref. 25311], Shytko 2001:69 [ref. 26410], Choi et al. 2003:242, 562 [ref. 26218], Jang et al. 2003:120 [ref. 27681]). •Valid as Sebastes schlegelii Hilgendorf 1880 -- (Nakabo 2000:592 [ref. 25086], Shimizu 2001:25 [ref. 25799], Kim & Park 2002:320 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:592 [ref. 26001], Parin et al. 2002:S63 [ref. 28300], Parin et al. 2014:220 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:59 [ref. 35138], Kim et al. 2020:91 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:42 [ref. 37637], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:858 [ref. 38925], Dyldin et al. 2021:57 [ref. 38804], Gus'kov et al. 2022:72 [ref. 39564]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes schlegelii Hilgendorf 1880. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: East China Sea (China) to Japan, Korea, and Russian coast of Sea of Japan. Introduced in northern Black Sea. Habitat: marine.

scorpius, Cottus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xviii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Not available, name only; from Malta; perhaps intended for Cottus scorpius Linnaeus 1758. See discussion in Fricke 2008:24 [ref. 30182]. Nomen Nudum. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

scrofa, Scorpaena Linnaeus [C.] 1758:266 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea: Rome (Italy) and Marseille (France). No types known. Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:237 [ref. 13434], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. Based on “Scorpaena tota rubens, cirris plurimis ad os“ of Artedi 1738:47 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:76 [ref. 30349], and “Scorpaena cavite cavernoso, cirris geminis in maxilla inferiore“ of Gronow 1754:v. 1, p. 46, no. 103 [ref. 20783]; Artedi’s compilation based on various pre-Linnaean sources. Species name misspelled scropha by Cuvier 1831:122 [ref. 30376]. •Valid as Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Herrera 1896:63 [ref. 39336], Eschmeyer 1969:69 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:581 [ref. 7218], Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1221 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer 1986:471 [ref. 5652], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:675 [ref. 17613], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Santos et al. 1997:77 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:116 [ref. 24952], Caputo & Sorice 1999:81 [ref. 25260], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466] with question, Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:70 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:33 [ref. 37112], Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Fricke et al. 2007:77 [ref. 29533], Fricke 2008:25 [ref. 30182], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:39 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Poss 2016:2282 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:133 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159], Martins & Carneiro 2018:106 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:233 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Fricke & Zhukov 2019:466 [ref. 36990], Bariche & Fricke 2020:107 [ref. 37515], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214], Fricke et al. 2020:358 [ref. 37738], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519], Bañón & Maño 2021:68 [ref. 38883], Golani 2021:36 [ref. 38303], Iglésias et al. 2021:175 [ref. 38818], Kovačić et al. 2021:76 [ref. 39014], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[22] [ref. 38565], Yedier & Bostanci 2021:200 [ref. 38796]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Cape Verde Islands including Azores and Madeira; Red Sea; western Indian Ocean; Somalia south to South Africa, east to Saya de Malha Bank and Madagascar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

scrofina, Scorpaena Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:465 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): not MNHN 0000-6702. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:17 [ref. 20738]. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

scythropus, Sebastodes Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1900:363, Pl. 15 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1213); ref. 2502] Misaki, Kanagawa Prefecture, Sagami Sea, Japan. Holotype: USNM 49406. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6271 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:124 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Sebastes scythropus (Jordan & Snyder 1900) -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:311 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:587 [ref. 25086] with authorship as Jordan & Starks, Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Shytko 2001:71 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:587 [ref. 26001] with authorship as Jordan & Starks, Kai et al. 2002:371 [ref. 26730], Kai & Nakabo 2004:8 [ref. 27594]) Current status: Valid as Sebastes scythropus (Jordan & Snyder 1900). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

sechellensis, Pogonoscorpius Regan [C. T.] 1908:236, Pl. 28 (fig. 3) [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Zoology v. 12 (pt 3); ref. 3634] Seychelles, Indian Ocean, depth 37 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1908.3.23.172. •Valid as Pogonoscorpius sechellensis Regan 1908 -- (Eschmeyer et al. 1973:303 [ref. 6390], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636]). Current status: Valid as Pogonoscorpius sechellensis Regan 1908. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

semicinctus, Sebastodes Gilbert [C. H.] 1897:449, Pl. 53 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 19 (no. 1115); ref. 1629] Santa Barbara Channel, California, U.S.A., depth 55-155 fathoms. Syntypes: CAS-SU 302 (9), 325 (9); USNM 47581 (2). •Valid as Sebastes semicinctus (Gilbert 1897) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:150 [ref. 9277], Orr et al. 2000:11 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:71 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:261 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:80 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:36 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:150 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:62 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes semicinctus (Gilbert 1897). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: northern Washington (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

senegalensis, Scorpaena Steindachner [F.] 1881:159 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 18 (no. 16) (for 23 June 1881); ref. 20482] Rufisque, Senegal. Holotype (unique): NMW 35556 [=89881]. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1881:31 [p. 15 of separate], Pl. 4 [ref. 13333]. •Synonym of Scorpaena laevis Troschel 1866 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:72 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:580 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1217 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:671 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2274 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena laevis Troschel 1866. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

septentrionalis, Sebastes Gaimard [J. P.] 1851:Pl. 9 [Voyage de la commission scientifique du Nord; ref. 1523] Greenland. Original not seen; date may be incorrect. •Synonym of Sebastes marinus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blanc & Hureau 1973:583 [ref. 7218]). •Synonym of Sebastes norvegicus (Ascanius 1772) -- (Parin et al. 2014:218 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes norvegicus (Ascanius 1772). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

serranoides, Sebastodes Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1890:36 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 3; ref. 18894] Cortez Banks, off San Diego, and San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: BMNH 1890.11.15.54-55 (?) from Eigenmann, CAS pre-1906 nos. 993 (1), 402 (1), 403 (1), 404 (1), plus 3 others (apparently all lost in 1906). CAS specimens could have been lost in the fire in 1906. •Valid as Sebastes serranoides (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:161 [ref. 9277], Orr et al. 2000:29 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:72 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:263 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:80 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:150 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:62 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes serranoides (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Oregon (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

serriceps, Sebastichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:38 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 109); ref. 18877] Santa Catalina and Santa Barbara, off California, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN A-3334 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 24977 (3), 26282 (2), 26918 (2), 27041 (2), 27090 (2); ZMB 11637 [ex USNM 27401] (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:24 [ref. 20738], Paepke & Fricke 1992:274 [ref. 19946]. •Valid as Sebastes serriceps (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:151 [ref. 9277], Orr et al. 2000:36 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:72 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:266 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:80 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:152 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:62 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes serriceps (Jordan & Gilbert 1880). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: San Francisco (northern California) south to Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

serrulatus, Sebastes Richardson [J.] 1846:215 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Off Dong Kang, Picgtung, southern Taiwan (23°31'N, 120°22'E), depth 100 meters. Neotype: ASIZP 62399 (X). Neotype selected by Matsunuma et al. 2013:416 [ref. 32811]. •Valid as Brachypterois serrulata (Richardson 1846) -- (Kanayama & Amaoka 1981:181 [ref. 5584] as serrulatus, Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441] as serrulatus, Dor 1984:85 [ref. 29757], Allen & Swainston 1988:48 [ref. 25477] as serrulatus, Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:106 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:76 [ref. 23977] as serrulatus, Chen et al. 1997:168 [ref. 26476] as serrulatus, Poss 1999:2310 [ref. 24796] as serrulatus, Nakabo 2000:567 [ref. 25086], Krupp et al. 2000:325 [ref. 25117], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Shinohara et al. 2001:314 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:567 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Allen et al. 2006:877 [ref. 29002], Allen & Erdmann 2012:217 [ref. 31980], Matsunuma et al. 2013:416 [ref. 32811], Larson et al. 2013:80 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:77 [ref. 34464], Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2018:76 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Brachypterois serrulata (Richardson 1846). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Gulf of Thailand, Borneo and Vietnam to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

serrulifer, Brachypterois Fowler [H. W.] 1938:79, Fig. 35 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off San Fernando Pt. Light, western coast of Luzon Island, Philippines, 16°30'36"N, 120°11'06"E, Albatross station D.5542, depth 45 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98886. •Synonym of Brachypterois serrulata (Richardson 1846) -- (Kanayama & Amaoka 1981:181 [ref. 5584] as serrulatus, Dor 1984:85 [ref. 29757], Allen et al. 2006:877 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Brachypterois serrulifer (Fowler 1936) -- (Matsunuma et al. 2013:426 [ref. 32811], Psomadakis et al. 2015:183 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:129 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:52 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:127 [ref. 37020], Psomadakis et al. 2020:358 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Brachypterois serrulifer Fowler 1938. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Southern Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar, Oman and Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

sierra, Scorpaena (Sebastoplus) Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:82 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Gulf of California, Mexico, Albatross station 2996 and 3011, depth 71-112 fathoms. Syntypes: (4) CAS-SU 307 (1); USNM 46469 (1), 124331 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Pontinus sierra (Gilbert 1890) -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:82 [ref. 23101], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1551 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:295 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:271 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:73 [ref. 37547], Palacios-Salgado & Ramírez-Valdez 2011:96 [ref. 37124], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:402 [ref. 34894], Robertson et al. 2017:77 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus sierra (Gilbert 1890). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of Baja California Sur (Mexico) south to northern Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

signifer, Iracundus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:210 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2449] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50886 (= 51079). See also discussion under Scorpaena asperella Bennett 1828. •Valid as Iracundus signifer Jordan & Evermann 1903 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:287 [ref. 6389], Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:317 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:468 [ref. 5652], Fricke 1999:156 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2317 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:572 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Mandrytsa 2001:277 [ref. 25636], Nakabo 2002:572 [ref. 26001], Randall 2005:117 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:326 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:172 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:224 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:50 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2018:130 [ref. 35805], Durville et al. 2021:311 [ref. 38802], Motomura & Arima 2021:29 [ref. 38481]). Current status: Valid as Iracundus signifer Jordan & Evermann 1903. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa and Madagascar to western Mascarenes; Taiwan north to Izu Islands (Japan); New Caledonia, Hawaiian Islands; Cook Islands to Pitcairn Group, south to Rapa (probably more widespread). Habitat: marine.

similis, Scorpaena Gunter [G.] 1948:161, Pl. 1 [Copeia 1948 (no. 3); ref. 13055] East of mouth of Mississippi River, U.S.A., 29°04'N, 88°44.5'W, depth 60 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 124332. •Synonym of Scorpaena dispar Longley & Hildebrand 1940 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:132 [ref. 9211], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:240 [ref. 24550], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena dispar Longley & Hildebrand 1940. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

simulans, Sebastosomus Gill [T. N.] 1864:147 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 16 (no. 3); ref. 1696] Cape Flattery, northwestern Washington, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 3309 (1). Based on smaller specimen of Sebastes melanops Girard 1856. •Synonym of Sebastes melanops Girard 1856 -- (Love et al. 2002:206 [ref. 26216]). •May not be a synonym -- (Kai et al. 2013:175 [ref. 33093]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes melanops Girard 1856. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

simulata, Scorpaenopsis de Beaufort [L. F.] in de Beaufort & Briggs 1962:19 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 11; ref. 242] Sulu Islands. Holotype: ZMA 110244. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:83 [ref. 19236]. Based on Scorpaena rosea of Weber 1913:496 (not of Day). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis simulata de Beaufort 1962 -- (Nakabo et al. 1993:31 [ref. 20716]). •Synonym of Scorpaenopsis cotticeps Fowler 1938 -- (Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:18 [ref. 25801]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenopsis cotticeps Fowler 1938. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

simulator, Sebastes Chen [L.-C.] 1971:16, Pl. 2 (fig. A) [Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of California v. 18; ref. 7668] 2 1/2 miles south-southwest of Carlsbad, south of Oceanside, San Diego, California, U.S.A., depth 200 meters. Holotype: SIO 68-137. Paratypes: CAS 17607 [ex SIO 56-81] (1); LACM 22127 (1); SIO 15-1961 (2) (ex UCLA W48-19), 49-91 (1) (ex UCLA W49-362), 51-339 (1), 56-5 (2), 56-74 (1), 56-81 (3, now 2), 57-48 (1), 57-220 (1), 62-471 (1), 62-520 (2), 63-161 (5), 64-937 (3), 65-2 (1), 65-58 (1), 65-62 (1), 65-67 (2), 65-70 (2), 65-126 (1), 65-447 (1), 66-17 (3), 67-47 (5), 67-73 (1), 67-74 (5), 67-226 (1), 69-57 (2). •Valid as Sebastes simulator Chen 1971 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:151 [ref. 9277], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:323 [ref. 24939], Orr et al. 2000:41 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:72 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:268 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:80 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:152 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:62 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes simulator Chen 1971. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: central California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of northern Baja California (Mexico), including Guadalupe Island (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

sinensis, Sebastes McClelland [J.] 1843:397, Pl. 21 (fig. 3) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 4 (no. 4) (for 1844); ref. 2927] Chusan, China. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. This name apparently has not been used as a valid name since 1899, and placed in synonymy of Sebastiscus marmoratus by Günther 1860:104 [ref. 1963]. The name is in competition with Sebastes sinensis (Gilbert 1890), a secondary homonym. Sebastes sinensis (Gilbert 1890) has been recognized as a valid species for many years, and that name has not been replaced. We consider it to be a novem protectum under Art. 23.9.1 and Sebastes sinensis McClelland to be a nomen oblitum. •Synonym of Sebastiscus marmoratus (Cuvier 1829). Nomen Oblitum. Current status: Synonym of Sebastiscus marmoratus (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

sinensis, Sebastichthys Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:81 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Gulf of California, Mexico, 29°19'N, 112°50'W, Albatross station 3015, depth 145 fathoms. Syntypes: (2) USNM 43085 (1). Name is in competition with Sebastes sinensis McClelland 1844 which apparently has not been used as a valid name at least since Günther 1860. Sebastes sinensis (Gilbert 1890) has been recognized as a valid species for many years, and that name has not been replaced. We consider it to be a novem protectum under Art. 23.9.1 and Sebastes sinensis McClelland to be a nomen oblitum. •Valid as Sebastes sinensis (Gilbert 1890) -- (Chen 1975:118 [ref. 7413], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1563 [ref. 22830], Shytko 2001:73 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:270 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes sinensis (Gilbert 1890). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

smithi, Scorpaenodes Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Rama-Rao [K. V.] 1972:59, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 39 (no. 5); ref. 7611] Andaman Sea, off western Malaya, Andaman Islands, 5°45'N, 98°20'E, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1929.6.12.6. Paratypes: BMNH 1929.6.12.7-15 (12), 1932.2.15.15-20 (6), 1933.8.11.4 (1), 1972.1.17.1-9 (9); CAS 13616 (4); NMS uncat. (10); USNM 206501 (4); ZMC P7978-81 (4), P7982-3 (2), P7991-2 (2), P79100-112 (13), P79113-132 (20); ZSI F6254/2 (1). See Das 2003:378 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes smithi Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1972 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:450 [ref. 12442], Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen et al. 2006:888 [ref. 29066], Poss et al. 2010:242 [ref. 30744], Allen & Erdmann 2012:232 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32988] with 2nd author as Rao, Motomura et al. 2017:326 [ref. 35035], Kwik & Lim 2020:13 [ref. 38869]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes smithi Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1972. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: East Andaman Sea, Singapore, southern China, Arafura Sea and northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

sonorae, Scorpaena Jenkins [O. P.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1889:150 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 698); ref. 2342] Guaymas, Sonora, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 39644. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena sonorae Jenkins & Evermann 1889 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:101 [ref. 22193], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1558 [ref. 22830], Thomson et al. 2000:70 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:821 [ref. 28049], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena sonorae Jenkins & Evermann 1889. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico) south to Guerrero (Mexico), including Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

sororreginae, Scorpaena Wibowo [K.] & Motomura [H.] 2021:[28], Figs. 16-17 [Ichthyological Research v. 69 (no. 2); ref. 38565] North of Cape Lambert, Western Australia, Australia, 20°11'S, 117°21'E, depth 38 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 8264-02. Paratypes: (22) CSIRO, KAUM I. •Valid as Scorpaena sororreginae Wibowo & Motomura 2021. Current status: Valid as Scorpaena sororreginae Wibowo & Motomura 2021. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: northwest coast of Australia. Habitat: marine.

sphex, Pterois Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:201 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50650. •Valid as Pteropterus sphex (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636]). •Valid as Pterois sphex Jordan & Evermann 1903 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:272 [ref. 6389], Mundy 2005:327 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:171 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2008:128 [ref. 29479], Matsunum & Motomura 2013:172 [ref. 33130], Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:x [ref. 33609], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:25 [ref. 33935]). Current status: Valid as Pterois sphex Jordan & Evermann 1903. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

spilistius, Pontinus Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:633, Fig. 247 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Off north coast of Maui Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 4077, depth 99-106 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51644. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8638 (1), USNM 51663 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Pontinus macrocephalus (Sauvage 1882) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:294 [ref. 6389], Eschmeyer 1983:1 [ref. 8231], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:82 [ref. 15964], Mundy 2005:327 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:173 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Pontinus macrocephalus (Sauvage 1882). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

spinorbis, Sebastes Chen [L.-C.] 1975:113, Fig. 1b [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 40 (no. 6); ref. 7413] Bay of Los Angeles, 2.5 miles northeast of Punta Rojas, 28°58.5'N, 113°26.5'W, Gulf of California, Mexico, depth 130-160 meters. Holotype: SIO 69-318. Paratypes: CAS 30689 (2), SIO 69-437 (1). •Valid as Sebastes spinorbis Chen 1975 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1548 [ref. 22830], Thomson et al. 2000:71 [ref. 25640], Shytko 2001:73 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:271 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708], Acevedo-Cervantes et al. 2018:151 [ref. 36372]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes spinorbis Chen 1975. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California south to Topolobampo, Sinaloa (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

starksi, Ebosia Franz [V.] 1910:72, Pl. 9 (fig. 69) [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Yokohama, Misaki, and Dzushi, Japan. Syntypes: (4 + 2 + 1) ZSM [old collection] (4 + 2 + 1) destroyed in WW II. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:280 [ref. 28925]. •Synonym of Parabrachirus heterurus (Bleeker 1856) -- (Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1978:66 [ref. 6386]). •Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856) -- (Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27693], Matsunuma & Motomura 2021:[6] [ref. 38848]). •Synonym of Parapterois heterurus (Bleeker 1856). Current status: Synonym of Parapterois heterurus (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

staurophorus, Centropus Kner [R.] 1860:531 [3], Pl. (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 39 (no. 4); ref. 2633] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. No types known. On p. 3 of separate. •Synonym of Caracanthus unipinna (Gray 1831) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:481 [ref. 19539]). Current status: Synonym of Caracanthus unipinna (Gray 1831). Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae. Habitat: marine.

stearnsii, Scorpaena Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:421 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 30169. Additional material: USNM 30185 (1). •Synonym of Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:128 [ref. 9211], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1254 [ref. 27048], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

steenei, Scorpaenodes Allen [G. R.] 1977:145, Pl. 1 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 101 (pt 3); ref. 7226] Off northeastern side of Rottnest Island, Western Australia, depth 6 meters. Holotype: WAM P.25178-006. Paratypes: AMS I.18461-001 (1), USNM 214679 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:16 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:17 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes steenei Allen 1977 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:450 [ref. 12442], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Allen et al. 2006:888 [ref. 29066], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes steenei Allen 1977. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Houtman Abrolhos south to Albany (Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

steindachneri, Sebastes Hilgendorf [F. M.] 1880:172 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1880; ref. 18287] Hokkaido, Japan. Syntypes: ZMB 11277 (1, dry), 11278 (1, dry). Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:273 [ref. 19946]. •Valid as Sebastes steindachneri Hilgendorf 1880 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:310 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:46 [ref. 15964], Kim & Lee 1993:456 [ref. 39487], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:9 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:591 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:26 [ref. 25650], Shytko 2001:73 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:591 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 562 [ref. 26218], Parin et al. 2002:S63 [ref. 28300], Shinohara et al. 2011:42 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al. 2014:246 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:221 [ref. 33547], Kim et al. 2020:91 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:42 [ref. 37637], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:858 [ref. 38925]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes steindachneri Hilgendorf 1880. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Japan and Korea north to Kuril Islands (Russia). Habitat: marine.

steinitzi, Scorpaenodes Klausewitz [W.] & Frøiland [Ø.] 1970:318, Figs. 1-2 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 51 (nos 5/6); ref. 7969] Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Holotype: HUJ 10097. Paratypes: HUJ 10098-99 (9, 1), SMF 10546-49 (4). Type catalog: Golani 2006:24 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Scorpaenodes steinitzi Klausewitz & Frøiland 1970 -- (Dor 1984:83 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], DiBattista et al. 2015:19 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:55 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes steinitzi Klausewitz & Frøiland 1970. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

stephanica, Scorpaena Cadenat [J.] 1943:550, Figs. 1(5), 8 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 13 (nos 1-4); ref. 13043] Port-Etienne, Cap Blanc, Mauritania, depth 95-100 meters. Syntypes: (15) MNHN 1947-0004 (1), 1947-0005 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:17 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena stephanica Cadenat 1943 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:66 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:676 [ref. 17613], Zenetos et al. 2010:413 [ref. 31201], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972] record needs checking, Poss 2016:2282 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159], Carneiro et al. 2019:233 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:158 [ref. 38139], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214], Kovačić et al. 2021:76 [ref. 39014]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena stephanica Cadenat 1943. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola, including Madeira, and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

stigma, Scorpaenopsis Fowler [H. W.] 1938:66, Fig. 28 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] 8.7 miles wouthwest of Point Tagolo Light, northern Mindanao and vicinity, Philippines, 8°48'N, 123°31'E, Albatross station D.5518, depth 200 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 98896. Paratypes: USNM 99012 (1). •Synonym of Phenacoscorpius megalops Fowler 1938 -- (Motomura 2008:776 [ref. 30292], Motomura & Last 2009:27 [ref. 30568], Okamoto et al. 2012:77 [ref. 33660]). Current status: Synonym of Phenacoscorpius megalops Fowler 1938. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

stokesii, Scorpaena Richardson [J.] 1846:487, Pl. 2 (figs. 6-9) [Discoveries in Australia; ref. 3743] Coasts of Australia/northern Australia. Holotype (unique): HMG 2.4" spirit specimen (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Scorpaena picta Cuvier 1829 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:449 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Parascorpaena picta (Cuvier 1829) -- (Allen et al. 2006:882 [ref. 29066] with authors as Kuhl & van Hasselt). Current status: Synonym of Parascorpaena picta (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

strigatus, Pontinus Heller [E.] & Snodgrass [R. E.] 1903:208 [Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 5; ref. 2089] Wenman Island, Galápagos Islands (stomach content). Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6343. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Pontinus strigatus Heller & Snodgrass 1903 -- (Grove & Lavenberg 1997:294 [ref. 24023], McCosker et al. 1997:25 [ref. 22816], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus strigatus Heller & Snodgrass 1903. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands and Cocos Island. Habitat: marine.

strongensis, Sebastes Günther [A.] 1860:105 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Strong Island, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Unjustified emendation of Scorpaena strongia Cuvier 1829. Unjustified Emend.. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

strongia, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:323 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Kosrae, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Syntypes: MNHN 1940 (3). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:17 [ref. 20738]. Sebastes strongensis Günther is an unneeded emendation. •Valid as Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829) -- (Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Eschmeyer 1986:476 [ref. 5652], Winterbottom et al. 1989:21 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:84 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Randall et al. 1997:84 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:100 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:164 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2346 [ref. 24796], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:577 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:577 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:41 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624] dated 1839, Randall 2005:126 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:891 [ref. 29066], Motomura 2009:63 [ref. 30037], Motomura et al. 2010:92 [ref. 31256], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:65 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:238 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:54 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2014:133 [ref. 33591], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:23 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:136 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:56 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:28 [ref. 36883], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[35] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Aldabra, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Mariana, Gilbert, Marquesas and Gambier islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

sumptuosa, Scorpaena Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:17 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Fremantle, Western Australia. Syntypes: MNHN A-4409 (1, dry), B-2570 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:17 [ref. 20738] as somptuosa with a holotype, Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena sumptuosa Castelnau 1875 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:449 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:492 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:86 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Motomura et al. 2005:29 [ref. 28339], Motomura et al. 2006:367 [ref. 28789], Allen et al. 2006:886 [ref. 29066], Johnson & Motomura 2008:489 [ref. 30648], Motomura et al. 2011:66 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[23] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena sumptuosa Castelnau 1875. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Shark Bay south to Albany (Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

swifti, Sebastodes Evermann [B. W.] & Goldsborough [E. L.] 1907:285, Fig. 36 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 624) (for 1906); ref. 6532] Vicinity of Yes Bay, Alaska, U.S.A., Albatross station 4234, depth 45 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 57821. Paratypes: USNM 126656 [ex USFC 1253 = USBF 5228] (1). •Synonym of Sebastes aleutianus (Jordan & Evermann 1898) -- (Love et al. 2002:122 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:381 [ref. 25968], Orr & Hawkins 2008:119 [ref. 29591]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes aleutianus (Jordan & Evermann 1898). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

taczanowskii, Sebastes Steindachner [F.] 1880:256 [19], Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 82 (1. Abth., no. 2); ref. 4230] Northern Japan. Syntypes: (2) NMW 79153 (3). On p. 19 of separate. •Valid as Sebastes taczanowskii Steindachner 1880 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:310 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:44 [ref. 15964], Kim & Lee 1993:459 [ref. 39487], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:9 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:591 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:26 [ref. 25650], Shytko 2001:74 [ref. 26410] as taczanowski, Nakabo 2002:591 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:243, 562 [ref. 26218], Parin et al. 2002:S63 [ref. 28300], Parin et al. 2014:221 [ref. 33547], Kim et al. 2020:91 [ref. 39118], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:858 [ref. 38925], Dyldin et al. 2021:57 [ref. 38804]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes taczanowskii Steindachner 1880. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Sea of Japan (Korea, Japan). Habitat: marine.

taeniophrys, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1943:66, Fig. 12 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 100, v. 14 (pt 2); ref. 1441] Cammahana Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 99522. Paratypes: USNM 99523 (1). •Valid as Sebastapistes taeniophrys (Fowler 1943) -- (Motomura 2009:62 [ref. 30037], Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:238 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:136 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes taeniophrys (Fowler 1943). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Madagascar; Philippines. Habitat: marine.

tanabensis, Pterois Tanaka [S.] 1918:225 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 30 (no. 356); ref. 17357] Tanabe, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT (lost). •Synonym of Parapterois heterura (Bleeker 1856) -- (Motomura 2004:4 [ref. 27693], Matsunuma & Motomura 2021:[8] [ref. 38848]). •Synonym of Parapterois heterurus (Bleeker 1856). Current status: Synonym of Parapterois heterurus (Bleeker 1856). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

tanakae, Sebastodes Snyder [J. O.] 1911:536 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 40 (no. 1836); ref. 4152] Hakodate, Oshima Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 68236. Derivation of name not given; the name tanakae is the correct original spelling and should not be emended (not excluded by Art. 32); the incorrect subsequent spelling tanakai has not been established as prevailing usage, so the spelling tanakae is to be continued. •Synonym of Sebastes nivosus Hilgendorf 1880. •Synonym of Sebastes trivittatus Hilgendorf 1880 -- (Kai et al. 2013:272 [ref. 35112]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes trivittatus Hilgendorf 1880. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

teneriffea, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Gunn [J. A., Jr.] 1898:345 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 50; ref. 10630] Teneriffa, Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 3111. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:81 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:581 [ref. 7218], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:673 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2279 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tentacularis, Nemapontinus Fowler [H. W.] 1938:73, Fig. 32 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Point Tagolo Light, northern Mindanao and vicinity, Philippines [Bohol Sea], 8°47'N, 123°31'15"E, Albatross station D.5519, depth 182 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 98887. Paratypes: USNM 99008 (2). •Probably a synonym of Pontinus hexanema (Günther 1880) -- (Eschmeyer 1983:1 [ref. 8231]). •Valid as Pontinus tentacularis (Fowler 1938) -- (Kanayama in Okamura et al. 1982:273, 393 [ref. 8256], Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:569, 718 [ref. 8056], Fricke 1999:157 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus tentacularis (Fowler 1938). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: western Mascarenes east to Philippines and Kyushu-Palau Ridge. Habitat: marine.

tertius, Sebastes Barsukov [V. V.] & Chen [L.-C.] 1978:202 [186], Fig. 4 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 7010] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype: ZIN 22696. Paratypes: ZIN 43595 [ex ZIN 8625] (3), 43366 [ex ZIN 22698] (1), 23085 (1). Non-type material at CAS, SDSC, SIO, UMMZ, ZIN. On p. 186 of English translation. •Valid as Sebastes tertius Barsukov & Chen 1978 -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:31 [ref. 15964], Shytko 2001:75 [ref. 26410]). •Valid as Sebastiscus tertius (Barsukov & Chen 1978) -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:313 [ref. 6441], Kim & Lee 1993:467 [ref. 39487], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:131 [ref. 23963], Poss 1999:2347 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:585 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:67 [ref. 25480], Han et al. 2001:63 [ref. 25336], Katoh & Tokimura 2001:247 [ref. 25542], Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:585 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:243, 565 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:425 [ref. 28370], Morishita et al. 2018:[1] [ref. 35907], Kim et al. 2020:93 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:44 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Sebastiscus tertius (Barsukov & Chen 1978). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Taiwan north to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

thelmae, Helicolenus Fowler [H. W.] 1937:300, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 89; ref. 15274] Near Gulf Stream about 70 miles southeast from Cape May, New Jersey, U.S.A. Holotype: ANSP 68261. Paratypes: ANSP 68262 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:95 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:666 [ref. 17613]). Current status: Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

thompsoni, Sebastodes (Sebastosomus) Jordan [D. S.] & Hubbs [C. L.] 1925:265, Fig. 1 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 2486] Miyako, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 7167. Paratypes: FMNH 58774 (1), CAS-SU 22640 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:124 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:79 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Sebastes thompsoni (Jordan & Hubbs 1925) -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:311 [ref. 6441], Chen 1985:36 [ref. 6543], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:56 [ref. 15964], Kim & Lee 1993:460 [ref. 39487], Nagasawa & Kobayashi 1995 [ref. 22170], Nakabo 2000:591 [ref. 25086], Shytko 2001:76 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:591 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:243, 563 [ref. 26218], Kim et al. 2020:91 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:42 [ref. 37637], Chou & Tang 2021:154 [ref. 38423]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes thompsoni (Jordan & Hubbs 1925). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: northern Taiwan north to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

thomsoni, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1880:24, Pl. 12 [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Juan Fernández Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.232. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. Spelled thomsoni in text and on p. 77, thomsonii on plate. •Valid as Scorpaena thomsoni Günther 1880 -- (Eschmeyer & Allen 1971:521 [ref. 893], Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125] as thompson, Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Dyer & Westneat 2010:604 [ref. 31446], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena thomsoni Günther 1880. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Juan Fernández Islands, Desventuradas Islands (Chile). Habitat: marine.

tierrae, Scorpaena Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:441, Fig. 84 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Tierra Bay, Peru. Holotype: USNM 128128. Paratypes: USNM 88775 (1), 128129 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena tierrae Hildebrand 1946 -- (Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena tierrae Hildebrand 1946. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Peru south to Chile. Habitat: marine.

tinkhami, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1946:208, Fig. 72 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 98; ref. 1456] Aguni Shima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: ANSP 72081 (with paratypes). Paratypes: ANSP 72082 (1), 72803 (1, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Scorpaena tinkhami Fowler 1946 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:317 [ref. 6389]). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis tinkhami (Fowler 1946) -- (Fricke et al. 2014:53 [ref. 33932]). •Valid as Sebastapistes tinkhami (Fowler 1946) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:476 [ref. 5652], Randall et al. 1997:504 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:164 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2346 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:170 [ref. 25191], Nakabo 2000:579 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:579 [ref. 26001], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall 2005:126 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:892 [ref. 29066], Shao et al. 2008:246 [ref. 29952], Fricke et al. 2009:41 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308], Hubert et al. 2012:5 [ref. 31846], Allen & Erdmann 2012:238 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Arndt & Fricke 2019:28 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:104 [ref. 36673], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[35] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Sebastapistes tinkhami (Fowler 1946). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa and western Mascarenes; Christmas Island; East Coral Sea, Loyalty Islands, Rotuma, Fiji and Wake Atoll east to Pitcairn Group and Society Islands, north to Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, Japan. Habitat: marine.

tokionis, Sebastodes Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:104, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 27 (no. 1351); ref. 2527] Misaki, Kanaga Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 7369. Paratypes: USNM 50905 (1). Additional material: CAS-SU 7413 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:124 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Sebastes tokionis (Jordan & Starks 1904) -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:57 [ref. 15964]). •Synonym of Sebastes inermis Cuvier 1829 -- (Kai & Nakabo 2008:244 [ref. 29759]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes inermis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

tortugae, Neomerinthe Hildebrand [S. F.] in Longley & Hildebrand 1940:247, Fig. 13 [Papers Tortugas Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington v. 32; ref. 2822] South of Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A., depth 60 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 108871. Paratypes: USNM 108872 (2). •Synonym of Neomerinthe hemingwayi Fowler 1935 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:41 [ref. 1274], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1243 [ref. 27048]). Current status: Synonym of Neomerinthe hemingwayi Fowler 1935. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

tredecimspinosa, Scorpaena Metzelaar [J.] 1919:146, Fig. 44 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Bonaire Island, West Indies. Lectotype: USNM 160660 [ex ZMA 110241]. Paralectotypes: RMNH 9772 [ex ZMA] (1); CAS-SU 23303 (1); ZMA 110241 (2), 113332 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:82 [ref. 19236]. Lectotype selected by Eschmeyer 1969:86 [ref. 1274]. Misspelled tridecimspinosa by authors. •Valid as Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus (Metzelaar 1919) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:86 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:276 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:293 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:67 [ref. 26475], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1263 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:48 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34324], Baldwin et al. 2016:154 [ref. 34588], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:82 [ref. 38844]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus (Metzelaar 1919). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

triacanthus, Scorpaenodes Parr [A. E.] 1930:115, Fig. 30 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 3 (art. 4); ref. 3370] Bennet's Harbor, Cat Island, Bahamas. Holotype: YPM 2533. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:25 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Scorpaenodes caribbaeus Meek & Hildebrand 1928 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:88 [ref. 1274], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1262 [ref. 27048]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaenodes caribbaeus Meek & Hildebrand 1928. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

triacanthus, Sebastiscus Fowler [H. W.] 1938:53, Fig. 20 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 44912. •Synonym of Hozukius emblemarius (Jordan & Starks 1904) -- (Ishida & Amaoka 1986:323 [ref. 11443]). Current status: Synonym of Hozukius emblemarius (Jordan & Starks 1904). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

triacanthus, Taenianotus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:303, 306 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality stated. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4051. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:25 [ref. 20738]. Based on the unique holotype which was donated from RMNH. •Valid as Taenianotus triacanthus Lacepède 1802 -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:285 [ref. 6389], Nakabo in Masuda et al. 1984:317 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:476 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:50 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:452 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:21 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:85 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:116 [ref. 23929] as Taenionotus, Allen 1997:78 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:296 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:88 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:85 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:100 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:164 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2349 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:728 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268] as Taenionotus t., Nakabo 2000:572 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:171 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:28 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:572 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830] with genus as Taenionotus, Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:147 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:127 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:333 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:892 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:178 [ref. 30952], Motomura 2009:69 [ref. 30463], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:92 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:70 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:239 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:54 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:23 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:136 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:104 [ref. 36673], Fujiwara et al. 2020:33 [ref. 38631]). Current status: Valid as Taenianotus triacanthus Lacepède 1802. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Galápagos Archipelago, north to Kagoshima Prefecture (southern Japan), Midway Atoll and Hawaiian Islands, south to Western Australia, New South Wales and Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

tribulosus, Scorpaenodes Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1969:8, Fig. 1c [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences No. 76; ref. 7813] Off Kenya, Indian Ocean, 2°42'S, 40°53'E, depth 77 fathoms. Holotype: CAS 24267. Paratypes: USNM 204031 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenodes tribulosus Eschmeyer 1969 -- (Eschmeyer & Rama-Rao 1972:59 [ref. 7611], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:977 [ref. 26507], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Poss et al. 2010:242 [ref. 30744]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes tribulosus Eschmeyer 1969. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

trifasciatus, Lioscorpius Last [P. R.], Yearsley [G. K.] & Motomura [H.] 2005:13, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 1038; ref. 28323] South of Saumarez Reef, 22°34'-35'S, 153°37'-40'E, Coral Sea, western Pacific. Holotype: CSIRO H 601-18. Paratypes: AMS I 20437-002 (1), 30094-001 (1); CSIRO H 595-16 (2), H 601-19 (5); QM I 21042 (1), I 33989 (2). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Lioscorpius trifasciatus Last, Yearsley & Motomura 2005 -- (Allen et al. 2006:870 [ref. 29078], Fricke et al. 2015:3 [ref. 33930], Motomura et al. 2016:24 [ref. 35075], Wada & Motomura 2022:[13] [ref. 39042]). Current status: Valid as Lioscorpius trifasciatus Last, Yearsley & Motomura 2005. Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: east coast of Australia, New Caledonia and Fiji (and possibly Vanuatu). Habitat: marine.

tristanensis, Helicolenus Sivertsen [E.] 1945:17, Fig. 12; Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Results of the Norwegian Scientific Expedition to Tristan da Cunha 1937-1938 No. 12; ref. 13091] Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic, depth 40-50 meters. Holotype: ZMUO?. Paratypes: (2) VSM uncat. (1). •Valid as Helicolenus tristanensis Sivertsen 1945 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:99 [ref. 1274]). •Synonym of Helicolenus mouchezi (Sauvage 1875) -- (Eschmeyer & Hureau 1971:577 [ref. 21187]). Current status: Synonym of Helicolenus mouchezi (Sauvage 1875). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

tristis, Scorpaena Klunzinger [C. B.] 1870:802 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 20; ref. 2621] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 1413. Paralectotypes: SMF 10626 (1); NMW 3550 (1), 19836 (2); ZMB 7870 (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:271 [ref. 19946]. Lectotype established by Frøiland 1972:358, Figs. 1-3 [ref. 30490]. •Valid as Sebastapistes tristis (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Frøiland 1972:358 [ref. 30490], Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:476 [ref. 5652], Randall et al. 1990:84 [ref. 15987], Randall 2005:126 [ref. 28239], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:65 [ref. 35264], Golani & Fricke 2018:56 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastapistes strongia (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

trivittatus, Sebastes Hilgendorf [F. M.] 1880:171 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1880; ref. 18287] Hokkaido, Japan. Syntypes: ZMB 11274 (1), 11275 (1, dry). Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:273 [ref. 19946]. •Valid as Sebastes trivittatus Hilgendorf 1880 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:312 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:71 [ref. 15964], Kim & Lee 1993:464 [ref. 39487], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:9 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:594 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:26 [ref. 25650], Shytko 2001:76 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:594 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:243, 563 [ref. 26218], Parin et al. 2002:S63 [ref. 28300], Kai et al. 2013:272 [ref. 35112], Parin et al. 2014:222 [ref. 33547], Kim et al. 2020:91 [ref. 39118], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:858 [ref. 38925]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes trivittatus Hilgendorf 1880. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Sea of Japan (Korea, Japan). Habitat: marine.

tsuraara, Sebastiscus Tanaka [S.] 1917:10 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 29 (no. 339); ref. 4329] Misaki, Sagami Sea, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 7437. •Synonym of Sebastiscus marmoratus (Cuvier 1829). Current status: Synonym of Sebastiscus marmoratus (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

tuamotuensis, Dendrochirus Matsunuma [M.] & Motomura [H.] 2013:2, Figs. 1-3 [Species Diversity v. 18 (no. 1); ref. 32776] Makemo Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia, 16°34'12"S, 143°27'06"W, depth 120 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 37140 [not 31740]. •Valid as Dendrochirus tuamotuensis Matsunuma & Motomura 2013 -- (Matsunuma et al. 2017:[37] [ref. 35277], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[27] [ref. 36536]). Current status: Valid as Dendrochirus tuamotuensis Matsunuma & Motomura 2013. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia, South Pacific Ocean. Habitat: marine.

typicus, Caracanthus Krøyer [H. N.] 1845:264 [Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift (Kjøbenhavn) (n. s.) v. 1; ref. 2689] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: ZMUC 36. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:80 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Caracanthus typicus Krøyer 1845 -- (Mundy 2005:334 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:181 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Caracanthus typicus Krøyer 1845. Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

umbrosus, Sebastichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:410 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 296); ref. 18358] Santa Rosa Island, near Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 31140-41 (1, 1). •Valid as Sebastes umbrosus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Chen 1971:24 [ref. 7668], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:151 [ref. 9277], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:323 [ref. 24939], Shytko 2001:78 [ref. 26410], Orr et al. 2000:42 [ref. 24942], Love et al. 2002:272 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:80 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:152 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:63 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes umbrosus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: central California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of southern Baja California Sur (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

uncinata, Scorpaena de Buen [F.] 1961:32, Fig. 9 [Montemar No. 1; ref. 698] Isla de San Ambrosio, Chile, depth 75 fathoms (137 meters). Holotype (unique): EBMC 10478. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena uncinata de Buen 1961 -- (Eschmeyer & Allen 1971:521 [ref. 893], Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125] as unicincta, Pequeño & Sáez 2000:31 [ref. 24590], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena uncinata de Buen 1961. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Chile. Habitat: marine.

unimaculatus, Sebastodes de Buen [F.] 1960:20 [Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (Santiago) v. 55; ref. 19922] Valparaíso, Chile, depth 200 meters. Holotype (unique): EBMC 47. •Synonym of Sebastes capensis (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kong U. 1985:48 [ref. 11639], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:82 [ref. 22530]). •Synonym of Sebastes oculatus Valenciennes 1833. Current status: Synonym of Sebastes oculatus Valenciennes 1833. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

unipinna, Micropus Gray [J. E.] 1831:20 [Zoological Miscellany [No. 1]; ref. 1881] Pacific. Holotype: BMNH 1971.7.16.2 (missing in 2007). •Valid as Caracanthus unipinna (Gray 1831) -- (Nakabo in Masuda et al. 1984:318 [ref. 6441], Eschmeyer 1986:481 [ref. 19539], Paxton et al. 1989:458 [ref. 12442] as unipinnis, Winterbottom et al. 1989:22 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:85 [ref. 15987], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:288 [ref. 24023], Randall et al. 1997:85 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:102 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:168 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2353 [ref. 24796], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:603 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:28 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:603 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S103 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624] as unipinnis, Shinohara & Imamura 2004:64 [ref. 28198], Randall 2005:131 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:920 [ref. 28997], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213], Motomura 2009:64 [ref. 30463], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:250 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:49 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:130 [ref. 35805], Wada et al. 2021:38 [ref. 38521]). Current status: Valid as Caracanthus unipinna (Gray 1831). Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Pitcairn Group, north to Amami Islands (southern Japan) and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Great Barrier Reef (Australia), Loyalty Islands, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

uruguayensis, Helicolenus Fowler [H. W.] 1943:326, Figs. 18-19 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 95; ref. 1444] Off Uruguay. Holotype: ANSP 70325. Paratypes: ANSP 70326-27 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809), subspecies lahillei Norman 1937 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:96 [ref. 1274]). Current status: Synonym of Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche 1809). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

ustulata, Scorpaena Lowe [R. T.] 1841:36 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1840 (pt. 8, no. 89); ref. 2830] Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Holotype: BMNH 1917.7.14.87. •Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:81 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:581 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1219 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:673 [ref. 17613], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:69 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:39 [ref. 36649], Poss 2016:2279 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Golani 2021:36 [ref. 38303]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vachellii, Sebastes Richardson [J.] 1846:214 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Type information: Whitehead 1970:211 [ref. 11606]. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

variabilis, Perca Pallas [P. S.] 1814:241 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] North American seas. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-8670 (1, dry). Paralectotypes: ZMB 6494 (1, dry, lost) Kamchatka, 8145 (1, dry, lost) Aleutian Is. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:25 [ref. 20738] as paratype, Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:117 [ref. 12478], Paepke & Fricke 1992:272 [ref. 19946]. Until Orr & Blackburn 2004 [ref. 27661], this species was considered a synonym of Sebastes ciliatus. Lectotype selected by Orr & Blackburn 2004:330, 340 [ref. 27661]. Type information: Svetovidov 1978:25 [ref. 6025]. •Valid as Sebastes variabilis (Pallas 1814) -- (Orr & Blackburn 2004:340 [ref. 27661]Love et al. 2005:80 [ref. 37547], , Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:222 [ref. 33547], Kells et al. 2016:152 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes variabilis (Pallas 1814). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: North Pacific: Hokkaido (Japan) north to Bering Sea, then from Gulf of Alaska (U.S.A.) south to Oregon (U.S.A.) Habitat: marine.

variegatus, Sebastes Quast [J. C.] 1971:388, Figs. 1-3 [United States National Marine Fisheries Service Fishery Bulletin v. 69 (no. 2); ref. 7701] South of Kodiak Island, Gulf of Alaska, North Pacific, 56°25'N, 152°25'W, depth 284 meters. Holotype: CAS 24857. Paratypes: SIO 70-171 (1), USNM 204937 (1). Additional material: AB (20 lots, 35); UBC 70-2 (1). •Valid as Sebastes variegatus Quast 1971 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:152 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:280 [ref. 26885], Orr & Baker 1996:133 [ref. 23102], McAllister 1990:189 [ref. 14674], Eitner et al. 1999:92 [ref. 23702], Orr et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:78 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:274 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:368 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:80 [ref. 37547], Maslenikov et al. 2013:9 [ref. 37947], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:152 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes variegatus Quast 1971. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: southeastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (U.S.A.) south to Oregon (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

varipinnis, Scorpaenodes Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:65, Fig. 5; Pl. 3 (fig. D) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 4; ref. 4112] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 119. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 364-367 (2, 4, 1, 1). •Valid as Scorpaenodes varipinnis Smith 1957 -- (Dor 1984:83 [ref. 29757], Eschmeyer 1986:473 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:50 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:450 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:82 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:78 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:88 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:82 [ref. 25919], Shinohara 1998:37 [ref. 24511], Myers 1999:98 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2340 [ref. 24796], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:583 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:606 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:583 [ref. 26001], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:122 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:888 [ref. 29066], Motomura 2009:67 [ref. 30463], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:232 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:52 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:21 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:134 [ref. 35805], Tsuno et al. 2022:82 [ref. 39111]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes varipinnis Smith 1957. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Comoro Islands and Madagascar east to Guam and Vanuatu, north to Kochi Prefecture (Japan), south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Society Islands. Former Red Sea records are now assigned to S. steinitzi Klausewitz & Frøiland 1970. Habitat: marine.

varispinis, Sebastes Chen [L.-C.] 1975:125, Fig. 2a [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 40 (no. 6); ref. 7413] Ballenas Channel, Gulf of California, Mexico, 28°58'N, 113°11.4'W, midwater, 0-500 meters over 1400 meters. Holotype: LACM 8821-11. Paratypes: LACM 8821-8 (60). •Valid as Sebastes varispinis Chen 1975 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1548 [ref. 22830], Shytko 2001:79 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:276 [ref. 26216], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes varispinis Chen 1975. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

vaughani, Pontinus Barnhart [P. S.] & Hubbs [C. L.] 1946:373, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of California v. 5 (no. 5); ref. 13119] Pacific off Cedros Island, Baja California. Holotype (unique): SIO 64-275. •Valid as Pontinus vaughani Barnhart & Hubbs 1946 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1552 [ref. 22830], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Love et al. 2005:73 [ref. 37547], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Pontinus vaughani Barnhart & Hubbs 1946. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of central Baja California (Mexico) south to Peru, including southwestern Gulf of California (Mexico) and Revillagigedo Islands (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

venosa, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] 1829:166 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] India. Non-types: MNHN 0000-6703 (1) Bay of Bengal. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:17-18 [ref. 20738] with types from ref. 998. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:163 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Available from footnote as, "Sc. venosa, N., Russ., 56..." See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:317 [ref. 998]. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:163 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:475 [ref. 5652], Allen & Swainston 1988:50 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:451 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:83 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:112 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:78 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:137 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:86 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:83 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:162 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2344 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Krupp et al. 2000:326 [ref. 25117], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Randall & Eschmeyer 2002:68 [ref. 25801], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:145 [ref. 28072], Motomura 2004:188 [ref. 38119], Motomura et al. 2004:104 [ref. 28581], Allen et al. 2006:890 [ref. 29066], Shao et al. 2008:246 [ref. 29952], Motomura 2009:68 [ref. 30463], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:69 [ref. 31308], Allen & Erdmann 2012:236 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Larson et al. 2013:83 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:80 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:53 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:135 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:55 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:128 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:103 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Seychelles, Saya de Malha Bank and Madagascar east to Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to Japan, south to New Caledonia and Australia. Habitat: marine.

ventricosus, Sebastes Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:48, Pl. 20 (figs. 1-2) [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Japan [Nagasaki]. Lectotype: RMNH D575 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D572-D574 (3, stuffed); ZMB 777 (1), 779 (1), 8164 (1, dry). Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:58 [ref. 12876], Paepke & Fricke 1992:273 [ref. 19946], Paepke 2001:331 [ref. 25566]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:58 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Sebaster ventricosus Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:60 [ref. 15964], Shytko 2001:79 [ref. 26410]). •Synonym of Sebastes inermis Cuvier 1829 -- (Chen 1985:23 [ref. 6543]). •Status uncertain -- (Kai & Nakabo 2002:260 [ref. 26335], Kai et al. 2002:2596 [ref. 26731]). •Valid as Sebastes ventricosus Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Kai & Nakabo 2008:251 [ref. 29759], Matsunuma et al. 2010:82 [ref. 31558], Kim et al. 2020:93 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:43 [ref. 37637], Yasutake et al. 2021:36 [ref. 38944]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes ventricosus Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Japan and South Korea. Habitat: marine.

verai, Trachyscorpia Béarez [P.] & Motomura [H.] 2009:62, Figs 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 2277; ref. 30680] Off Puerto López (1°33'S, 80°49'W), Ecuador, eastern Pacific, by longline [from fish market], depth about 200 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 2007-0086. •Valid as Trachyscorpia verai Béarez & Motomura 2009. Current status: Valid as Trachyscorpia verai Béarez & Motomura 2009. Scorpaenidae: Sebastolobinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

vermiculatus, Lioscorpius Wada [H.] & Motomura [H.] 2022:[9], Figs. 4c, 5c, 7 [Ichthyological Research Online First; ref. 39042] East of Tanna Islands, Vanuatu, 19°21'00"S, 169°27'00"E, depth 475 - 480 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1998-0026. Paratypes: (10) KAUM-I, MNHN. •Valid as Lioscorpius vermiculatus Wada & Motomura 2022. Current status: Valid as Lioscorpius vermiculatus Wada & Motomura 2022. Scorpaenidae: Setarchinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Tanna Islands, Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

vesperalis, Scorpaena Wibowo [K.] & Motomura [H.] 2020:532, Figs. 1C-D, 2B-C, 3E-F. [Zootaxa 4852 (no. 5); ref. 37777] Busselton Jetty, Western Australia, 33°39'S, 115°21'E, depth 8 meters. Holotype: WAM P. 28521-003. Paratypes: AMS, CSIRO, KAUM-I, WAM. •Valid as Scorpaena vesperalis Wibowo & Motomura 2020 -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[24] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena vesperalis Wibowo & Motomura 2020. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Australia: from Southern Group, Houtman Abrolhos (28°S) to the Albany coast (35°S). Habitat: marine.

vespertina, Ebosia Matsunuma [M.] & Motomura [H.] 2015:112, Figs. 1-7 [Ichthyological Research v. 63 (no. 1); ref. 33899] Off Mozambique, 18°20'S, 37°20'E, depth 68 meters. Holotype: SAM 41190. Paratypes: KAUM-I, SAM, SAIAB, USNM. •Valid as Ebosia vespertina Matsunuma & Motomura 2015 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:130 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Ebosia vespertina Matsunuma & Motomura 2015. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) and Mozambique to southern Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

vexillaris, Sebastichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:292 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 150); ref. 10598] Coast of California, U.S.A. Syntypes: (many) CAS (1, lostin 1906); MNHN A-3289 [ex USNM] (1); MSNG 8335 (1); RMNH 11641 (1); USNM 26946 (1), 26997 (1), 27087 (5); ZMB 11755 [ex USNM 26997] (1); ZMUB 1064 [ex USNM 26997] (1); ZMUC [ex USNM 26997] (?). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:345 [ref. 10350], Blanc & Hureau 1968:24-25 [ref. 20738], Frøiland 1979:150 [ref. 21547], Paepke & Fricke 1992:275 [ref. 19946]. •Valid as Sebastes vexillaris (Jordan & Gilbert 1880) -- (Shytko 2001:79 [ref. 26410]). •Synonym of Sebastes caurinus Richardson 1844 -- (Love et al. 2002:146 [ref. 26216]). Current status: Synonym of Sebastes caurinus Richardson 1844. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

vibrantus, Sebastiscus Morishita [S.], Kawai [T.] & Motomura [H.] 2018:[2], Figs. 1, 3 [Ichthyological Research v. 65 (no. 4); ref. 35907] Off Bali, Indonesia, purchase. Holotype: MZB 24594. Paratypes: CSIRO, HUMZ, KAUM, MZB. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Sebastiscus vibrantus Morishita, Kawai & Motomura 2018. Current status: Valid as Sebastiscus vibrantus Morishita, Kawai & Motomura 2018. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Bali (Indonesia) and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

villosus, Amphiprionichthys Schmeltz [J. D. E.] 1869:16 Still researching, apparently name only and not available; from Kandavu I. Fiji Is. In Museum Godeffroy Catalog 4? Also seen as Amphiprionichthys villosus Kner. Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Caracanthus unipinna (Gray 1831). Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae. Habitat: marine.

vittapinna, Scorpaenopsis Randall [J. E.] & Eschmeyer [W. N.] 2002:71, Pls. IX (fig. D), XII (figs. G-H) [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 34 (for Dec. 2001); ref. 25801] Reef off Sodwana Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 27-28 meters. Holotype: BPBM 27360. Paratypes: AMS I.40818-001 (1); ASIZT 60748 (1); BMNH 2001.5.2.36 (1); BPBM 32290 (1), 33809 (1), 37809 (1), 38824 (1), 38836 (1); CAS 35038 (2), 35210 (2), 54049 (3), 54052 (1), 54060 (1), 54062 (1), 214038 (1); MNHN 2001-1050 (1); NSMT-P61031 (1); ROM 60615 (1), 72490 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 14389 (1), 57824 (1); USNM 224492 (2), 364998 (1). •Valid as Scorpaenopsis vittapinna Randall & Eschmeyer 2002 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Motomura et al. 2004:105 [ref. 28581], Randall 2005:124 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:176 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:379 [ref. 31242], Motomura & Causse 2011:50 [ref. 31125], Motomura et al. 2011:69 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2011:103 [ref. 31717], Allen & Erdmann 2012:236 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:208 [ref. 32769], Fricke et al. 2014:54 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2018:135 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:55 [ref. 36273], Wibowo & Motomura 2021:54 [ref. 38226]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenopsis vittapinna Randall & Eschmeyer 2002. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Marquesas and Society islands, north to southern Japan, south to Rowley Shoals (Western Australia), Lizard Island (Queensland, Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

vittata, Pterois (Pseudomonopterus) Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:135, Pl. 1 (fig. 10) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (Série 2) v. 1; ref. 3880] Nuka Hiva, Marquesas Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6625. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:9 [ref. 20738]. •Synonym of Pterois radiata Cuvier 1829 -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2014:x [ref. 33609], Matsunuma & Motomura 2015:[11], [18] [ref. 33935]). Current status: Synonym of Pterois radiata Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Habitat: marine.

viviparus, Lythrichthys Schmidt [P. Yu.] 1930:461 [Proceedings of the 4th Pacific Science Congress, Java, 1929 v. 3 (Biol. Pap.); ref. 3941] Suruga Bay, Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZIN 22710. Available as above with brief description [with genus spelled once as Lytrichthys]; more compete description in Schmidt 1931:106, Fig. 17 [ref. 16332]. •Synonym of Sebastiscus albofasciatus (Lacepède 1802). Current status: Synonym of Sebastiscus albofasciatus (Lacepède 1802). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Habitat: marine.

viviparus, Sebastes Krøyer [H. N.] 1845:275 [Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift (Kjøbenhavn) (n. s.) v. 1; ref. 2689] Norway. Syntypes: ZMUC 42-46 (5) Bergen. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:80 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Sebastes viviparus Krøyer 1845 -- (Blanc & Hureau 1973:584 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1227 [ref. 13677], Ishida in Okamura et al. 1995:160 [ref. 22531], Fricke 2007:25 [ref. 30577], Møller et al. 2010:51 [ref. 31169], Parin et al. 2014:222 [ref. 33547], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:179 [ref. 36370]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes viviparus Krøyer 1845. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Greenland; western Baltic Sea, northern North Sea, eastern North Atlantic and adjacent Arctic. Habitat: marine.

voelzkowi, Scorpaena Jatzow [R.] & Lenz [H.] 1898:503, Pl. 34 (fig. 1) [Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft v. 21; ref. 14685] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. •In Parascorpaena -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[4] [ref. 38565]). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

volitans, Gasterosteus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:296 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. No types known. Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:237-238 [ref. 13434]. See Kochzius et al. 2003:401 [ref. 27290]. The "syntype" BMNH 1853.11.12.9 is not this species (Allen & Erdmann 2008:137 [ref. 29479]). Based on the 'Perca dorso monopterygio, capite cavernoso ...' of Gronow 1756:33 [ref. 20783], which was based on the 'Ikan Kalkoen Sowanggi, Djantan' and the 'Ikan Kalkoen Sowanggi Betina' of Valentyn 1726:413, 415 Pl. 210, Pl. 213 [ref. 30358], the 'Perca Amboinensis Neuhoffii' of Willughby 1686:Appendix p. 1, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [ref. 30164], and the 'Ican Swangi' or 'Perca Amboinensis ... volans pinnis longissimus' of Ruysch 1718:4, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [ref. 30355]. •Valid as Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Paulin 1982:445 [ref. 23678], Dor 1984:86 [ref. 29757], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441], Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:575, 721 [ref. 8056], Schultz 1986:66 [ref. 22245], Allen & Swainston 1988:48 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:447 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:167 [ref. 24556], Randall et al. 1990:80 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:114 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Randall 1995:108 [ref. 22896], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:129 [ref. 23963], Allen 1997:76 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:353 [ref. 23967], Chen et al. 1997:167 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:90 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:80 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:101 [ref. 23965], Poss 1999:2332 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:569 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:165 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:64 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Mandrytsa 2001:275 [ref. 25636], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Whitfield et al. 2002:289 [ref. 26090], Nakabo 2002:569 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1238 [ref. 27048], Myers & Donaldson 2003:619 [ref. 27495], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:26 [ref. 27712], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Hare & Whitfield 2004:2 [ref. 27631], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:117 [ref. 28239], Fishelson 2006:343 [ref. 28669], Allen et al. 2006:880 [ref. 29002], Allen & Erdmann 2008:128 [ref. 29479], Freshwater et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30268], Lasso-Alcala & Posada 2010:S53 [ref. 30893], Motomura et al. 2010:90 [ref. 31256], Aguilar-Perera & Tuz-Sulun 2010:S9 [ref. 31683], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Lasso-Alcalá et al. 2011:575 [ref. 31520], Betancur-R. et al. 2011:1 [ref. 32977], Allen & Erdmann 2012:223 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:170 [ref. 32953], Larson et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:79 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33932], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:112 [ref. 36167], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1096 [ref. 34285], Motomura et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34709], Robertson et al. 2016:143, 144 [ref. 34961], Koeda et al. 2016:21 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Tornabene & Baldwin 2017:10 [ref. 35339], Motomura et al. 2017:68 [ref. 35490], Wilcox et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35525] with hybrids in the western Atlantic, Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 28 [ref. 38321] misidentified, Kwik & Lim 2020:16 [ref. 38869], Robertson et al. 2020:161 [ref. 38098], Sonoyama et al. 2020:44 [ref. 37637], Caires et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:600 [ref. 38945], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:82 [ref. 38844], Kovačić et al. 2021:90 [ref. 39014], Cintra et al. 2022:2 [ref. 39558]). Current status: Valid as Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Christmas Island and Cocos-Keeling Islands east to Marquesas Islands, north to Sea of Japan, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), Jervis Bay (New South Wales, Australia), Lord Howe Island, Kermadec Islands and French Polynesia. Invasive in western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) south to Pará (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. IUCN (2016): Least concern. Habitat: marine.

vulpes, Sebastes Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1884:203 [35] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 49 (1. Abth.); ref. 4248] Fish market in Tokyo, Japan. Lectotype: NMW 75386. Paralectotypes: NMW 5878 (1), 58146 (1); ZMB 12069 (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Fricke 1992:273 [ref. 19946]. Type information (ZMB) from Amaoka & Fujii 1999:162 [ref. 26515]. Lectotype selected by Muto et al. 2018:[5] [ref. 35963]. •Valid as Sebastes vulpes Döderlein 1884 -- (Chen & Barsukov 1976:2 [ref. 22762], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:312 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:69 [ref. 15964], Kim & Lee 1993:462 [ref. 39487], Nakabo 2000:593 [ref. 25086], Nagasawa 2000:311 [ref. 25129], Shytko 2001:80 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:593 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:243, 563 [ref. 26218], Parin et al. 2014:223 [ref. 33547], Muto et al. 2018:[5] [ref. 35963], Kim et al. 2020:93 [ref. 39118]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes vulpes Döderlein 1884. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: coastal Hokkaido southward to Shimane and Sagami Bay, Japan and off the Korean Peninsula. Habitat: marine.

wakiyai, Sebastodes (Primospina) Matsubara [K.] 1934:205 [Journal of the Imperial Fisheries Institute Tokyo v. 30 (no. 3); ref. 13900] Miyako, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. No types at FAKU. •Valid as Sebastes wakiyai (Matsubara 1934) -- (Sheiko 1983:18 [ref. 37041], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:310 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:48 [ref. 15964], Kim & Lee 1993:458 [ref. 39487], Nakabo 2000:590 [ref. 25086], Shytko 2001:81 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:590 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:243, 563 [ref. 26218], Parin et al. 2014:223 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:858 [ref. 38925]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes wakiyai (Matsubara 1934). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Sea of Japan (Korea, Japan). Habitat: marine.

wellingtoni, Scorpaena Victor [B. C.] 2013:32, Figs. 1-4 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 8; ref. 32943] Galápagos Islands, Isla Isabela, Tagus Cove, 0°15'36''S, 91°22'12''W. Holotype: SIO 13-2. Paratypes: CAS 90378 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena wellingtoni Victor 2013 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena wellingtoni Victor 2013. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

wilsoni, Sebastodes Gilbert [C. H.] 1915:333, Pl. 16 (fig. 7 [not 8]) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 48 (no. 2075); ref. 1632] Monterey, California, U.S.A., Albatross station 4518, depth 66-140 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 75811. Paratypes: CAS-SU 22992 (1). •Valid as Sebastes wilsoni (Gilbert 1915) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:152 [ref. 9277], Eitner et al. 1999:92 [ref. 23702], McAllister 1990:189 [ref. 14674], Orr et al. 2000:24 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:81 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:277 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:370 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:80 [ref. 37547], Maslenikov et al. 2013:9 [ref. 37947], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:154 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:63 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes wilsoni (Gilbert 1915). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: northern Gulf of Alaska (U.S.A.) south to southern California (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

xenops, Peloropsis Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:630, Fig. 245 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Avau Channel, between Maui Island and Lanai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3872, depth 32-43 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 51604. •Valid as Rhinopias xenops (Gilbert 1905) -- (Eschmeyer et al. 1973 [ref. 6390], Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:311 [ref. 6389], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:315 [ref. 6441], Randall & DiSalvo 1997:1035 [ref. 22982], Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796], Nakabo 2000:573 [ref. 25086], Randall 2001:6 [ref. 25610], Nakabo 2002:573 [ref. 26001], Mandrytsa 2002:569 [ref. 26272], Mundy 2005:327 [ref. 28379], Motomura & Johnson 2006:500 [ref. 28799], Randall 2007:173 [ref. 30952], Fujiwara et al. 2020:33 [ref. 38631]). Current status: Valid as Rhinopias xenops (Gilbert 1905). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles east to Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.), north to Kagoshima Prefecture (southern Japan), south to Coral Sea. Habitat: marine.

xyris, Sebastopsis Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:369 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 290); ref. 12308] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 30979 (6). •Valid as Scorpaenodes xyris (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:133 [ref. 9277], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:324 [ref. 24939], Allen & Robertson 1994:101 [ref. 22193], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1559 [ref. 22830], Franke & Acero P. 1996:766 [ref. 22923], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:292 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:267 [ref. 24555], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:121 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:70 [ref. 25640], Richards & Engle 2001:178 [ref. 25759], Greenfield & Matsuura 2002:976 [ref. 26507], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:74 [ref. 37547], Béarez & Séret 2009:147 [ref. 36646], Poss et al. 2010:241 [ref. 30744], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:126 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaenodes xyris (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico), Clipperton Island (France) and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

zacentrus, Sebastichthys Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:77 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Santa Barbara Islands, California, U.S.A., Albatross station 2893, depth 145 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 48243. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 2460 (1), 4344 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:122-123 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established by Jorday & Evermann 1898:1815 [ref. 2444]. •Valid as Sebastes zacentrus (Gilbert 1890) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:152 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:334 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:189 [ref. 14674], Eitner et al. 1999:91 [ref. 23702], Orr et al. 2000:12 [ref. 24942], Shytko 2001:82 [ref. 26410], Love et al. 2002:279 [ref. 26216], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:379 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:116 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:80 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:36 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:154 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:63 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes zacentrus (Gilbert 1890). Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Aleutian Islands (U.S.A.) south to San Diego (southern California, U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

zanzibarensis, Scorpaena Playfair [R. L.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:47, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: BMNH 1867.3.9.184. Non-types: BMNH 1865.3.18.50 (1). •Synonym of Parascorpaena mossambica (Peters 1855). •In Parascorpaena -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2021:[4] [ref. 38565]). Current status: Synonym of Parascorpaena mossambica (Peters 1855). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

zebra, Pterois Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1825:329 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Bay of Coupang, Timor Island, southern Malay Archipelago. No types known. Not available, on Official Index (Opinion 1121). •In the synonymy of Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Schultz 1986:686 [ref. 22245]). •Wrongly valid as Dendrochirus zebra (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:570 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:167 [ref. 26476] dated 1824). •In the synonymy of Dendrochirus zebra (Cuvier 1829) -- (Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[17] [ref. 36536]). Suppressed. Current status: Synonym of Dendrochirus zebra (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae.

zebra, Pterois Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:367 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Mauritius. Lectotype: MNHN 6627. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-6545 (1) Mauritius, 0000-6554 (1, lost, probably no type specimen) New Guinea, 0000-6624 (2) Ambon (probably no type specimens), 0000-6629 (1) Mauritius. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:9-10 [ref. 20738]. Lectotype designated by Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[15] [ref. 36536]. •Valid as Dendrochirus zebra (Cuvier 1829) -- (Eschmeyer 1986:466 [ref. 5652], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:316 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:48 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:440 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:78 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:115 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:21 [ref. 25356], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:128 [ref. 23963], Allen 1997:76 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:352 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:90 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:78 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:101 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:155 [ref. 24106], Poss 1999:2314 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:568 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:163 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:60 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Mandrytsa 2001:276 [ref. 25636], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:568 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:38 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:116 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:878 [ref. 29002], Fricke et al. 2009:39 [ref. 30213], Motomura 2009:64 [ref. 30446], Motomura et al. 2010:89 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:377 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:218 [ref. 31980], Matsunuma & Motomura 2013:5 [ref. 32776], Larson et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:49 [ref. 33932], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1092 [ref. 34285], Motomura et al. 2015:18 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[41] [ref. 35277], Fricke et al. 2018:130 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:53 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:28 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:100 [ref. 36673], Matsunuma & Motomura 2019:[2] [ref. 36536], Kwik & Lim 2020:15 [ref. 38869], Psomadakis et al. 2020:358 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Dendrochirus zebra (Cuvier 1829). Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

zeylonensis, Amphiprionichthys Day [F.] 1870:515 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1869 (pt 3) (art. 7) (for 11 Nov. 1869); ref. 18819] Off Galle, Sri Lanka. Syntypes: (3) ZSI A.114 (3, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. Treated as Micropus zeylonicus in Day 1875:158, Pl. 38 (fig. 6) [ref. 1080]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. Scorpaenidae: Caracanthinae. Habitat: marine.

zonatus, Sebastes Chen [L.-C.] & Barsukov [V. V.] 1976:6, Fig. 1c [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 23 (no. 1); ref. 22762] Off Furube, near Usujiri, Hakodate, Hokkaido, Japan, depth 120 meters. Holotype: SIO 75-475. Paratypes: CAS 34077 (2); SIO 75-476 (3). •Valid as Sebastes zonatus Chen & Barsukov 1976 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:312 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:66 [ref. 15964], Kim & Lee 1993:462 [ref. 39487], Nakabo 2000:593 [ref. 25086], Shytko 2001:83 [ref. 26410], Nakabo 2002:593 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:243, 563 [ref. 26218], Muto et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 35963], Kim et al. 2020:93 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:43 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Sebastes zonatus Chen & Barsukov 1976. Scorpaenidae: Sebastinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Coastal Hokkaido southward to Tosa Bay, Yamaguchi and the Seto Inland Sea, Japan and off the southern Korean Peninsula Habitat: marine.


CalAcademy Footer